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dorsal root ganglion stimulation

Petra Mrozkova, Diana Spicarova, Jiri Palecek
Protease-activated receptors 2 (PAR2) and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors in the peripheral nerve endings are implicated in the development of increased sensitivity to mechanical and thermal stimuli, especially during inflammatory states. Both PAR2 and TRPV1 receptors are co-expressed in nociceptive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons on their peripheral endings and also on presynaptic endings in the spinal cord dorsal horn. However, the modulation of nociceptive synaptic transmission in the superficial dorsal horn after activation of PAR2 and their functional coupling with TRPV1 is not clear...
2016: PloS One
W Ma, B St-Jacques, U Rudakou, Y N Kim
BACKGROUND: Persistent peripheral sensitization contributes to chronic pain. Plasticity of nociceptive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons (nociceptors) induced by pro-inflammatory mediators contributes to sensitization. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) enriched in injured tissues is known not only directly to sensitize DRG neurons, but also to potentiate sensitizing effects of other pain mediators such as capsaicin and its receptor transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1). It remains unknown whether PGE2 potentiates TRPV1 activity by stimulating its synthesis, cell surface and axonal trafficking in DRG neurons...
October 14, 2016: European Journal of Pain: EJP
Viacheslav Viatchenko-Karpinski, Jianguo G Gu
Primary afferent fibers use mechanically activated (MA) currents to transduce innocuous and noxious mechanical stimuli. However, it is largely unknown about the differences in MA currents between the afferents for sensing innocuous and noxious stimuli. In the present study, we used dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons acutely dissociated from rats and studied their MA currents and also their intrinsic membrane properties. Recorded from small-sized DRG neurons, we found that most of these neurons were mechanically sensitive (MS) showing MA currents...
October 5, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Xiangdi Yu, Fangxiang Zhang, Bingning Chen
BACKGROUND: Acupuncture and related techniques are used worldwide to alleviate pain; however, their mechanisms of action are still not fully understood. In the present study, we investigated the effect of transcutaneous electrical acupuncture point stimulation (TEAS) at different frequencies in a chronic constriction injury (CCI) model of neuropathic pain in rats. METHODS: CCI was induced by ligating the common sciatic nerve, which produced neuropathic pain. 18 male Sprague-Dawley rats with CCI were randomly divided into three groups (n=6 each) that remained untreated (CCI group) or received TEAS at high frequency (CCI+TEAS-H group) or TEAS at low frequency (CCI+TEAS-L group)...
October 4, 2016: Acupuncture in Medicine: Journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society
Bin Pan, Hongwei Yu, Gregory J Fischer, Jeffery M Kramer, Quinn H Hogan
: Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) electrical stimulation (ganglionic field stimulation, GFS) is effective in relieving clinical pain, but its mechanism is unknown. We therefore developed a rat model GFS to test analgesic effects in the context of neuropathic pain. GFS was applied with a bipolar electrode at L4, using parameters replicating clinical use (20Hz, 150μs pulse width, current at 80% of motor threshold). Neuropathic pain was generated by tibial nerve injury (TNI). Pain behavior was monitored by determining the threshold for withdrawal from punctate mechanical stimuli, by identifying hyperalgesic responses to noxious mechanical stimuli, and by hypersensitivity to cold...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
W Porter McRoberts, Catalina Apostol, Abdul Haleem
UNLABELLED: Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) presents a therapeutic challenge due to its many presentations and multifaceted pathophysiology. There is no approved treatment algorithm and clinical interventions are often applied empirically. In cases of CRPS where symptoms are localized to an extremity, a targeted treatment is indicated. We describe the use of intrathecal bupivacaine monotherapy, delivered through a retrograde catheter, in the treatment of CRPS affecting the lower extremity...
September 2016: Pain Physician
Willy Halim, Walter van der Weegen, Toine Lim, Jorgen Antonin Wullems, Kris Christiaan Vissers
BACKGROUND: Cervical neck pain is often caused by cervical disk pathology and may cause severe symptoms and disability. Surgeons and patients are increasingly aware of postsurgery-related complications. This stimulated the clinical usage of minimally invasive treatments such as percutaneous nucleoplasty (PCN) and pulsed radio frequency (PRF). However, scientific evidence on both treatments is limited. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of PCN compared to PRF in patients with contained cervical disk herniation...
September 9, 2016: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
Xiaodong Yan, Juanfang Liu, Zhengxu Ye, Jinghui Huang, Fei He, Wei Xiao, Xueyu Hu, Zhuojing Luo
Electrical stimulation (ES)-triggered up-regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurite outgrowth in cultured rat postnatal dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRGNs) is calcium (Ca2+)-dependent. The effects of increased Ca2+ on BDNF up-regulation and neurite outgrowth remain unclear. We showed here that ES increased phosphorylation of the cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB). Blockade of Ca2+ suppressed CREB phosphorylation and neurite outgrowth. Down-regulation of phosphorylated (p)-CREB reduced BDNF transcription and neurite outgrowth triggered by ES...
2016: PloS One
Sungmin Han, Donghwee Kim, Hyungmin Kim, Jong Woong Park, Inchan Youn
The current study aimed to investigate whether electrical stimulation could prevent apoptotic neuronal cell death during treatment with cytosine arabinoside (ara-C). From in-vitro experiments, the effects of electrical stimulation were assessed on neurite fragmentation and neuronal cell death in ara-C-treated dorsal root ganglion (DRG) explants. Ara-C treatment increased neurite fragmentation and neuronal cell death in DRG explants and activated caspase-3 by cleaving it, which could induce apoptosis. Electrical stimulation can significantly reduce neurite fragmentation and neuronal cell death compared with nonelectrically stimulated groups...
November 9, 2016: Neuroreport
Roy Yuen-Chi Lau, Xing Qian, Kai-Ting Po, Lu-Ming Li, Xia Guo
PURPOSE: Immobilization of weight bearing skeletons or microgravity results in disuse osteoporosis in both human and animals. Our previous study demonstrated that electrical stimulation at the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) with an implantable micro-electrical stimulation system (IMESS) could trigger secretion of bone anabolic calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and prevent bone loss in a short-term hindlimb unloading rat model. This study was designed to further investigate whether electrical stimulation to the DRG could prevent bone loss due to prolonged unloading...
August 31, 2016: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
Melissa R Andrews, Sara Soleman, Menghon Cheah, David A Tumbarello, Matthew R J Mason, Elizabeth Moloney, Joost Verhaagen, Jean-Charles Bensadoun, Bernard Schneider, Patrick Aebischer, James W Fawcett
The regenerative ability of CNS axons decreases with age, however, this ability remains largely intact in PNS axons throughout adulthood. These differences are likely to correspond with age-related silencing of proteins necessary for axon growth and elongation. In previous studies, it has been shown that reintroduction of the α9 integrin subunit (tenascin-C receptor, α9) that is downregulated in adult CNS can improve neurite outgrowth and sensory axon regeneration after a dorsal rhizotomy or a dorsal column crush spinal cord lesion...
July 2016: ENeuro
Wei Gao, Yan Zan, Zai-Jie Jim Wang, Xiao-Yu Hu, Fang Huang
AIM: Severe painful sensory neuropathy often occurs during paclitaxel chemotherapy. Since paclitaxel can activate mast cell and basophils, whereas quercetin, a polyphenolic flavonoid contained in various plants, which can specifically inhibit histamine release as a mast cell stabilizer. In this study we explore whether quercetin could ameliorate paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain and elucidated the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Quercetin inhibition on histamine release was validated in vitro by detecting histamine release from rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells stimulated with paclitaxel (10 μmol/L)...
September 2016: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Ganesan Baranidharan, John Titterington
Traditional (40-50 Hz) spinal column stimulation is an efficacious and widely accepted treatment for chronic neuropathic pain conditions. However, there are major challenges including its ineffectiveness for axial back pain, the burden of paresthesia-related discomfort and difficulties producing indisputable research. Recently, there have been the major technological innovations of high-frequency and burst stimulation. Studies have shown these to provide improved analgesia even for axial pain without the problems associated with paresthesia...
November 2016: Pain Management
Di Wu, Michelle C Klaw, Nikolai Kholodilov, Robert E Burke, Megan R Detloff, Marie-Pascale Côté, Veronica J Tom
While the peripheral branch of dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRG) can successfully regenerate after injury, lesioned central branch axons fail to regrow across the dorsal root entry zone (DREZ), the interface between the dorsal root and the spinal cord. This lack of regeneration is due to the limited regenerative capacity of adult sensory axons and the growth-inhibitory environment at the DREZ, which is similar to that found in the glial scar after a central nervous system (CNS) injury. We hypothesized that transduction of adult DRG neurons using adeno-associated virus (AAV) to express a constitutively-active form of the GTPase Rheb (caRheb) will increase their intrinsic growth potential after a dorsal root crush...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Jing-Dun Xie, Shao-Rui Chen, Hong Chen, Wei-An Zeng, Hui-Lin Pan
Painful peripheral neuropathy is a severe adverse effect of chemotherapeutic drugs such as paclitaxel (Taxol). The glutamate N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are critically involved in the synaptic plasticity associated with neuropathic pain. However, paclitaxel treatment does not alter the postsynaptic NMDAR activity of spinal dorsal horn neurons. In this study, we determined whether paclitaxel affects presynaptic NMDAR activity by recording excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) of dorsal horn neurons in spinal cord slices...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Chen Ran, Mark A Hoon, Xiaoke Chen
The spinal cord is the initial stage that integrates temperature information from peripheral inputs. Here we used molecular genetics and in vivo calcium imaging to investigate the coding of cutaneous temperature in the spinal cord in mice. We found that heating or cooling the skin evoked robust calcium responses in spinal neurons, and their activation threshold temperatures distributed smoothly over the entire range of stimulation temperatures. Once activated, heat-responding neurons encoded the absolute skin temperature without adaptation and received major inputs from transient receptor potential (TRP) channel V1 (TRPV1)-positive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons...
September 2016: Nature Neuroscience
Lance A Roy, Rathnayaka Mudiyanselage Kalpanee D Gunasingha, Richard Rauck
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neurostimulation is a well tolerated, cost-efficient, and effective method to treat chronic pain. Although spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been shown to help patients, newer modalities such as burst, kilohertz-frequency, and dorsal root ganglion stimulation may provide greater pain relief, fewer paresthesias, and better outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Burst stimulation, programed as five-impulse burst at a frequency of 500 Hz, delivers more charge per second than conventional stimulation...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
Timothy R Deer, Jason E Pope
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Paul Verrills, Chantelle Sinclair, Adele Barnard
Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) applications and technologies are fast advancing. New SCS technologies are being used increasingly in the clinical environment, but often there is a lag period between the clinical application and the publishing of high-quality evidence on safety and efficacy. Recent developments will undoubtedly expand the applicability of SCS, allowing more effective and individualized treatment for patients, and may have the potential to salvage patients who have previously failed neuromodulation...
2016: Journal of Pain Research
David C L Rowland, Daniel Wright, Liz Moir, James J FitzGerald, Alexander L Green
The authors report the first case of successful implantation of a dorsal root ganglion stimulator at L1 and L2 for sustained improvement in chronic pelvic girdle pain.
July 17, 2016: British Journal of Neurosurgery
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