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Alexander Mischnik, Philipp Baumert, Axel Hamprecht, Anna Rohde, Silke Peter, Susanne Feihl, Johannes Knobloch, Hanna Gölz, Axel Kola, Birgit Obermann, Christiane Querbach, Matthias Willmann, Friedemann Gebhardt, Evelina Tacconelli, Petra Gastmeier, Harald Seifert, Winfried V Kern
As part of the multicenter Antibiotic Therapy Optimisation Study-the largest study on the prevalence of third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae carriage upon hospital admission-minimum inhibitory concentration values were generated for ampicillin/sulbactam, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, piperacillin/tazobactam, mecillinam, mecillinam/clavulanic acid, and temocillin against third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species and Enterobacter species.
September 23, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Yun Xiang, Zai-Hua Wang, Ping Cai, Zhen Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of β-lactamase (BLs) detection and β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor (BL/BLI) on the incidence of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) in children with severe bacterial pneumonia. METHODS: The clinical data of the children with bacterial severe pneumonia were retrospectively studied. Of all the patients, 248 using amoxicillin/clavulanate but without BLs detection and 323 using amoxicillin (BLs negative) or amoxicillin/clavulanate (BLs positive) were used as the amoxicillin group; 208 patients using piperacillin/tazobactam but without BLs detection and 291 patients using piperacillin (BLs negative) or piperacillin/tazobactam (BLs positive) were used as the piperacillin group; and 191 patients using cefoperazone/sulbactam but without BLs detection and 341 patients using cefoperazone (BLs negative) or cefoperazone/sulbactam (BLs positive) were used as the cefoperazone group...
October 2016: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Dawood Yusef, Blanca E Gonzalez, Charles B Foster, Johanna Goldfarb, Carla Saracusa, Sarah Worley, Camille Sabella
We report a significantly higher occurrence of adverse events associated with prolonged courses of piperacillin-tazobactam compared with other antibacterial agents used for pediatric outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy. These adverse events were characterized by a constellation of clinical findings including fever, hematologic abnormalities, and transaminitis. Adverse events related to piperacillin-tazobactam should be considered in patients who develop a febrile illness associated with a prolonged course of therapy...
October 3, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Natsuko Saito-Sasaki, Yu Sawada, Shun Ohmori, Daisuke Omoto, Sanehito Haruyama, Manabu Yoshioka, Daisuke Nishio, Etsuko Okada, Motonobu Nakamura
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2016: European Journal of Dermatology: EJD
Andre Arizpe, Kelly R Reveles, Shrina D Patel, Samuel L Aitken
Resistance to cephalosporins is now common among Gram-negative bacterial infections, including those caused by the Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, posing a major threat to public health. As resistance to the traditional drugs of choice for these infections, carbapenems, has also become increasingly common, interest in cefepime and piperacillin-tazobactam as carbapenem-sparing alternatives has increased. Additionally, the availability of the novel β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitor combinations ceftolozane-tazobactam and ceftazidime-avibactam has added to the antimicrobial armamentarium available to treat these multidrug-resistant infections...
December 2016: Current Infectious Disease Reports
Sarah E Petite, Seth R Bauer, Jessica E Bollinger, Christine L Ahrens, Lisa M Harinstein
STUDY OBJECTIVE: It is unknown if beta-lactam monotherapy is sufficient for complicated intra-abdominal infections or if broader coverage is required, such as with vancomycin. This study sought to determine the clinical outcomes of piperacillin/tazobactam monotherapy compared to combination therapy with vancomycin and piperacillin/tazobactam for complicated intra-abdominal infections among patients within a surgical intensive care unit. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study...
October 11, 2016: Pharmacotherapy
Karnika Saigal, Vikas Gautam, Gagandeep Singh, Pallab Ray
We report a case of intratumoral brain abscess due to Bacillus cereus in an adult male patient, which was managed successfully with excision of lesion and piperacillin-tazobactam for the duration of 5 weeks. To the best of our knowledge, this is a first case report of B. cereus infection leading to intratumoral brain abscess in a patient with a history of steroid administration by the intravenous route.
October 2016: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
Katherine E McQueen, Dana W Clark
OBJECTIVES: To determine if the incidence of nephrotoxicity is higher in pediatric patients treated with the combination of vancomycin and piperacillin-tazobactam, compared to patients treated with vancomycin alone. Secondary objectives were to determine if admission to an intensive care unit (ICU), higher serum vancomycin trough concentrations (>15 mg/L), or receipt of other nephrotoxic agents were related to the development of nephrotoxicity. METHODS: This was a retrospective, single-center, cohort study of 79 patients treated with vancomycin and 106 patients treated with vancomycin and pipracillin/tazobacatam (TZP)...
July 2016: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
Ellie J C Goldstein, Diane M Citron, Kerin L Tyrrell, Elisa Leoncio, C Vreni Merriam
The comparative in vitro activity of tedizolid against 124 Bacteroides group species isolates, including carbapenem, metronidazole and piperacillin-tazobactam resistant strains, had an MIC90 of 2 μg/ml (range, 0.5-4 μg/ml) and was 1-4 times more active than linezolid that had an MIC90 of 8 μg/ml (range, 2-16 μg/ml).
October 3, 2016: Anaerobe
Mazen S Bader, Mark Loeb, Annie A Brooks
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria are a growing concern due to limited therapeutic options. Gram-negative bacteria, specifically Enterobacteriaceae, are common causes of both community-acquired and hospital acquired UTIs. These organisms can acquire genes that encode for multiple antibiotic resistance mechanisms, including extended-spectrum-lactamases (ESBLs), AmpC- β -lactamase, and carbapenemases. The assessment of suspected UTI includes identification of characteristic symptoms or signs, urinalysis, dipstick or microscopic tests, and urine culture if indicated...
October 7, 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
Oyebola Fasugba, Brett G Mitchell, George Mnatzaganian, Anindita Das, Peter Collignon, Anne Gardner
This study describes the antimicrobial resistance temporal trends and seasonal variation of Escherichia coli (E. coli) urinary tract infections (UTIs) over five years, from 2009 to 2013, and compares prevalence of resistance in hospital- and community-acquired E. coli UTI. A cross sectional study of E. coli UTIs from patients attending a tertiary referral hospital in Canberra, Australia was undertaken. Time series analysis was performed to illustrate resistance trends. Only the first positive E. coli UTI per patient per year was included in the analysis...
2016: PloS One
Myra W Popejoy, David L Paterson, Daniel Cloutier, Jennifer A Huntington, Benjamin Miller, Caleb A Bliss, Judith N Steenbergen, Ellie Hershberger, Obiamiwe Umeh, Keith S Kaye
OBJECTIVES: The increase in infections caused by drug-resistant ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-ENT) is a global concern. The characteristics and outcomes of patients infected with ESBL-ENT were examined in a pooled analysis of Phase 3 clinical trials of ceftolozane/tazobactam in patients with complicated urinary tract infections (ASPECT-cUTI) and complicated intra-abdominal infections (ASPECT-cIAI). METHODS: Trials were randomized and double blind. The ASPECT-cUTI regimen was 7 days of either intravenous ceftolozane/tazobactam (1...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Yang Yang, Yang Lu, Xin He, Hongwei Zhao, Donghao Wang, Wanhua Wang
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to observe the clinical efficacy of long-term piperacillin-tazobactam (TZP) infusion and identify the factors affecting its curative effect against pneumonia in patients who had undergone surgery for abdominal tumor. METHODS: The 100 patients were divided into four clinical groups according to the severity of their infection: Simple pneumonia, pneumonia with pleural effusion, pneumonia and atelectasis, and severe pneumonia. Each group of patients was then divided into control and treatment groups using a completely random design...
October 3, 2016: Surgical Infections
Katrine M Johannesen, Uffe Bodtger
This is a systematic review of cases with Lemierre's syndrome (LS) in the past 5 years. LS is characterized by sepsis often evolving after a sore throat or tonsillitis and then complicated by various septic emboli and thrombosis of the internal jugular vein. Symptoms include sepsis, pain, and/or swelling in the throat or neck, as well as respiratory symptoms. Laboratory findings show elevated infectious parameters and radiological findings show thrombosis of the internal jugular vein and emboli in the lungs or other organs...
2016: Infection and Drug Resistance
Eyitayo O Adenipekun, Charlene R Jackson, Hazem Ramadan, Bamidele A Iwalokun, Kolawole S Oyedeji, Jonathan G Frye, John B Barrett, Lari M Hiott, Tiffanie A Woodley, Afolabi Oluwadun
INTRODUCTION: The emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR; resistance to ≥ 2 more antimicrobials) in Escherichia coli is of concern due to complications encountered in treatment. METHODOLOGY: In this study, prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and genetic characteristics of MDR community isolates of E. coli from Lagos, Nigeria were determined. Urine and stool samples were obtained from outpatients attending Lagos State hospitals and from animal handlers in abattoirs, poultries, and open markets, from December 2012 to July 2013...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
Meklit Workneh, Frances Wang, Mark Romagnoli, Patricia J Simner, Karen Carroll
We report a case of bypass graft infection and bacteremia caused by Anaerostipes caccae. A review of the literature shows no reported human infection caused by this microorganism to date. The patient was initially treated with vancomycin and piperacillin-tazobactam on admission and with amoxicillin-clavulanate upon discharge. The slow-growing organism was subsequently found to be susceptible to metronidazole and ertapenem.
September 28, 2016: Anaerobe
Naomi Sugimoto, Yuka Yamagishi, Hiroshige Mikamo
The isolation rate of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria have been increasing in Japan. While the efficacy of piperacillin/tazobactam (PIPC/TAZ) for ESBL-producing bacteria is controversial, carbapenems have generally been shown to be effective. The aim of this study was to determine whether the current Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute susceptibility breakpoint of ≤16/4 μg/mL PIPC/TAZ predicts the clinical usefulness for bacteremia caused by ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
K Govind Babu, D Lokanatha, K C Lakshmaiah, M C Suresh Babu, Linu A Jacob, Gita R Bhat, Harsha Vardhana, Mahua Sinha, B R Vijaykumar, B G Sumati, R S Jayshree
INTRODUCTION: Febrile neutropenia (FN) is an oncological emergency. The choice of empiric therapy depends on the locally prevalent pathogens and their sensitivities, the sites of infection, and cost. The Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines are being followed for the management of FN in India. METHODS: This is a prospective observational study conducted at a tertiary care cancer centre from September 2012 to September 2014. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were as follows: (1) To review the pattern of microbial flora, susceptibility pattern, and important clinical variables among bloodstream infections in febrile neutropenic patients with solid tumors and hematological malignancies...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology
Hoon Cho, Xiaoqin Huang, Yu Lan Piao, Da Eun Kim, So Yeon Lee, Eun Jeong Yoon, So Hee Park, Kyoung Lee, Chul Ho Jang, Chang-Guo Zhan
Administration of an efficient alginate lyase (AlgL) or AlgL mutant may be a promising therapeutic strategy for treatment of cystic fibrosis patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. Nevertheless, the catalytic activity of wild-type AlgL is not sufficiently high. It is highly desired to design and discover an AlgL mutant with significantly improved catalytic efficiency against alginate substrates. For the purpose of identifying an AlgL mutant with significantly improved catalytic activity, in this study, we first constructed and validated a structural model of AlgL interacting with substrate, providing a better understanding of the interactions between AlgL and its substrate...
September 27, 2016: Proteins
M J Melchers, E Mavridou, A C van Mil, C Lagarde, J W Mouton
Ceftolozane is a new broad-spectrum cephalosporin and combined with tazobactam to broaden its activity against strains producing extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL). We determined the pharmacodynamics (PD) of the combination in the neutropenic mouse thigh model to determine the optimal exposure of tazobactam. Treatment was started in CD-1 neutropenic mice 2h after infection with ceftolozane q2h alone or in combination with tazobactam using different dose frequencies for 24h and cfu determined in the thighs before and after treatment...
September 26, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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