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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636294/-selective-therapeutic-de-escalation-in-early-stage-breast-cancer
#1
Aikaterini Liapi, Apostolos Sarivalasis, Wendy Jeanneret Sozzi, Loïc Lelièvre, Khalil Zaman
The survival of patients with breast cancer has improved considerably thanks to adjuvant radiotherapy and systemic treatments. Due to the potential adverse events associated with these treatments, a de-escalation effort was undertaken concerning surgery and more recently the adjuvant treatments. Conservative breast surgery and the avoidance of axillary dissection were possible for the majority of the patients without detrimental effect on survival. New radiotherapy techniques and the consideration of cancer biology allowed to better protect the peripheral organs and even to avoid treatment in certain low-risk patients...
May 17, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636272/development-of-biotic-ligand-model-based-freshwater-aquatic-life-criteria-for-lead-following-us-environmental-protection-agency-guidelines
#2
David K DeForest, Robert C Santore, Adam C Ryan, Brian G Church, M Jasim Chowdhury, Kevin V Brix
The US Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA's) current ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) for lead (Pb) in freshwater were developed in 1984. The criteria are adjusted for hardness, but more recent studies have demonstrated that other parameters, especially dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and pH, have a much stronger influence on Pb bioavailability. These recent studies have been used to support development of a biotic ligand model (BLM) for Pb in freshwater, such that acute and chronic Pb toxicity can be predicted over a wide range of water chemistry conditions...
June 21, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636268/high-throughput-sequencing-reveals-drosophila-suzukii-responses-to-insecticides
#3
Ruchir Mishra, Joanna C Chiu, Gang Hua, Nilesh R Tawari, Michael J Adang, Ashfaq A Sial
Global climate change and acquired resistance to insecticides are threats to world food security. Drosophila suzukii, a devastating invasive pest in many parts of the world, causes substantial economic losses to fruit production industries, forcing farmers to apply broad-spectrum insecticides frequently. This could lead to the development of insecticide resistance. We determined the Lethal Concentration50 (median lethal concentration) values of zeta-cypermethrin, spinosad, and malathion insecticides against D...
June 21, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636245/weight-gain-in-the-first-week-of-life-predicts-overweight-at-2%C3%A2-years-a-prospective-cohort-study
#4
Lori Feldman-Winter, Laura Burnham, Xena Grossman, Stephanie Matlak, Ning Chen, Anne Merewood
In formula-fed infants, rapid weight gain during the first week of life is associated with later obesity. To examine the association between weight gain during the first week and overweight at age 2 among infants with various feeding practices and the relationship between exclusive breastfeeding in early infancy and overweight, we enrolled a prospective cohort of healthy mother-infant dyads and followed them for 2 years. We enrolled 450 mother/infant pairs and obtained information on 306 infants at year 2...
June 21, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636222/recent-progress-in-immunotherapy-for-urological-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Wataru Obara, Renpei Kato, Yoichiro Kato, Mitsugu Kanehira, Ryo Takata
Cancer immunotherapy for urological tumors had made progress for several decades, but recent advances in immunotherapy, as therapeutic vaccines or immune checkpoint inhibitors, have drastically changed the present treatment strategy. Recently, nivolumab and atezolizumab have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treatment of urological cancers. Additional immune checkpoint inhibitors and vaccines are being tested in clinical trials. Despite advances in these therapeutic modalities, benefits are limited to a subset of patients...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636205/progressive-scar14-with-unclear-speech-developmental-delay-tremor-and-behavioral-problems-caused-by-a-homozygous-deletion-of-the-sptbn2-pleckstrin-homology-domain
#6
Esra Yıldız Bölükbaşı, Muhammad Afzal, Sara Mumtaz, Nafees Ahmad, Sajid Malik, Aslıhan Tolun
We report on nine members of a consanguineous Pakistani family with primary presentation of intellectual disability, developmental delay, limb and gait ataxia, behavioral and speech problems, and tremor. By linkage mapping and exome sequencing we identified novel homozygous splicing variant c.6375-1G>C in SPTBN2. To date, only two other SPTBN2 mutations with recessive pattern of inheritance causing SCAR14 (spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 14) that manifest with developmental ataxia and cognitive impairment, or cerebellar ataxia, mental retardation, and pyramidal signs have been reported...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636110/cumulative-toxicity-of-neonicotinoid-insecticide-mixtures-to-chironomus-dilutus-under-acute-exposure-scenarios
#7
Erin M Maloney, Christy A Morrissey, John V Headley, Kerry M Peru, Karsten Liber
Extensive agricultural use of neonicotinoid insecticide products has resulted in the presence of neonicotinoid mixtures in surface waters worldwide. Although many aquatic insect species are known to be sensitive to neonicotinoids, the impact of neonicotinoid mixtures is poorly understood. In the present study, the cumulative toxicity of binary and ternary mixtures of select neonicotinoids (imidacloprid, clothianidin, and thiamethoxam) was characterized under acute (96-h) exposure scenarios using the larval midge Chironomus dilutus as a representative aquatic insect species...
June 21, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636099/spectators-or-participants-how-can-setac-become-more-engaged-in-international-climate-change-research-programs
#8
Ralph G Stahl, Jennifer L Stauber, William H Clements
Environmental toxicologists and chemists have been crucial to evaluating the chemical fate and toxicological effects of environmental contaminants, including chlorinated pesticides, before and after Rachel Carson's publication of Silent Spring in 1962. Like chlorinated pesticides previously, global climate change is widely considered to be one of the most important environmental challenges of our time. Over the past 30 yr, climate scientists and modelers have shown that greenhouse gases such as CO2 and CH4 cause radiative forcing (climate forcing) and lead to increased global temperatures...
June 21, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636094/characterization-of-clonal-philadelphia-negative-cytogenetic-abnormalities-in-a-large-cohort-of-chronic-myeloid-leukemia
#9
Xiangjun Chen, Jine Zheng, Kaiwei Liang, Yanli He, Wen Du, Juan Li, Wei Liu, Yanjie Hu, Junxia Yao
OBJECTIVES: Clonal Philadelphia-negative Cytogenetic Abnormalities (CPCA) have been reported in chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) patients treated with either interferon or tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). However, the incidences and types of these cytogenetic abnormalities after treatment vary due to the limited populations enrolled. METHODS: We analysed the frequency and types of CPCA in a cohort of 607 CML patients in the chronic phase after TKI treatment. We also followed up these CPCA with a median of 31...
June 21, 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636083/editorial-comment-to-predictive-value-of-different-prostate-specific-antigen-based-markers-in-men-with-baseline-total-prostate-specific-antigen-2-0-ng-ml
#10
Yasuhide Kitagawa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636070/development-of-a-population-based-microsimulation-model-of-body-mass-index
#11
Deirdre Hennessy, Rochelle Garner, William M Flanagan Ron Wall And Claude Nadeau M Flanagan, Ron Wall, Claude Nadeau
BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity has necessitated the development of body mass index (BMI) projection models such as the POpulation HEalth Model (POHEM). This study describes the POHEM-BMI model, a microsimulation tool that can be used to support evidence-based health policy making for obesity reduction. DATA AND METHODS: The National Population Health Survey, the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), and the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) were used to develop and validate a predictive model of BMI for adults and childhood BMI history...
June 21, 2017: Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635983/risk-factors-for-re-excision-following-breast-conserving-surgery
#12
Kimberly Rodriguez, Gayle G Wilkins, Patricia Newcomb, Patricia A Gwirtz, Robin Skrine
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To identify previously unstudied factors predicting re-excision following breast-conserving surgery (BCS) and to assess the feasibility of obtaining data about breast density for predictive modeling.
. DESIGN: Retrospective secondary data analysis.
. SETTING: Data were obtained from the cancer registry and electronic health records (EHRs) at Texas Health Harris Methodist Hospital, a large, urban, private, nonprofit hospital in North Texas...
May 1, 2017: Oncology Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635962/growth-of-organic-crystals-via-attachment-and-transformation-of-nanoscopic-precursors
#13
Yuan Jiang, Matthias Kellermeier, Denis Gebaue, Zihao Lu, Rose Rosenberg, Adrian Moise, Michael Przybylski, Helmut Cölfen
A key requirement for the understanding of crystal growth is to detect how new layers form and grow at the nanoscale. Multistage crystallization pathways involving liquid-like, amorphous or metastable crystalline precursors have been predicted by theoretical work and have been observed experimentally. Nevertheless, there is no clear evidence that any of these precursors can also be relevant for the growth of crystals of organic compounds. Herein, we present a new growth mode for crystals of DL-glutamic acid monohydrate that proceeds through the attachment of preformed nanoscopic species from solution, their subsequent decrease in height at the surface and final transformation into crystalline 2D nuclei that eventually build new molecular layers by further monomer incorporation...
June 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635960/somatic-mutations-in-clonally-expanded-cytotoxic-t-lymphocytes-in-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-rheumatoid-arthritis
#14
P Savola, T Kelkka, H L Rajala, A Kuuliala, K Kuuliala, S Eldfors, P Ellonen, S Lagström, M Lepistö, T Hannunen, E I Andersson, R K Khajuria, T Jaatinen, R Koivuniemi, H Repo, J Saarela, K Porkka, M Leirisalo-Repo, S Mustjoki
Somatic mutations contribute to tumorigenesis. Although these mutations occur in all proliferating cells, their accumulation under non-malignant conditions, such as in autoimmune disorders, has not been investigated. Here, we show that patients with newly diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis have expanded CD8+ T-cell clones; in 20% (5/25) of patients CD8+ T cells, but not CD4+ T cells, harbour somatic mutations. In healthy controls (n=20), only one mutation is identified in the CD8+ T-cell pool. Mutations exist exclusively in the expanded CD8+ effector-memory subset, persist during follow-up, and are predicted to change protein functions...
June 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635953/rare-rnf213-variants-in-the-c-terminal-region-encompassing-the-ring-finger-domain-are-associated-with-moyamoya-angiopathy-in-caucasians
#15
Stéphanie Guey, Markus Kraemer, Dominique Hervé, Thomas Ludwig, Manoëlle Kossorotoff, Françoise Bergametti, Jan Claudius Schwitalla, Simone Choi, Lucile Broseus, Isabelle Callebaut, Emmanuelle Genin, Elisabeth Tournier-Lasserve
Moyamoya angiopathy (MMA) is a cerebral angiopathy affecting the terminal part of internal carotid arteries. Its prevalence is 10 times higher in Japan and Korea than in Europe. In East Asian countries, moyamoya is strongly associated to the R4810K variant in the RNF213 gene that encodes for a protein containing a RING-finger and two AAA+ domains. This variant has never been detected in Caucasian MMA patients, but several rare RNF213 variants have been reported in Caucasian cases. Using a collapsing test based on exome data from 68 European MMA probands and 573 ethnically matched controls, we showed a significant association between rare missense RNF213 variants and MMA in European patients (odds ratio (OR)=2...
June 21, 2017: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635950/genetically-predicted-high-body-mass-index-was-associated-with-increased-gastric-cancer-risk
#16
Yingying Mao, Caiwang Yan, Qun Lu, Meng Zhu, Fei Yu, Cheng Wang, Juncheng Dai, Hongxia Ma, Zhibin Hu, Hongbing Shen, Guangfu Jin
Epidemiological studies have linked body mass index (BMI) with risk of gastrointestinal cancers. However, for gastric cancer, the relationship is more controversial. In particular, it is unclear whether the observed association is due to confounding or bias inherent in conventional observational studies. To investigate whether BMI is causally associated with gastric cancer risk, we applied Mendelian randomization using individual-level data from 2631 gastric cancer cases and 4373 cancer-free controls. We derived a weighted genetic risk score (wGRS) using 37 BMI-associated genetic variants as an instrumental variable...
June 21, 2017: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635904/-myocardial-fibrosis-current-aspects-of-the-problem
#17
V N Karetnikova, V V Kashtalap, S N Kosareva, O L Barbarash
Fibrosis is one of the main components in the progression of most cardiovascular diseases, including coronary heart disease, by causing structural changes in the myocardium and vascular wall. The quantitative and qualitative characteristics of fibrosis of the myocardium are responsible for decreasing its elastic properties, developing diastolic dysfunction, impairing myocardial contractility, developing systolic dysfunction and cardiac arrhythmias, and worsening coronary blood flow in patients with heart failure of different etiologies...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635877/-a-neuropathic-component-of-lumboischialgia-mechanisms-of-development-and-treatment-approaches
#18
M V Churyukanov, G E Shevtsova, O I Zagorulko
Low back pain (LBP) is accompanied by the development of pain syndrome that spreads into the leg in 25-57% of patients. This is an important factor predicting the risk of transition of pain from acute to chronic and is an indirect indicator of disease severity. It is often impossible to specify the primary mechanism facilitated pain irradiation in lumboischialgia because many structures can cause analogous symptoms. Mechanisms of development of LBP are represented by nociceptive, neuropathic and psychogenic components...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635672/towards-the-internet-of-smart-trains-a-review-on-industrial-iot-connected-railways
#19
Paula Fraga-Lamas, Tiago M Fernández-Caramés, Luis Castedo
Nowadays, the railway industry is in a position where it is able to exploit the opportunities created by the IIoT (Industrial Internet of Things) and enabling communication technologies under the paradigm of Internet of Trains. This review details the evolution of communication technologies since the deployment of GSM-R, describing the main alternatives and how railway requirements, specifications and recommendations have evolved over time. The advantages of the latest generation of broadband communication systems (e...
June 21, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635644/pd-1-pd-l1-blockade-therapy-for-tumors-with-downregulated-mhc-class-i-expression
#20
REVIEW
Michal Šmahel
The therapy of different advanced-stage malignancies with monoclonal antibodies blocking programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)/PD-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) signaling has had an impressive long-lasting effect in a portion of patients, but in most cases, this therapy was not successful, or a secondary resistance developed. To enhance its efficacy in treated patients, predictive biomarkers are searched for and various combination treatments are intensively investigated. As the downregulation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules is one of the most frequent mechanisms of tumor escape from the host's immunity, it should be considered in PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint inhibition...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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