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Estradiol insulin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626486/diverse-actions-of-estradiol-on-anorexigenic-and-orexigenic-hypothalamic-arcuate-neurons
#1
REVIEW
Todd L Stincic, Oline K Rønnekleiv, Martin J Kelly
There is now compelling evidence for membrane-associated estrogen receptors in hypothalamic neurons that are critical for the hypothalamic control of homeostatic functions. It has been known for some time that estradiol (E2) can rapidly alter hypothalamic neuronal activity within seconds, indicating that some cellular effects can occur via membrane initiated events. However, our understanding of how E2 signals via membrane-associated receptors and how these signals impact physiological functions is only just emerging...
April 4, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618657/17-%C3%AE-estradiol-regulates-proglucagon-derived-peptide-secretion-in-mouse-and-human-%C3%AE-and-l-cells
#2
Sandra Handgraaf, Rodolphe Dusaulcy, Florian Visentin, Jacques Philippe, Yvan Gosmain
Clinical and experimental data indicate a beneficial effect of estrogens on energy and glucose homeostasis associated with improved insulin sensitivity and positive effects on insulin secretion. The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of estrogens on proglucagon-producing cells, pancreatic α cells, and enteroendocrine L cells. The consequences of sexual hormone deprivation were evaluated in ovariectomized mice (ovx). Ovx mice exhibited impaired glucose tolerance during oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT), which was associated with decreased GLP-1 intestinal and pancreatic secretion and content, an effect that was reversed by estradiol (E2) treatment...
April 5, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615083/therapeutic-potentials-of-quercetin-in-management-of-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome-using-letrozole-induced-rat-model-a-histological-and-a-biochemical-study
#3
Sarwat Jahan, Abira Abid, Sidra Khalid, Tayyaba Afsar, Qurat-Ul-Ain, Ghazala Shaheen, Ali Almajwal, Suhail Razak
BACKGROUND: PCOS is a leading endocrinopathy of young women instigating androgens elevation, insulin resistance, obesity, cardiometabolic and menstrual complications. The study investigated the effects of quercetin in a letrozole induced rat model of polycystic ovarian syndrome, which displayed both clinical and metabolic features as in PCOS women. METHODS: Female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were divided into four groups; control group received aqueous solution of carboxymethyl (CMC 0...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Ovarian Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614340/maternal-lipopolysaccharide-exposure-results-in-glucose-metabolism-disorders-and-sex-hormone-imbalance-in-male-offspring
#4
Mei Zhao, Li Yuan, Man-Man Yuan, Li-Li Huang, Chang Su, Yuan-Hua Chen, Yu-Ying Yang, Yan Hu, De-Xiang Xu
An adverse intrauterine environment may be an important factor contributing to the development of type 2 diabetes in later life. The present study investigated the longitudinal effects of maternal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure during the third trimester on glucose metabolism and sex hormone balance in the offspring. Pregnant mice were intraperitoneally injected with LPS (50 μg/kg) daily from gestational day (GD) 15 to GD17. Glucose tolerance test (GTT) and insulin tolerance test (ITT) were assessed at postnatal day (PND) 60 and PND120...
March 31, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603059/adiponectin-reverses-the-proliferative-effects-of-estradiol-and-igf-1-in-human-epithelial-ovarian-cancer-cells-by-downregulating-the-expression-of-their-receptors
#5
Marta Hoffmann, Justyna Gogola, Anna Ptak
The expression of adiponectin receptors AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 has been reported in the human ovary and ovarian cancer tissues. Moreover, adiponectin has been reported to act as an anti-tumor factor by inhibiting cancer cell proliferation. Thus, we investigate whether adiponectin and its receptors influence ovarian cancer development. In the present study, we found that adiponectin was not expressed in the granulosa cell line (COV434), and epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines (OVCAR-3, SKOV-3, and Caov-3). Additionally, we found that AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 expression is lower in epithelial ovarian cancer cells than in granulosa tumor cells...
March 30, 2018: Hormones & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601891/dehydroepiandrosterone-supplementation-is-not-beneficial-in-the-late-postmenopausal-period-in-diet-induced-obese-rats
#6
Caio Jordão Teixeira, Luciene Maria Ribeiro, Katherine Veras, Layanne Cabral da Cunha Araujo, Rui Curi, Carla Roberta de Oliveira Carvalho
AIMS: Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is an adrenal steroid hormone that is a precursor of sexual hormones. It is reduced during aging and is strongly associated with insulin resistance and obesity. There is evidence for beneficial effects of this steroid, in both human and animal models, during perimenopause. However, the impact of DHEA treatment during late postmenopause on glucose metabolism is not clearly documented. We tested the hypothesis that DHEA supplementation could improve insulin sensitivity in an ovariectomized obese rat model (OVX) that was fed a high-fat diet for 11 weeks...
March 27, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594255/enhanced-expression-of-the-key-mitosis-regulator-cyclin-b1-is-mediated-by-pdz-binding-kinase-in-islets-of-pregnant-mice
#7
Tadayoshi Uesato, Takeshi Ogihara, Akemi Hara, Hitoshi Iida, Takeshi Miyatsuka, Yoshio Fujitani, Satoru Takeda, Hirotaka Watada
The proliferation of pancreatic β cells is enhanced to enable an increase in β -cell mass and to compensate for insulin resistance during pregnancy. To elucidate the mechanisms involved, we previously investigated islets from pregnant and nonpregnant mice by gene expression profiling and found that the expression of postsynaptic density-95/Discs large/zonula occludens-1 (PDZ)-binding kinase (Pbk), a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase family, is increased in pregnant mouse islets compared with control mouse islets...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the Endocrine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573521/activation-of-the-igf1-receptor-stimulates-glycogen-synthesis-by-mink-uterine-epithelial-cells
#8
Matthew Dean, Jack Rose
Glycogen synthesis by mink uterine epithelial cells is stimulated by estradiol (E2 ) during estrus, although the mechanism/s through which the steroid promotes glycogen accumulation are unknown. Our aim was to determine if insulin is required for E2 induced glycogen synthesis by an immortalized mink uterine epithelial cell line (GMMe). We show that the cells expressed the genes for glycogen metabolizing enzymes (hexokinase 1, glucose-6-phosphatase 3, glycogen synthase 1 and glycogen phosphorylase-muscle), receptors for insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1 and E2 (Esr1)...
March 24, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555000/effect-of-prepregnancy-obesity-on-litter-size-in-primiparous-minipigs
#9
Hong-Quan Luo, Wei-Wang Gu, Li-Wen Huang, Li-Hong Wu, Yu-Guang Tian, Chun-Hua Zheng, Min Yue
Obesity is a public health problem in both developed and developing countries, and the negative effects of obesity on reproductive physiology have been highlighted recently. We evaluated the effects of porcine obesity index, sex hormones, and peptide hormones on litter size in various breeds of minipigs. Blood samples were collected from sedated 8-,10-, and 12-mo-old minipigs to measure preovulatory levels of sex hormones (follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and prolactin) and peptide hormones (insulin-like growth factor, glucagon, cortisol, growth hormone, free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine, insulin, and leptin)...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529690/the-effect-of-metformin-on-serum-gonadotropin-levels-in-postmenopausal-women-with-diabetes-and-prediabetes-a-pilot-study
#10
Robert Krysiak, Witold Szkróbka, Bogusław Okopień
BACKGROUND: Metformin was found to decrease serum levels of prolactin and thyrotropin. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of this drug on hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis activity in postmenopausal women with recently diagnosed and untreated glucose metabolism abnormalities. METHODS: The study included three matched groups of postmenopausal women: patients with type 2 diabetes (group A, n=16), women with prediabetes (group B, n=14), and individuals with normal glucose metabolism (group C, n=14)...
March 12, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510819/primary-empty-sella-syndrome-and-the-prevalence-of-hormonal-dysregulation
#11
Matthias K Auer, Mareike R Stieg, Alexander Crispin, Caroline Sievers, Günter K Stalla, Anna Kopczak
BACKGROUND: Empty sella is the neuroradiological or pathological finding of an apparently empty sella turcica containing no pituitary tissue. The prevalence of primary empty sella, i.e., empty sella without any discernible cause, is not precisely known; estimates range from 2% to 20%. Technical advances in neuroradiology have made empty sella an increasingly common incidental finding. It remains unclear whether, and to what extent, asymptomatic adult patients with an incidentally discovered empty sella should undergo diagnostic testing for hormonal disturbances...
February 16, 2018: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475129/effects-of-short-term-feeding-of-different-sources-of-fatty-acids-in-pre-mating-diets-on-reproductive-performance-and-blood-metabolites-of-fat-tailed-iranian-afshari-ewes
#12
H Mirzaei-Alamouti, Z Mohammadi, M H Shahir, M Vazirigohar, M Mansouryar
The effects of dietary omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids (FAs) in pre-mating diets on reproductive performances and metabolic status of ewes have not been well investigated. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of supplementing different source of FAs on different aspects of reproductive performance of fat-tailed Iranian Afshari ewes. Thirty-two cycling, multiparous Afshari ewes were divided into four groups and fed one of the isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets supplemented with Sunflower oil (SFO), Fish oil (FO), calcium salt of palm oil (CaPO) and/or an equal mixture of SFO + FO (SFOFO)...
February 15, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467992/obesity-an-enemy-of-male-fertility-a-mini-review
#13
REVIEW
Mohamed Ahmed Abd El Salam
Obesity is a highly prevalent non-communicable disease worldwide and is commonly associated with male infertility. Several etiopathological theories have been mentioned in the literature by which obesity affects spermatogenesis, thus affecting the male fertility potential. Mechanisms for explaining the effect of obesity on male infertility include endocrinopathy, increased aromatization activity, associated erectile dysfunction, psychological and thermal effects, obstructive sleep apnea, increased leptin and oxygen free radicals, and associated inflammatory and obstructive elements of epididymitis...
January 2018: Oman Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465156/the-impact-of-serum-adropin-and-ischemia-modified-albumin-levels-based-on-bmi-in-pcos
#14
Zeynep Ozturk Inal, Sami Erdem, Yavuz Gederet, Cevdet Duran, Zehra Kucukaydin, Huseyin Kurku, Derya Kilic Sakarya
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and body mass index (BMI) on serum adropin and ischemia modified albumin (IMA) levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective cross-sectional study was performed with a total of 120 women [group1; non-PCOS = 60 (BMI <25 = 30, BMI ≥25 = 30) and group 2; PCOS = 60 (BMI <25 = 30, BMI ≥25 = 30)]. Blood samples were collected between the third and fifth days of the women's menstrual cycles after a night of fasting...
February 21, 2018: Endokrynologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436590/17%C3%AE-estradiol-protects-ins-1-insulinoma-cells-from-mitophagy-via-g-protein-coupled-estrogen-receptors-and-the-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway
#15
Liang Zhang, Yuyan Zhao, Lei Guo
17β-estradiol (17β-E2) is a steroid hormone that is known to exert effects on blood glucose homeostasis. The G protein‑coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) has been identified as a non-genomic estrogenic receptor, and is involved in numerous physiological processes, including cell survival, energy provision and metabolism. 17β-E2 may decrease apoptosis by binding to the GPER. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway is involved in physiological and pathological functions such as autophagy...
February 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434922/association-of-abnormal-glucose-metabolism-and-insulin-resistance-in-patients-with-atypical-and-typical-endometrial-cancer
#16
Yongjing Lai, Chuanying Sun
This study aimed to detect glucose metabolism indicators and insulin resistance index in patients with endometrial cancer, and to explore the clinical significance and correlation between them. A total of 65 patients with endometrial cancer (52 of typical endometrial and 13 cases of atypical endometrial cancer patients, 27 with diabetes mellitus, and 38 cases without diabetes mellitus) were selected at the People's Hospital of Rizhao from June, 2010 to June, 2016 to serve as the observation group. During the same period, 62 patients with endometrial benign lesions (24 with diabetes mellitus and 38 cases without diabetes mellitus) were selected as the control group...
February 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434814/metformin-and-pioglitazone-combination-therapy-ameliorate-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-through-ampk-pi3k-jnk-pathway
#17
Yuanyuan Wu, Pengfen Li, Dan Zhang, Yingpu Sun
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common gynecological endocrine disorder, which results in health problems such as menstrual disorders, hyperandrogenism and persistent anovulation. Hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance are the basic characteristics of PCOS. To investigate the combined effect of metformin and pioglitazone on POCS and the potential mechanisms, a rat model of PCOS was established by intramuscular injection of estradiol valerate (EV). The effect of metformin and pioglitazone monotherapy or combination therapy in control rats and PCOS rats was evaluated, involving the testosterone level, follicular development and insulin resistance...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401269/chronic-hyperandrogenemia-and-western-style-diet-beginning-at-puberty-reduces-fertility-and-increases-metabolic-dysfunction-during-pregnancy-in-young-adult-female-macaques
#18
C V Bishop, R L Stouffer, D L Takahashi, E C Mishler, M C Wilcox, O D Slayden, C A True
STUDY QUESTION: What are the impacts of elevated testosterone (T) and an obesogenic western-style diet (WSD), either independently or together, on fertility and metabolic adaptations of pregnancy in primates? SUMMARY ANSWER: Testosterone increases the time to achieve pregnancy, while a WSD reduces overall fertility, and the combination of testosterone and WSD additionally impairs glucose tolerance and causes pregnancy loss. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Both hyperandrogenemia and obesity are hallmarks of polycystic ovary syndrome, which is a leading cause of infertility among women worldwide...
February 1, 2018: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396325/the-response-of-c19-and-some-c21-steroids-during-synacthen-and-insulin-tolerance-test
#19
Kateřina Šimůnková, Michaela Dušková, Lucie Kolatorova, Mikuláš Kosák, Martin Hill, Hana Jandíková, Hana Pospíšilová, Monika Šrámková, Drahomíra Springer, Luboslav Stárka
Testing of the adrenal function with ACTH 1-24 (Synacthen test) or insulin (insulin tolerance test-ITT) is commonly used. The question of ongoing debate is the dose of Synacthen. Moreover, it may be important from the physiological point of view besides measurement of cortisol levels and 17α-hydroxy-progesterone to know also the response of other steroids to these test. The plasma levels of 24 free steroids and their polar conjugates were followed after stimulation of 1 μg, 10 μg and 250 μg of ACTH 1-24 and after insulin administration in thirteen healthy subjects...
January 30, 2018: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396042/cow-body-condition-affects-the-hormonal-release-of-ovarian-cells-and-their-responses-to-gonadotropic-and-metabolic-hormones
#20
A V Sirotkin, A V Makarevich, E Kubovicova, J Laurincik, S Alwasel, A H Harrath
The body condition score (BCS) of cows affects their reproductive efficiency, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. We examined the effect of BCS on the basic ovarian cell functions and their responses to gonadotropic and metabolic hormones. We isolated ovarian cells from cows with a tendency toward emaciation (BCS2) and those with an average body condition (BCS3), and we compared their hormonal release and responses to FSH, leptin, ghrelin, and neuropeptide Y (NPY) added at doses of 0, 1, 10, or 100 ng/mL...
January 19, 2018: Theriogenology
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