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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103626/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-adolescents-and-young-adults-the-next-frontier-in-the-epidemic
#1
REVIEW
Iliana Doycheva, Kymberly D Watt, Naim Alkhouri
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a significant health burden in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with substantial rise in prevalence over the last decades. This parallels high rates of obesity and metabolic syndrome in this age group, with unhealthy lifestyle also playing an independent role. Genetic factors, gender, and ethnicity should be considered in a risk stratification model. NAFLD and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in AYAs often go unrecognized and if untreated, can progress eventually to cirrhosis requiring liver transplantation before the age of 40...
January 19, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103621/development-and-validation-of-a-training-module-on-the-use-of-acetic-acid-for-the-detection-of-barrett-s-neoplasia
#2
Fergus J Q Chedgy, Kesavan Kandiah, Hugh Barr, Simon Dwerryhouse, Balint Eross, Charles Gordon, Susi Green, Andy Li, James Brown, Gaius Longcroft-Wheaton, Pradeep Bhandari
Background and study aims Acetic acid chromoendoscopy (AAC) enhances the ability to correctly identify Barrett's neoplasia, and is increasingly used by both expert and nonexpert endoscopists. Despite its increasing use, there is no validated training strategy to achieve competence. The aims of our study were to develop a validated training tool in AAC-assisted lesion recognition, to assess endoscopists' baseline knowledge of AAC-assisted lesion recognition, and to evaluate the efficacy and impact of this training tool...
January 19, 2017: Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103615/radiation-induced-lung-metastasis-development-is-mt1-mmp-dependent-in-a-triple-negative-breast-cancer-mouse-model
#3
Gina Bouchard, Hélène Therriault, Sameh Geha, Rachel Bujold, Caroline Saucier, Benoit Paquette
BACKGROUND: The prognosis of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is still difficult to establish. Some TNBC benefit from radiotherapy (RT) and are cured, while in other patients metastases appear during the first 3 years after treatment. In this study, an animal model of TNBC was used to determine whether the expression of the cell membrane protease MT1-MMP in cancer cells was associated with radiation-stimulated development of lung metastases. METHODS: Using invasion chambers, irradiated fibroblasts were used as chemoattractants to assess the invasiveness of TNBC D2A1 cell lines showing downregulated expression of MT1-MMP, which were compared with D2A1-wt (wild-type) and D2A1 shMT1-mock (empty vector) cell lines...
January 19, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103600/indicators-of-adiposity-predictors-of-metabolic-syndrome-in-the-elderly
#4
Carolina Cunha de Oliveira, Anna Karla C Roriz, Lilian B Ramos, Mansueto Gomes Neto
BACKGROUND: Adiposity indicators can be used as predictors of cardiovascular risk in the elderly. However, there are only a very few studies that deal with the accuracy of adiposity indicators as predictors of metabolic syndrome (MS) in the elderly. We evaluated the performance of adiposity indicators of MS prediction in the elderly. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with 203 elderly people of both genders. VARIABLES: MS defined by harmonized criteria, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), conicity index (CI), lipid accumulation product (LAP), and visceral adiposity index (VAI)...
January 20, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103579/the-combination-of-early-treatment-response-and-ypt-stage-is-a-novel-metric-to-stage-rectal-cancer-patients-treated-with-neoadjuvant-chemoradiotherapy
#5
Jian Cui, Lin Yang, Lei Guo, Yongfu Shao, Dongfeng Tan, Ni Li, Haizeng Zhang
Rectal cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT) are currently classified using the same Tumor-Node-Metastasis staging system as those patients without NCRT. We determined whether the combination of tumor treatment response (TRG) and ypT stage more accurately assesses primary tumors in rectal cancer after NCRT. We analyzed data from 329 rectal cancer patients treated with NCRT followed by radical resection. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the effects of different staging parameters on disease-free survival (DFS)...
January 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103578/prognostic-and-predictive-value-of-vhl-gene-alteration-in-renal-cell-carcinoma-a-meta-analysis-and-review
#6
Bum Jun Kim, Jung Han Kim, Hyeong Su Kim, Dae Young Zang
The von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene is often inactivated in sporadic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) by mutation or promoter hypermethylation. The prognostic or predictive value of VHL gene alteration is not well established. We conducted this meta-analysis to evaluate the association between the VHL alteration and clinical outcomes in patients with RCC. We searched PUBMED, MEDLINE and EMBASE for articles including following terms in their titles, abstracts, or keywords: 'kidney or renal', 'carcinoma or cancer or neoplasm or malignancy', 'von Hippel-Lindau or VHL', 'alteration or mutation or methylation', and 'prognostic or predictive'...
January 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103567/predictive-control-of-networked-multiagent-systems-via-cloud-computing
#7
Guo-Ping Liu
This paper studies the design and analysis of networked multiagent predictive control systems via cloud computing. A cloud predictive control scheme for networked multiagent systems (NMASs) is proposed to achieve consensus and stability simultaneously and to compensate for network delays actively. The design of the cloud predictive controller for NMASs is detailed. The analysis of the cloud predictive control scheme gives the necessary and sufficient conditions of stability and consensus of closed-loop networked multiagent control systems...
January 18, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103565/a-scan-line-forest-growing-based-hand-segmentation-framework-with-multipriority-vertex-stereo-matching-for-wearable-devices
#8
Yiyi Ren, Xiang Xie, Guolin Li, Zhihua Wang
A hand segmentation framework is proposed for 3-D hand gesture interaction for wearable devices. In this framework, all the objects in a scene are regarded as directed trees in a forest, and the problem of the hand segmentation can be converted into finding the target tree (called hand tree) in the forest with proper hand properties including color consistency, space consistency, disparity, and hand shape constraints. The forest grows scan-line by scan-line from high reliable regions to low reliable regions...
January 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103562/a-decision-support-system-for-tele-monitoring-copd-related-worrisome-events
#9
Mario Merone, Claudio Pedone, Giuseppe Capasso, Raffaele Antonelli Incalzi, Paolo Soda
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a preventable, treatable and slowly progressive disease, whose course is aggravated by a periodic worsening of symptoms and lung function lasting for several days. The development of home telemonitoring systems has made possible to collect symptoms and physiological data in electronic records, boosting the development of decision support systems (DSSs). Current DSSs work with physiological measurements collected by means of several measuring and communication devices as well as with symptoms gathered by questionnaires submitted to COPD subjects...
January 17, 2017: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103560/identifying-objective-and-subjective-words-via-topic-modeling
#10
Hanqi Wang, Fei Wu, Weiming Lu, Yi Yang, Xi Li, Xuelong Li, Yueting Zhuang
It is observed that distinct words in a given document have either strong or weak ability in delivering facts (i.e., the objective sense) or expressing opinions (i.e., the subjective sense) depending on the topics they associate with. Motivated by the intuitive assumption that different words have varying degree of discriminative power in delivering the objective sense or the subjective sense with respect to their assigned topics, a model named as identified objective-subjective latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) (iosLDA) is proposed in this paper...
January 17, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103559/exploring-the-missing-links-between-dietary-habits-and-diseases
#11
Malay Bhattacharyya, Soumi Maity, Sanghamitra Bandyopadhyay
Disease dietomics is an emerging area of systems biology that attempts to explore the connections between the dietary habits and diseases. Some of the topical studies highlight that foods might have different impacts over an organism either in progressing a disease (negative association) or in fighting against it (positive association). The association of foods with different diseases can be put together to build a network that might provide a global view of the entire system. Again, such disease-food networks might emerge in a more complex form while considering the disease subtypes individually...
January 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103557/data-dependent-label-distribution-learning-for-age-estimation
#12
Zhouzhou He, Xi Li, Zhongfei Zhang, Fei Wu, Xin Geng, Yaqing Zhang, Ming-Hsuan Yang, Yueting Zhuang
As an important and challenging problem in computer vision, face age estimation is typically cast as a classification or regression problem over a set of face samples with respect to several ordinal age labels, which have intrinsically cross-age correlations across adjacent age dimensions. As a result, such correlations usually lead to the age label ambiguities of the face samples. Namely, each face sample is associated with a latent label distribution that encodes the cross-age correlation information on label ambiguities...
January 18, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103555/robust-head-pose-estimation-based-on-partially-latent-mixture-of-linear-regressions
#13
Vincent Drouard, Radu Horaud, Antoine Deleforge, Sileye Ba, Georgios Evangelidis
Head-pose estimation has many applications, such as social event analysis, human-robot and human-computer interaction, driving assistance, and so forth. Head-pose estimation is challenging because it must cope with changing illumination conditions, variabilities in face orientation and in appearance, partial occlusions of facial landmarks, as well as bounding-box-to- face alignment errors. We propose tu use a mixture of linear regressions with partially-latent output. This regression method learns to map high-dimensional feature vectors (extracted from bounding boxes of faces) onto the joint space of head-pose angles and bounding-box shifts, such that they are robustly predicted in the presence of unobservable phenomena...
January 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103546/quantifying-net-synergy-redundancy-of-spontaneous-variability-regulation-via-predictability-and-transfer-entropy-decomposition-frameworks
#14
Alberto Porta, Vlasta Bari, Beatrice De Maria, Anielle C M Takahashi, Stefano Guzzetti, Riccardo Colombo, Aparecida M Catai, Ferdinando Raimondi, Luca Faes
OBJECTIVE: Indexes assessing the balance between redundancy and synergy were hypothesized to be helpful in characterizing cardiovascular control from spontaneous beat-to-beat variations of heart period (HP), systolic arterial pressure (SAP) and respiration (R). METHODS: Net redundancy/synergy indexes were derived according to predictability and transfer entropy decomposition strategies via a multivariate linear regression approach. Indexes were tested in two protocols inducing modifications of the cardiovascular regulation via baroreflex loading/unloading (i...
January 17, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103522/perceived-emotional-social-support-in-bereaved-spouses-mediates-the-relationship-between-anxiety-and-depression
#15
Nicholas C Jacobson, Kayla A Lord, Michelle G Newman
BACKGROUND: Prior research has shown that anxiety symptoms predict later depression symptoms following bereavement. Nevertheless, no research has investigated mechanisms of the temporal relationship between anxiety and later depressive symptoms or examined the impact of depressive symptoms on later anxiety symptoms following bereavement. METHODS: The current study examined perceived emotional social support as a possible mediator between anxiety and depressive symptoms in a bereaved sample of older adults (N =250)...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103515/strong-synergistic-effects-in-pla-pcl-blends-impact-of-pla-matrix-viscosity
#16
Aleksandra Ostafinska, Ivan Fortelný, Jiří Hodan, Sabina Krejčíková, Martina Nevoralová, Jana Kredatusová, Zdeněk Kruliš, Jiří Kotek, Miroslav Šlouf
Blends of two biodegradable polymers, poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(ϵ-caprolactone) (PCL), with strong synergistic improvement in mechanical performance were prepared by melt-mixing using the optimized composition (80/20) and the optimized preparation procedure (a melt-mixing followed by a compression molding) according to our previous study. Three different PLA polymers were employed, whose viscosity decreased in the following order: PLC ≈ PLA1 > PLA2 > PLA3. The blends with the highest viscosity matrix (PLA1/PCL) exhibited the smallest PCL particles (d∼0...
January 10, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103496/toddlers-action-prediction-statistical-learning-of-continuous-action-sequences
#17
Claire D Monroy, Sarah A Gerson, Sabine Hunnius
The current eye-tracking study investigated whether toddlers use statistical information to make anticipatory eye movements while observing continuous action sequences. In two conditions, 19-month-old participants watched either a person performing an action sequence (Agent condition) or a self-propelled visual event sequence (Ghost condition). Both sequences featured a statistical structure in which certain action pairs occurred with deterministic transitional probabilities. Toddlers learned the transitional probabilities between the action steps of the deterministic action pairs and made predictive fixations to the location of the next action in the Agent condition but not in the Ghost condition...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103494/factors-associated-with-meeting-physical-activity-guidelines-by-adults-with-intellectual-and-developmental-disabilities
#18
Roger J Stancliffe, Lynda L Anderson
BACKGROUND: Many individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) have sedentary lifestyles. AIMS: (a) compare adults with IDD with the general adult population on adherence to U.S. physical activity (PA) guidelines, and (b) determine what factors predict adherence to PA guidelines by adults with IDD. METHODS: We compared adults with IDD from the 2011-2012 National Core Indicators Adult Consumer Survey (NCI-ACS) with the general U...
January 16, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103483/dynamic-interaction-between-reinforcement-learning-and-attention-in-multidimensional-environments
#19
Yuan Chang Leong, Angela Radulescu, Reka Daniel, Vivian DeWoskin, Yael Niv
Little is known about the relationship between attention and learning during decision making. Using eye tracking and multivariate pattern analysis of fMRI data, we measured participants' dimensional attention as they performed a trial-and-error learning task in which only one of three stimulus dimensions was relevant for reward at any given time. Analysis of participants' choices revealed that attention biased both value computation during choice and value update during learning. Value signals in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and prediction errors in the striatum were similarly biased by attention...
January 18, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103438/acylguanidine-beta-secretase-1-inhibitors-a-combined-experimental-and-free-energy-perturbation-study
#20
Henrik Keränen, Laura Pérez-Benito, Myriam Ciordia, Francisca Delgado, Thomas B Steinbrecher, Daniel Oehlrich, Herman W T Van Vlijmen, Andrés A Trabanco, Gary Tresadern
A series of acylguanidine beta secretase 1 (BACE1) inhibitors with modified scaffold and P3 pocket substituent was synthesized and studied with Free Energy Perturbation (FEP) calculations. The resulting molecules showed potencies in enzymatic BACE1 inhibition assays up to 1 nM. The correlation between the predicted activity from the FEP calculations and the experimental activity was good for the P3 pocket substituents. The average mean unsigned error (MUE) between prediction and experiment was 0.68 ± 0.17 kcal/mol for the default 5 ns lambda window simulation time improving to 0...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
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