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Plasticity in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818270/the-glass-ceiling-a-biological-phenomenon
#1
Tom W J Schulpen
Many brilliant and ambitious young women lose their drive for top careers after childbirth. New maternal impulses are at odds with their original ambitions and for many mothers stress and frustration will be the result as they have to combine child care with workweeks of 60-80h to reach or remain at the top. Pregnancy hormones modify the female's brain as has been demonstrated already for decades in animals. This brain plasticity due to adult neurogenesis in the so called maternal circuitry of the limbic system is long-lasting and perhaps lifelong...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811181/beneficial-effects-of-postnatal-choline-supplementation-on-long-term-neurocognitive-deficit-resulting-from-fetal-neonatal-iron-deficiency
#2
Bruce C Kennedy, Phu V Tran, Maulika Kohli, Jamie J Maertens, Jonathan C Gewirtz, Michael K Georgieff
Early-life iron deficiency is a common nutrient condition worldwide and can result in cognitive impairment in adulthood despite iron treatment. In rodents, prenatal choline supplementation can diminish long-term hippocampal gene dysregulation and neurocognitive deficits caused by iron deficiency. Since fetal iron status is generally unknown in humans, we determined whether postnatal choline supplementation exerts similar beneficial effects. Male rat pups were made iron deficient (ID) by providing pregnant and nursing dams an ID diet (3-6ppm Fe) from gestational day (G) 3 through postnatal day (P) 7, and an iron-sufficient (IS) diet (200ppm Fe) thereafter...
August 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811042/understanding-readmissions-in-children-undergoing-surgery-a-pediatric-nsqip-analysis
#3
Afif N Kulaylat, Dorothy V Rocourt, Anthony Y Tsai, Kathryn L Martin, Brett W Engbrecht, Mary C Santos, Robert E Cilley, Christopher S Hollenbeak, Peter W Dillon
BACKGROUND: Readmission is increasingly being utilized as an important clinical outcome and measure of hospital quality. Our aim was to delineate rates, risk factors, and reasons for unplanned readmission in pediatric surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective review of pediatric patients (n=130,274) undergoing surgery (2013-2014) at hospitals enrolled in the Pediatric National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP-P) was performed. Logistic regression was used to model factors associated with unplanned 30-day readmission...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800814/phthalates-impact-human-health-epidemiological-evidences-and-plausible-mechanism-of-action
#4
REVIEW
Sailas Benjamin, Eiji Masai, Naofumi Kamimura, Kenji Takahashi, Robin C Anderson, Panichikkal Abdul Faisal
Disregarding the rising alarm on the hazardous nature of various phthalates and their metabolites, ruthless usage of phthalates as plasticizer in plastics and as additives in innumerable consumer products continues due low their cost, attractive properties, and lack of suitable alternatives. Globally, in silico computational, in vitro mechanistic, in vivo preclinical and limited clinical or epidemiological human studies showed that over a dozen phthalates and their metabolites ingested passively by man from the general environment, foods, drinks, breathing air, and routine household products cause various dysfunctions...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790214/-transoral-penetrating-cranial-injury-by-a-chopstick-a-case-report
#5
Kazue Fujiwara, Fumihiro Hiraoka, Yasunobu Nakamura, Masahiko Murao, Kazuo Hanakawa, Takafumi Ide
Intracranial injury resultant from a chopstick penetrating the oral cavity is often fatal in children, and only 5 clinical cases have been reported. If the depth of penetration is indeterminable, due to the chopstick being removed or the remaining piece not being located, then injury management is challenging; here, we report such a case. A 26-month-old girl fell over with a plastic chopstick in her mouth. The chopstick was removed immediately and without breakage by her father. He noted that around 3 cm of the pointed end had pierced the palate...
August 2017: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783102/the-pulmonary-circulation-in-the-single-ventricle-patient
#6
REVIEW
Amanda Hauck, Nicolas Porta, Steven Lestrud, Stuart Berger
In recent decades, survival of children with complex congenital heart disease has improved considerably. Specifically, children with a variety of congenital heart defects resulting in 'single ventricle' physiology can now undergo palliative surgery that allows survival beyond the neonatal period, and in many cases into adulthood, despite having a single functional ventricular pumping chamber supplying both the pulmonary and systemic circulation. Our growing understanding of the functionally univentricular heart has resulted in freedom from Fontan failure of >50% at 25 years post-Fontan...
August 7, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780249/dermal-fat-graft-for-anophthalmic-socket-in-children-enucleated-for-retinoblastoma
#7
V Bosch-Canto, C Cruz, J C Ordaz-Favila
Retinoblastoma is the most frequent intraocular tumour in childhood. The definitive treatment is enucleation. The management of the anophthalmic socket consists in the use of a plastic implant. The problem is that they are expensive and they usually extrude. The use of dermal-fat grafts minimises the hemi-facial hypoplasia. They usually grow with the face, and help to expand the orbital bones, thus avoiding the psychological and physical consequences. OBJECTIVE: To determine if there is hemi-facial hypoplasia, using MRI images after the use of a dermal-fat implant in patients enucleated for RB...
August 2, 2017: Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762344/assessment-of-fluoride-retention-in-jowar-consuming-population-a-cross-sectional-study
#8
G Dhanu, R Shiny, R Havale, S P Shrutha
INTRODUCTION: Dental fluorosis is considered as a serious public health problem in India. Water is usually the major source of fluoride exposure, but this is not the case always as exposure to local factors like diet can be important in some situations. Earlier studies have shown that jowar (a millet) consumption interacts with fluoride in the body and elevate fluorosis. AIM AND OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between jowar consumption and severity of dental fluorosis...
July 2017: Journal of the Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760484/pulsed-dose-rate-brachytherapy-for-pediatric-bladder-prostate-rhabdomyosarcoma-compliance-and-early-clinical-results
#9
Cyrus Chargari, Hélène Martelli, Florent Guérin, Warren Bacorro, Guénolée de Lambert, Alexandre Escande, Véronique Minard-Colin, Isabelle Dumas, Eric Deutsch, Christine Haie-Meder
OBJECTIVE: No data are available on the feasibility of pulsed dose rate (PDR) brachytherapy in very young children. Our experience of PDR brachytherapy for bladder prostate (BP) rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is reported, with focus on compliance and dosimetric parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Treatment parameters and outcome of consecutive BP RMS patients treated in our center were examined. Treatment was carried out as part of a multimodal conservative radio-surgical treatment...
July 28, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756967/the-self-defining-axis-of-symmetry-a-new-method-to-determine-optimal-symmetry-and-its-application-and-limitation-in-craniofacial-surgery
#10
Markus Martini, Anne Klausing, Martina Messing-Jünger, Guido Lüchters
PURPOSE: Analysis of symmetry represents an essential aspect of plastic-reconstructive surgery. For cases in which reference points are either not fixed or are changed due to corrective intervention the determination of a symmetry axis is sometimes almost impossible and a pre-defined symmetry axis would not always be helpful. To assess cranial shape of surgical patients with craniosynostosis, a new algebraic approach was chosen in which deviation from the optimal symmetry axis could be quantified...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749849/treatment-of-children-with-congenital-severe-blepharoptosis-by-frontalis-aponeurosis-flap-advancement-under-general-anesthesia-in-a-single-incision
#11
Jun Li, Chenbin Dong, XiangQi Liu, WeiJing He
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of frontalis aponeurosis flap advancement in children with congenital severe blepharoptosis. METHODS: A total of 23 cases (25 eyes) of children who had congenital severe blepharoptosis and poor levator function (≤4 mm) and received frontalis aponeurosis flap advancement treatment in the Plastic Surgery Department of the Children's Hospital of Fudan University from January 1, 2013, to January 1, 2015, were retrospectively analyzed to evaluate the postoperative effects...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735929/electrophysiological-and-microstructural-features-of-sleep-in%C3%A2-children%C3%A2-at-high-risk-for-depression-a-preliminary-study
#12
Gianluca Sesso, Flora Bat-Pitault, Aurore Guyon, Sabine Plancoulaine, Tommaso Banfi, Giulia Milioli, Liborio Parrino, Ugo Faraguna, Patricia Franco
OBJECTIVE: This preliminary study investigated electrophysiological and microstructural features of sleep in children and adolescents 4-18 years of age who were born to depressed mothers. METHODS: A total of 31 healthy subjects (15 male and 16 female) participated in the study. In this sample, 20 children born to mothers diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) were designated as "high-risk"; 11 children born to mothers without a personal history of depression were designated as "low-risk...
August 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735226/perinatal-fluoxetine-effects-on-social-play-the-hpa-system-and-hippocampal-plasticity-in-pre-adolescent-male-and-female-rats-interactions-with-pre-gestational-maternal-stress
#13
Mary Gemmel, Mariah Hazlett, Eszter Bögi, Sonsoles De Lacalle, Lesley A Hill, Nikolaos Kokras, Geoffrey L Hammond, Christina Dalla, Thierry D Charlier, Jodi L Pawluski
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications (SSRIs) are the first lines of treatment for maternal affective disorders, and are prescribed to up to 10% of pregnant women. Concern has been raised about how perinatal exposure to these medications affect offspring neurobehavioral outcomes, particularly those related to social interactions, as recent research has reported conflicting results related to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk in children prenatally exposed to SSRIs. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the effects of perinatal exposure to the SSRI fluoxetine on social play behaviors and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal system, using a model of pre-gestational maternal stress...
July 15, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728088/phthalate-and-non-phthalate-plasticizers-in-indoor-dust-from-childcare-facilities-salons-and-homes-across-the-usa
#14
Bikram Subedi, Kenneth D Sullivan, Birendra Dhungana
The quality of indoor environment has received considerable attention owing to the declining outdoor human activities and the associated public health issues. The prolonged exposure of children in childcare facilities or the occupational exposure of adults to indoor environmental triggers can be a culprit of the pathophysiology of several commonly observed idiopathic syndromes. In this study, concentrations of potentially toxic plasticizers (phthalates as well as non-phthalates) were investigated in 28 dust samples collected from three different indoor environments across the USA...
July 17, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724781/muscle-disuse-caused-by-botulinum-toxin-injection-leads-to-increased-central-gain-of-the-stretch-reflex-in-the-rat
#15
Jessica Pingel, Hans Hultborn, Lui Naslund-Koch, Dennis Bo Jensen, Jacob Wienecke, Jens Bo Nielsen
Botulinum toxin (Btx) is used in children with cerebral palsy and other neurological patients to diminish spasticity and reduce the risk of development of contractures. Here, we investigated changes in the central gain of the stretch reflex circuitry in response to botulinum toxin injection in the triceps surae muscle in rats. Experiments were performed in 21 rats. 8 rats were in a control group and 13 rats were injected with 6 IU of Btx in the left triceps surae muscle. Two weeks after Btx injection larger monosynaptic reflexes (MSR) were recorded from the left (injected) than the right (non-injected) L4 + L5 ventral roots following stimulation of the corresponding dorsal roots...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715518/early-accurate-diagnosis-and-early-intervention-in-cerebral-palsy-advances-in-diagnosis-and-treatment
#16
Iona Novak, Cathy Morgan, Lars Adde, James Blackman, Roslyn N Boyd, Janice Brunstrom-Hernandez, Giovanni Cioni, Diane Damiano, Johanna Darrah, Ann-Christin Eliasson, Linda S de Vries, Christa Einspieler, Michael Fahey, Darcy Fehlings, Donna M Ferriero, Linda Fetters, Simona Fiori, Hans Forssberg, Andrew M Gordon, Susan Greaves, Andrea Guzzetta, Mijna Hadders-Algra, Regina Harbourne, Angelina Kakooza-Mwesige, Petra Karlsson, Lena Krumlinde-Sundholm, Beatrice Latal, Alison Loughran-Fowlds, Nathalie Maitre, Sarah McIntyre, Garey Noritz, Lindsay Pennington, Domenico M Romeo, Roberta Shepherd, Alicia J Spittle, Marelle Thornton, Jane Valentine, Karen Walker, Robert White, Nadia Badawi
Importance: Cerebral palsy describes the most common physical disability in childhood and occurs in 1 in 500 live births. Historically, the diagnosis has been made between age 12 and 24 months but now can be made before 6 months' corrected age. Objectives: To systematically review best available evidence for early, accurate diagnosis of cerebral palsy and to summarize best available evidence about cerebral palsy-specific early intervention that should follow early diagnosis to optimize neuroplasticity and function...
July 17, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713039/efficacy-of-ankle-foot-orthoses-types-on-walking-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Atefeh Aboutorabi, Mokhtar Arazpour, Monireh Ahmadi Bani, Hassan Saeedi, John S Head
BACKGROUND: Ankle foot orthoses (AFOs) are orthotic devices that can be used to normalize the walking pattern of children with cerebral palsy (CP). One of the aims of orthotic management is to produce a more normal gait pattern by positioning joints in the proper position to reduce pathological reflex or spasticity. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review of the literature and establish the effect of treatment with various types of AFOs on gait patterns of children with CP...
July 13, 2017: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711809/assessing-the-impact-of-hazardous-waste-on-children-s-health-the-exposome-paradigm
#18
D A Sarigiannis
Assessment of the health impacts related to hazardous waste is a major scientific challenge with multiple societal implications. Most studies related to associations between hazardous waste and public health do not provide established of mechanistic links between environmental exposure and disease burden, resulting in ineffective waste management options. The exposome concept comes to overhaul the nature vs. nurture paradigm and embraces a world of dynamic interactions between environmental exposures, endogenous exposures and genetic expression in humans...
July 13, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707239/microplastic-pollution-in-deposited-urban-dust-tehran-metropolis-iran
#19
Sharareh Dehghani, Farid Moore, Razegheh Akhbarizadeh
Environmental pollutants such as microplastics have become a major concern over the last few decades. We investigated the presence, characteristics, and potential health risks of microplastic dust ingestion. The plastic load of 88 to 605 microplastics per 30 g dry dust with a dominance of black and yellow granule microplastics ranging in size from 250 to 500 μm was determined in 10 street dust samples using a binocular microscope. Fluorescence microscopy was found to be ineffective for detecting and counting plastic debris...
July 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704803/occurrence-and-fate-of-organophosphate-ester-flame-retardants-and-plasticizers-in-indoor-air-and-dust-of-nepal-implication-for-human-exposure
#20
Ishwar Chandra Yadav, Ningombam Linthoingambi Devi, Guangcai Zhong, Jun Li, Gan Zhang, Adrian Covaci
The present study was carried out in Nepal, a landlocked country located between world's two most populous countries i.e. India and China. In this study, the occurrence, profiles, spatial distributions and fate of eight organophosphate ester flame retardants (OPFRs) were investigated in indoor air and house dust. Overall, the concentrations of ∑OPFR were in the range of 153-12100 ng/g (median732 ng/g) and 0.32-64 ng/m(3) (median 5.2 ng/m(3)) in house dust and indoor air, respectively. The sources of high OPFR in the indoor environment could be from locally used wide variety of consumer products and building materials in Nepalese houses...
July 10, 2017: Environmental Pollution
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