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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096357/prion-replication-without-host-adaptation-during-interspecies-transmissions
#1
Jifeng Bian, Vadim Khaychuk, Rachel C Angers, Natalia Fernández-Borges, Enric Vidal, Crystal Meyerett-Reid, Sehun Kim, Carla L Calvi, Jason C Bartz, Edward A Hoover, Umberto Agrimi, Jürgen A Richt, Joaquín Castilla, Glenn C Telling
Adaptation of prions to new species is thought to reflect the capacity of the host-encoded cellular form of the prion protein (PrP(C)) to selectively propagate optimized prion conformations from larger ensembles generated in the species of origin. Here we describe an alternate replicative process, termed nonadaptive prion amplification (NAPA), in which dominant conformers bypass this requirement during particular interspecies transmissions. To model susceptibility of horses to prions, we produced transgenic (Tg) mice expressing cognate PrP(C) Although disease transmission to only a subset of infected TgEq indicated a significant barrier to EqPrP(C) conversion, the resulting horse prions unexpectedly failed to cause disease upon further passage to TgEq...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093882/the-gastrointestinal-tract-of-farmed-mink-neovison-vison-maintains-a-diverse-mucosa-associated-microbiota-following-a-3-day-fasting-period
#2
Martin I Bahl, Anne S Hammer, Tove Clausen, Anabelle Jakobsen, Søren Skov, Lars Andresen
Although it is well documented that the gut microbiota plays an important role in health and disease in mammalian species, this area has been poorly studied among carnivorous animals, especially within the mustelidae family. The gastrointestinal tract of carnivores is characterized by its short length and fast transit time, as compared to omnivores and herbivores, which is due to the low level of inherent fermentation. Mink represents an example of this, which have a GI tract only four times the length of the body and a transit time of approximately 4-5 hr...
January 16, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086785/whole-genome-resequencing-reveals-diagnostic-markers-for-investigating-global-migration-and-hybridization-between-minke-whale-species
#3
Ketil Malde, Bjørghild B Seliussen, María Quintela, Geir Dahle, Francois Besnier, Hans J Skaug, Nils Øien, Hiroko K Solvang, Tore Haug, Rasmus Skern-Mauritzen, Naohisa Kanda, Luis A Pastene, Inge Jonassen, Kevin A Glover
BACKGROUND: In the marine environment, where there are few absolute physical barriers, contemporary contact between previously isolated species can occur across great distances, and in some cases, may be inter-oceanic. An example of this can be seen in the minke whale species complex. Antarctic minke whales are genetically and morphologically distinct from the common minke found in the north Atlantic and Pacific oceans, and the two species are estimated to have been isolated from each other for 5 million years or more...
January 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061999/newcastle-disease-virus-from-domestic-mink-china-2014
#4
Panpan Zhao, Lingshuang Sun, Xiao Sun, Siwen Li, Wen Zhang, Laura A Pulscher, Hongliang Chai, Mingwei Xing
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a pathogen that most often infects poultry species. In investigating a 2014 outbreak of encephalitis and death among farmed mink (Mustela vison), we found pathological and later experimental evidence that NDV can infect and cause severe encephalitic and pneumonic disease in these animals. Our findings confirm the host range of NDV.
January 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060387/reversible-median-nerve-impairment-after-three-weeks-of-repetitive-work
#5
Sorosh Tabatabaeifar, Susanne Wulff Svendsen, Birger Johnsen, Gert-Åke Hansson, Anders Fuglsang-Frederiksen, Poul Frost
Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the development of impaired median nerve function in relation to hand-intensive seasonal work. We hypothesized that at end-season, median nerve conduction would be impaired and then recover within weeks. Methods Using nerve conduction studies (NCS), we examined median nerve conduction before, during, and after engaging in 22 days of mink skinning. For a subgroup, we used goniometry and surface electromyography to characterize occupational mechanical exposures...
January 6, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045202/raw-mechanically-separated-chicken-meat-and-salmon-protein-hydrolysate-as-protein-sources-in-extruded-dog-food-effect-on-protein-and-amino-acid-digestibility
#6
M T Tjernsbekk, A-H Tauson, O F Kraugerud, Ø Ahlstrøm
Protein quality was evaluated for mechanically separated chicken meat (MSC) and salmon protein hydrolysate (SPH), and for extruded dog foods where MSC or SPH partially replaced poultry meal (PM). Apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in the protein ingredients and extruded foods was determined with mink (Neovison vison). The extruded dog foods included a control diet with protein from PM and grain, and two diets where MSC or SPH provided 25% of the dietary CP. Nutrient composition of the protein ingredients varied, dry matter (DM) was 944...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043740/health-conditions-in-rural-areas-with-high-livestock-density-analysis-of-seven-consecutive-years
#7
Christel E van Dijk, Jan-Paul Zock, Christos Baliatsas, Lidwien A M Smit, Floor Borlée, Peter Spreeuwenberg, Dick Heederik, C Joris Yzermans
Previous studies investigating health conditions of individuals living near livestock farms generally assessed short time windows. We aimed to take time-specific differences into account and to compare the prevalence of various health conditions over seven consecutive years. The sample consisted of 156,690 individuals registered in 33 general practices in a (rural) area with a high livestock density and 101,015 patients from 23 practices in other (control) areas in the Netherlands. Prevalence of health conditions were assessed using 2007-2013 electronic health record (EHR) data...
December 30, 2016: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042126/b-cell-depletion-therapy-normalizes-circulating-follicular-th-cells-in-primary-sj%C3%A3-gren-syndrome
#8
Gwenny M Verstappen, Frans G M Kroese, Petra M Meiners, Odilia B Corneth, Minke G Huitema, Erlin A Haacke, Bert van der Vegt, Suzanne Arends, Arjan Vissink, Hendrika Bootsma, Wayel H Abdulahad
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of B cell depletion therapy on effector CD4+ T cell homeostasis and its relation to objective measures of disease activity in patients with primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS). METHODS: Twenty-four patients with pSS treated with rituximab (RTX) and 24 healthy controls (HC) were included. Frequencies of circulating effector CD4+ T cell subsets were examined by flow cytometry at baseline and 16, 24, 36, and 48 weeks after the first RTX infusion...
January 2017: Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026027/the-contemporary-value-of-peak-creatine-kinase-mb-after-st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction-above-other-clinical-and-angiographic-characteristics-in-predicting-infarct-size-left-ventricular-ejection-fraction-and-mortality
#9
Minke H T Hartman, Ruben N Eppinga, Pieter J J Vlaar, Chris P H Lexis, Erik Lipsic, Joost D E Haeck, Dirk J van Veldhuisen, Iwan C C van der Horst, Pim van der Harst
BACKGROUND: Complex multimarker approaches to predict outcome after ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) have only considered a single baseline sample, while neglecting easily obtainable peak creatine kinase and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) values during hospitalization. METHODS: We studied 476 patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention for STEMI and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) at 4-6 months after STEMI. We determined the association with cardiac biomarkers (peak CK-MB, peak troponin T, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide), clinical and angiographic characteristics with infarct size, and LVEF, followed by association with mortality in 1120 STEMI patients...
December 27, 2016: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025841/regulation-of-diapause-in-carnivores
#10
J C Fenelon, P L Lefèvre, A Banerjee, B D Murphy
Embryonic diapause is an evolutionary strategy to ensure that offspring are born when maternal and environmental conditions are optimal for survival. In many species of carnivores, obligate embryonic diapause occurs in every gestation. In mustelids, the regulation of diapause and reactivation is influenced by photoperiod, which then acts to regulate the secretion of pituitary prolactin. Prolactin in turn regulates ovarian steroid function. Reciprocal embryo transplant studies indicate that this state of embryonic arrest is conferred by uterine conditions and is presumed to be due to a lack of specific factors necessary for continued development...
December 27, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025395/message-from-the-editors-to-our-reviewers
#11
Robert A Gross, Bradford B Worrall, Anthony A Amato, Gregory D Cascino, Olga Ciccarelli, John R Corboy, Josep O Dalmau, Rebecca F Gottesman, Murray Grossman, John J Millichap, Jonathan W Mink, Stefan M Pulst, Ryan J Uitti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 3, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025011/influence-of-raltegravir-intensification-on-viral-load-and-2-ltr-dynamics-in-hiv-patients-on-suppressive-antiretroviral-therapy
#12
Xia Wang, Gregory Mink, Daniel Lin, Xinyu Song, Libin Rong
Antiretroviral therapy can suppress HIV-1 plasma viral load to below the detection limit but cannot eradicate the virus. Whether residual ongoing viral replication persists during suppressive therapy remains unclear. A few clinical studies showed that treatment intensification with an additional drug led to a lower viral load or an increase in 2-LTR (long terminal repeat), a marker for ongoing viral replication. However, some other studies found no change in the viral load and 2-LTR. In this paper, we developed multi-stage models to evaluate the influence of treatment intensification with the integrase inhibitor raltegravir on viral load and 2-LTR dynamics in HIV patients under suppressive therapy...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005739/minimally-invasive-strip-craniectomy-simplifies-anesthesia-practice-in-patients-with-isolated-sagittal-synostosis
#13
Daan P F van Nunen, Bart M Stubenitsky, Peter A Woerdeman, Kuo Sen Han, Corstiaan C Breugem, Aebele B Mink van der Molen, Jurgen C de Graaff
BACKGROUND: Traditional open corrective surgery for isolated sagittal synostosis entails significant blood loss, transfusion rates, morbidity, and a lengthy hospitalization. Minimally invasive strip craniectomy (MISC) was introduced to avoid the disadvantages of open techniques. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was, first, to compare the anesthesia practice in MISC and open extended strip craniectomy (OESC), and, second, to evaluate the incidence of perioperative complications in both surgical procedures...
November 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000953/heavy-metal-concentrations-in-female-wild-mink-neovison-vison-in-sweden-sources-of-variation-and-associations-with-internal-organ-weights
#14
Karl Ljungvall, Ulf Magnusson, Marcus Korvela, Mattias Norrby, Jonas Bergquist, Sara Persson
The American mink is an invasive species in Sweden and it is legally hunted all year around. Therefore, the mink is well suited as a sentinel species for environmental monitoring. In the current study female mink (n = 91) from six different areas in Sweden were analysed for the concentrations of silver, cadmium, mercury and lead in liver tissue using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The wet concentrations in liver tissue were 42.6 ± 52.7 ng/g for silver, 99.5 ± 100 ng/g for cadmium, 652 ± 537 ng/g for mercury and 196 ± 401 ng/g for lead expressed as mean ± SD...
December 21, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997898/mechanisms-of-iherg-ikr-modulation-by-%C3%AE-1-adrenoceptors-in-hek293-cells-and-cardiac-myocytes
#15
Janire Urrutia, Aintzane Alday, Mónica Gallego, L Layse Malagueta-Vieira, Ivan Arael Aréchiga-Figueroa, Oscar Casis, José Antonio Sánchez-Chapula
BACKGROUND: The rapid delayed rectifier K+ current (IKr), carried by the hERG protein, is one of the main repolarising currents in the human heart and a reduction of this current increases the risk of ventricular fibrillation. α1-adrenoceptors (α1-AR) activation reduces IKr but, despite the clear relationship between an increase in the sympathetic tone and arrhythmias, the mechanisms underlying the α1-AR regulation of the hERG channel are controversial. Thus, we aimed to investigate the mechanisms by which α1-AR stimulation regulates IKr...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996297/the-cleft-aesthetic-rating-scale-for-18-year-old-unilateral-cleft-lip-and-palate-patients-a-tool-for-nasolabial-aesthetics-assessment
#16
F J Mulder, D G M Mosmuller, H C W de Vet, C M Mouës, C C Breugem, A B Mink van der Molen, J P W Don Griot
OBJECTIVE:   To develop a reliable and easy-to-use method to assess the nasolabial appearance of 18-year-old patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate (CLP). DESIGN:   Retrospective analysis of nasolabial aesthetics using a 5-point ordinal scale and newly developed photographic reference scale: the Cleft Aesthetic Rating Scale (CARS). Three cleft surgeons and 20 medical students scored the nasolabial appearance on standardized frontal photographs. SETTING:   Medical Center X...
December 20, 2016: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990567/identification-and-characterization-of-multiple-porcine-astrovirus-genotypes-in-hunan-province-china
#17
Chao-Ting Xiao, Zhang Luo, Sun-Liang Lv, Tanja Opriessnig, Run-Cheng Li, Xing-Long Yu
Astroviruses (AstVs) can infect a variety of hosts, including mammalian and avian species, and are commonly associated with enteric infections. Recently, mammalian AstVs have been linked to extra-intestinal manifestations, including neurologic disorders in humans, cattle and minks, demonstrating zoonotic potential. So far, five porcine AstV (PAstV) genotypes have been identified, with PAstV1, PAstV2, PAstV3 and PAstV5 implicated in cross-species transmission. Our knowledge about PAstV epidemiology in China is still limited...
December 18, 2016: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984112/development-and-validation-of-an-immunohistochemistry-procedure-for-the-detection-of-a-neurotropic-bovine-astrovirus
#18
Céline L Boujon, Senija Selimovic-Hamza, Ilias Bouzalas, Torsten Seuberlich
Members of the Astroviridae family are best known to cause diarrhea in different mammalian species. Lately, some strains have been associated with encephalitis in humans, minks and cattle. In this study, we developed an immunohistochemistry (IHC) procedure for the detection of a neurotropic bovine astrovirus (BoAstV-CH13/NeuroS1), which is associated with non-suppurative encephalitis in cattle. We expressed five recombinant antigens corresponding to different putative viral proteins of BoAstV-CH13/NeuroS1. Antigens were then used for the production of hyperimmune sera in rabbits...
October 29, 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974870/hemodynamic-response-to-upper-airway-obstruction-in-hypertensive-and-normotensive-pregnant-women
#19
John Reid, Riley A Glew, Joe Mink, John Gjevre, Mark Fenton, Robert Skomro, Femi Olatunbosun
Background. Mild obstructive sleep apnea is common in pregnancy and may have an exacerbating role in gestational hypertension, although currently the interaction between these two diseases is uncertain. Methods. We analyzed 43 pregnant subjects, 28 with gestational hypertension (GH) and 15 with normal healthy pregnancy, by level I polysomnography. Additionally, diastolic and systolic blood pressure changes in response to obstructive respiratory events were measured by noninvasive beat-by-beat monitoring. We also assessed a subgroup (n = 27) of women with respiratory disturbance indexes <5, for blood pressure responses to very subtle obstructive respiratory disturbances ("airflow reductions")...
2016: Canadian Respiratory Journal: Journal of the Canadian Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973532/experimental-infection-of-mink-enforces-the-role-of-arcanobacterium-phocae-as-causative-agent-of-fur-animal-epidemic-necrotic-pyoderma-fenp
#20
Heli Nordgren, Kirsi Aaltonen, Mirja Raunio-Saarnisto, Antti Sukura, Olli Vapalahti, Tarja Sironen
Fur Animal Epidemic Necrotic Pyoderma (FENP) is a severe, often lethal infectious disease affecting all three fur animal species: mink (Neovision vision), foxes (Vulpes lagopus) and finnraccoons (Nyctereutes procyonoides). Previous studies showed an association between Arcanobacterium phocae and FENP. An experimental infection was conducted to confirm the ability of A. phocae to infect mink either alone or concurrently with a novel Streptococcus sp. found together with A. phocae in many cases of FENP. Different inoculation methods were tested to study possible routes of transmission...
2016: PloS One
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