Read by QxMD icon Read

Hiv latency

Zhujun Ao, Rong Zhu, Xiaoli Tan, Lisa Liu, Liyu Chen, Shuiping Liu, XiaoJian Yao
BACKGROUND: HIV-1 latency is a major obstacle for HIV-1 eradication. Extensive efforts are being directed toward the reactivation of latent HIV reservoirs with the aim of eliminating latently infected cells via the host immune system and/or virus-mediated cell lysis. RESULTS: We screened over 1,500 small molecules and kinase inhibitors and found that a small molecule, PKC412 (midostaurin, a broad-spectrum kinase inhibitor), can stimulate viral transcription and expression from the HIV-1 latently infected ACH2 cell line and primary resting CD4+ T cells...
October 21, 2016: Virology Journal
Meng Wang, Ian Tietjen, Min Chen, David E Williams, Julie Daoust, Mark A Brockman, Raymond J Andersen
Eight new sesterterpenoids, alotaketals D (8) and E (9), ansellones D (10), E (11), F (12), and G (13), anvilones A (14), and B (15), have been isolated from extracts of the marine sponge Phorbas sp. collected in Howe Sound British Columbia and their structures have been elucidated by analysis of NMR and MS data. Ansellone F (12) contains a rare 1,2-3,4 bis epoxy decalin substructure. Anvilones A (14) and B (15) have the unprecedented tetracylic anvilane terpenoid carbon skeleton. Using a cell culture model of latent HIV-1 infection, ansellone A (3), alotaketal D (8), and anvilone A (14) were found to induce HIV proviral gene expression similar to a control compound prostratin (1), while the known sesterterpenoid alotaketal C (2), isolated from the same extract, was more potent and gave a stronger response than prostratin (1)...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Mahar Fatima, Bharat Prajapati, Kanza Saleem, Rina Kumari, Chitra Mohindar Singh Singal, Pankaj Seth
Astroglia are indispensable component of the tripartite synapse ensheathing innumerous soma and synapses. Its proximity to neurons aids the regulation of neuronal functions, health and survival through dynamic neuroglia crosstalk. Susceptibility of astrocyte to HIV-1 infection and subsequent latency culminates in compromised neuronal health. The viral protein HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (Tat) is neurotoxic. HIV-1 Tat is detected in brain of AIDS patients even in cases where viral load is non-detectable due to successful HAART therapy...
October 20, 2016: Glia
Héloïse M Delagrèverie, Constance Delaugerre, Sharon R Lewin, Steven G Deeks, Jonathan Z Li
In chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection, long-lived latently infected cells are the major barrier to virus eradication and functional cure. Several therapeutic strategies to perturb, eliminate, and/or control this reservoir are now being pursued in the clinic. These strategies include latency reversal agents (LRAs) designed to reactivate HIV-1 ribonucleic acid transcription and virus production and a variety of immune-modifying drugs designed to reverse latency, block homeostatic proliferation, and replenish the viral reservoir, eliminate virus-producing cells, and/or control HIV replication after cessation of antiretroviral therapy...
October 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Gilles Darcis, Sophie Bouchat, Anna Kula, Benoit Van Driessche, Nadège Delacourt, Caroline Vanhulle, Véronique Avettand-Fenoel, Stéphane De Wit, Olivier Rohr, Christine Rouzioux, Carine Van Lint
OBJECTIVE: HIV-1 reservoirs are the major hurdle to virus clearance in cART-treated patients. An approach to eradicating HIV-1 involves reversing latency in cART-treated patients in order to make latent cells visible to the host immune system. Stimulation of patient cell cultures with LRAs ex vivo results in heterogeneous responses among HIV-infected patients. Determinants of this heterogeneity are unknown and consequently, important to determine. DESIGN AND METHODS: Here, we grouped and retrospectively analyzed the data from our two recent HIV-1 reactivation studies to investigate the role of the HIV-1 reservoir size in the reactivation capacity by LRAs in ex vivo cultures of CD8-depleted PBMCs isolated from 54 cART-treated patients and of resting CD4 T cells isolated from 30 cART-treated patients...
October 14, 2016: AIDS
Antonino Carbone, Annunziata Gloghini, Arnaldo Caruso, Paolo De Paoli, Riccardo Dolcetti
The pathogenesis of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) is still enigmatic, largely because its tumor cells, the so-called Hodgkin and Reed-Stenberg (HRS) cells, invariably reside in a prominent reactive microenvironment, are rare and therefore difficult to analyze. On the other hand, the broadly investigated cHL-derived cell lines are not unequivocally considered as suitable and representative models for this puzzling disease. Based on current knowledge, it appears that the cross talk between the tumour cells and the reactive infiltrate of the microenvironment is complex and that multiple mechanisms occur, making cHL a very heterogeneous disease...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Céline Marban, Faezeh Forouzanfar, Amina Ait-Ammar, Faiza Fahmi, Hala El Mekdad, Fadoua Daouad, Olivier Rohr, Christian Schwartz
One of the top research priorities of the international AIDS society by the action "Towards an HIV Cure" is the purge or the decrease of the pool of all latently infected cells. This strategy is based on reactivation of latently reservoirs (the shock) followed by an intensifying combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) to kill them (the kill). The central nervous system (CNS) has potential latently infected cells, i.e., perivascular macrophages, microglial cells, and astrocytes that will need to be eliminated...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Xia Wang, Sanyi Tang, Xinyu Song, Libin Rong
HIV can infect cells via virus-to-cell infection or cell-to-cell viral transmission. These two infection modes may occur in a synergistic way and facilitate viral spread within an infected individual. In this paper, we developed an HIV latent infection model including both modes of transmission and time delays between viral entry and integration or viral production. We analysed the model by defining the basic reproductive number, showing the existence, positivity and boundedness of the solution, and proving the local and global stability of the infection-free and infected steady states...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Biological Dynamics
Valentin Le Douce, Faezeh Forouzanfar, Sebastian Eilebrecht, Benoit Van Driessche, Amina Ait-Ammar, Roxane Verdikt, Yoshihito Kurashige, Céline Marban, Virginie Gautier, Ermanno Candolfi, Arndt G Benecke, Carine Van Lint, Olivier Rohr, Christian Schwartz
Among many cellular transcriptional regulators, Bcl11b/CTIP2 and HGMA1 have been described to control the establishment and the persistence of HIV-1 latency in microglial cells, the main viral reservoir in the brain. In this present work, we identify and characterize a transcription factor i.e. HIC1, which physically interacts with both Bcl11b/CTIP2 and HMGA1 to co-regulate specific subsets of cellular genes and the viral HIV-1 gene. Our results suggest that HIC1 represses Tat dependent HIV-1 transcription...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
Zora Melkova, Prakash Shankaran, Michaela Madlenakova, Josef Bodor
HIV-1 infection cannot be cured as it persists in latently infected cells that are targeted neither by the immune system nor by available therapeutic approaches. Consequently, a lifelong therapy suppressing only the actively replicating virus is necessary. The latent reservoir has been defined and characterized in various experimental models and in human patients, allowing research and development of approaches targeting individual steps critical for HIV-1 latency establishment, maintenance, and reactivation...
October 5, 2016: Folia Microbiologica
Carolina Garrido, Adam M Spivak, Natalia Soriano-Sarabia, Mary Ann Checkley, Edward Barker, Jonathan Karn, Vicente Planelles, David M Margolis
In an effort to clear persistent HIV infection and achieve a durable therapy-free remission of HIV disease, extensive pre-clinical studies and early pilot clinical trials are underway to develop and test agents that can reverse latent HIV infection and present viral antigen to the immune system for clearance. It is, therefore, critical to understand the impact of latency-reversing agents (LRAs) on the function of immune effectors needed to clear infected cells. We assessed the impact of LRAs on the function of natural killer (NK) cells, the main effector cells of the innate immune system...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Xian Li, Hanxian Zeng, Pengfei Wang, Lu Lin, Lin Liu, Panpan Lu, Huanzhang Zhu
BACKGROUND: Current antiretroviral treatment (ART) cannot cure HIV-1 infection due to the presence of latent viral reservoirs. The "shock and kill" strategy is a promising approach to eliminate the viral reservoir. However, there are various limits existing in current latency-reversing agents, searching for new activators are urgently needed. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed at investigating the ability of hymecromone and scoparone for activating HIV-1 from latent reservoirs...
October 3, 2016: Current HIV Research
G Clutton, Y Xu, P L Baldoni, K R Mollan, J Kirchherr, W Newhard, Kara Cox, J D Kuruc, A Kashuba, R Barnard, N Archin, C L Gay, M G Hudgens, D M Margolis, N Goonetilleke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
Motomi Arai
This report concerns a case of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) with frequent treatment-dependent relapses. A 75-year-old male presented with a 2-month history of progressive weakness of the limbs with no sensory symptoms. Neurological examination revealed normal cranial nerves, MRC grade 4 power in the proximal and distal muscles of the limbs, and generalized areflexia. However, the sensory examination results, serum immunoelectrophoresis, anti-HIV antibody, and vitamins B1 and B12 levels were normal...
September 28, 2016: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Xinyu Zhang, Amy C Justice, Ying Hu, Zuoheng Wang, Hongyu Zhao, Guilin Wang, Eric O Johnson, Brinda Emu, Richard E Sutton, John H Krystal, Ke Xu
Epigenetic control of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) genes is critical for viral integration and latency. However, epigenetic changes in the HIV-1-infected host genome have not been well characterized. Here, we report the first large-scale epigenome-wide association study of DNA methylation for HIV-1 infection. We recruited HIV-infected (n = 261) and uninfected (n = 117) patients from the Veteran Aging Cohort Study (VACS) and all samples were profiled for 485,521 CpG sites in DNA extracted from the blood...
August 12, 2016: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
Xue Wang, Bing Sun, Christelle Mbondji, Santanu Biswas, Jiangqin Zhao, Indira Hewlett
Macrophages contribute to HIV-1 pathogenesis by forming a viral reservoir that serve as a viral source for the infection of CD4 T cells. The relationship between HIV-1 latent infection and superinfection in macrophages has not been well studied. Using susceptible U1 cells chronically infected with HIV-1, we studied the effects of HIV superinfection on latency and differences in superinfection with HIV-1 and HIV-2 in macrophages. We found that HIV-1 (MN) superinfection displayed increased HIV-1 replication in a time-dependent manner; while cells infected with HIV-2 (Rod) initially showed increased HIV-1 replication, followed by a decrease in HIV-1 RNA production...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Lucio Gama, Celina M Abreu, Erin N Shirk, Sarah L Price, Ming Li, Greg M Laird, Kelly A Metcalf Pate, Stephen W Wietgrefe, Shelby L O'connor, Luiz Pianowski, Ashley T Haase, Carine Van Lint, Robert F Siliciano, Janice E Clements, Dummy Authors
OBJECTIVE: Resting CD4+ T cells have been recognized as the major cell reservoir of latent HIV-1 during antiretroviral therapy (ART). Using an SIV/macaque model for AIDS and HIV-related neurocognitive disorders we assessed the contribution of the brain to viral latency and reactivation. DESIGN: Pigtailed macaques were dual inoculated with SIVDeltaB670 and SIV17E-Fr and treated with an efficacious CNS-penetrant ART. After 500 days of viral suppression animals were treated with two cycles of latency reversing agents (LRAs) and increases in viral transcripts were examined...
September 20, 2016: AIDS
Steffen Leth, Mariane H Schleimann, Sara K Nissen, Jesper F Højen, Rikke Olesen, Mette E Graversen, Sofie Jørgensen, Anne Sofie Kjær, Paul W Denton, Alejandra Mørk, Maja A Sommerfelt, Kim Krogsgaard, Lars Østergaard, Thomas A Rasmussen, Martin Tolstrup, Ole Schmeltz Søgaard
BACKGROUND: Immune priming before reversal of latency might be a component of a functional HIV cure. To assess this concept, we assessed if therapeutic HIV immunisation followed by latency reversal would affect measures of viral transcription, plasma viraemia, and reservoir size in patients with HIV on suppressive antiretroviral therapy. METHODS: In this single-arm, phase 1B/2A trial, we recruited adults treated at the Department of Infectious Diseases, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark (aged ≥18 years) with successfully treated HIV-1 with plasma RNA loads of less than 50 copies per mL for the previous year and CD4 counts of at least 500 cells per μL...
October 2016: Lancet HIV
Jasbir Makker, Bharat Bajantri, Sailaja Sakam, Sridhar Chilimuri
Involvement of gastrointestinal tract by cytomegalovirus (CMV) is common. CMV infections mainly run their course without any clinical signs in immunocompetent hosts. In contrast, CMV can cause severe infections with serious consequences in a immunocompromised state typically associated with organ transplants, highly immunosuppressive cancer chemotherapy, advanced HIV infection or treatment with corticosteroids. The incidence and severity of these manifestations of CMV is directly proportional with the degree of cellular immune dysfunction, i...
August 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Thomas A Rasmussen, Jenny L Anderson, Fiona Wightman, Sharon R Lewin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article provides an overview of anticancer therapies in various stages of clinical development as potential interventions to target HIV persistence. RECENT FINDINGS: Epigenetic drugs developed for cancer have been investigated in vitro, ex vivo and in clinical trials as interventions aimed at reversing HIV latency and depleting the amount of virus that persists on antiretroviral therapy. Treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors induced HIV expression in patients on antiretroviral therapy but did not reduce the frequency of infected cells...
September 7, 2016: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"