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Plasticity in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029315/7-8-dihydroxyflavone-rescues-lead-induced-impairment-of-vesicular-release-a-novel-therapeutic-approach-for-lead-intoxicated-children
#1
Xiao-Lei Zhang, Jennifer L McGlothan, Omid Miry, Kirstie H Stansfield, Meredith K Loth, Patric K Stanton, Tomás R Guilarte
Childhood lead (Pb2+) intoxication is a public health problem of global proportion. Lead exposure during development produces multiple effects on the central nervous system including impaired synapse formation, altered synaptic plasticity, and learning deficits.In primary hippocampal neurons in culture and hippocampal slices, Pb2+ exposure inhibits vesicular release and reduces the number of fast-releasing sites, an effect associated with Pb2+ inhibition of NMDA receptor-mediated trans-synaptic Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) signaling...
October 4, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023993/pediatric-keloids-a-6-year-retrospective-review
#2
Afieharo I Michael, Samuel A Ademola, Olayinka A Olawoye, Ayodele O Iyun, Wasiu Adebayo, Odunayo M Oluwatosin
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Keloids are reportedly rare at the extremes of life. We sought to describe the epidemiology of pediatric keloids seen at the plastic surgery outpatient department of the University College Hospital, Ibadan. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all children younger than 19 years who presented with nonburn keloids between 2008 and 2014. Data were obtained on age; duration, size, and location of the keloid; family history; mode of treatment; and outcome...
October 11, 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019974/the-state-of-the-art-in-stem-cell-biology-regenerative-medicine-the-end-of-the-beginning
#3
REVIEW
Evan Y Snyder
With translational stem cell biology and Regenerative Medicine (the field to which it gave rise) now over a quarter century old, it is time to take stock of where we have been and where we are going. This editorial overview, which serves an introduction to a special issue of Pediatric Research dedicated to these fields, reinforces the notion that stem cells are ultimately intrinsic parts of developmental biology, for which Pediatrics represents the clinical face. While stem cells represent the cellular basis for a great deal of unrecognized plasticity programmed into the developing and post-developmental human, and while there is great promise in harnessing this plasticity for therapeutic advantage, their successful use rests on a deep understanding of their developmental imperatives and the developmental programs in which they engage...
October 11, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019760/mr-lymphangiography-in-children-technique-and-potential-applications
#4
Govind B Chavhan, Joao G Amaral, Michael Temple, Maxim Itkin
The lymphatic system, an important component of the circulatory system with essential physiologic functions, can be affected by various disease processes. There has been a delay in the development of effective imaging methods for the lymphatic system due to its small size, which limits visualization as well as introduction of contrast material. Traditionally, the lymphatic system has been imaged by injecting contrast material or radiotracers into the feet or hands. This is not sufficient for assessment of the central conducting lymphatics (CCLs) (such as the thoracic duct or the cisterna chyli)...
October 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979264/thymic-output-and-cd4-t-cell-reconstitution-in-hiv-infected-children-on-early-and-interrupted-antiretroviral-treatment-evidence-from-the-children-with-hiv-early-antiretroviral-therapy-trial
#5
Joanna Lewis, Helen Payne, A Sarah Walker, Kennedy Otwombe, Diana M Gibb, Abdel G Babiker, Ravindre Panchia, Mark F Cotton, Avy Violari, Nigel Klein, Robin E Callard
OBJECTIVES: Early treatment of HIV-infected children and adults is important for optimal immune reconstitution. Infants' immune systems are more plastic and dynamic than older children's or adults', and deserve particular attention. This study aimed to understand the response of the HIV-infected infant immune system to early antiretroviral therapy (ART) and planned ART interruption and restart. METHODS: Data from HIV-infected children enrolled the CHER trial, starting ART aged between 6 and 12 weeks, were used to explore the effect of ART on immune reconstitution...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969190/groin-flap-in-paediatric-age-group-to-salvage-hand-after-electric-contact-burn-challenges-and-experience
#6
Pradeep Gupta, Rakesh Singh Tawar, Manohar Malviya
INTRODUCTION: Electric contact burn is characterised by multiple wounds produced by entrance and exit of the current. Hand is most commonly involved in the same and children are particularly susceptible to such accidents. AIM: To document effectiveness and challenges associated with the use of groin flap as an initial definitive treatment of electric contact burn in paediatric age group. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 2015 to December 2016, 25 children up to 12 years of age, who were admitted at SMS Medical College, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India, after electric burn injury with hand defect and who were treated by pedicled groin flap at the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, were included in the study...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958737/changes-in-spectroscopic-biomarkers-after-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-in-children-with-perinatal-stroke
#7
Helen L Carlson, Patrick Ciechanski, Ashley D Harris, Frank P MacMaster, Adam Kirton
BACKGROUND: Perinatal stroke causes lifelong motor disability, affecting independence and quality of life. Non-invasive neuromodulation interventions such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) combined with intensive therapy may improve motor function in adult stroke hemiparesis but is under-explored in children. Measuring cortical metabolites with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can inform cortical neurobiology in perinatal stroke but how these change with neuromodulation is yet to be explored...
September 13, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946055/dehydroepiandrosterone-impacts-working-memory-by-shaping-cortico-hippocampal-structural-covariance-during-development
#8
Tuong-Vi Nguyen, Mia Wu, Jimin Lew, Matthew D Albaugh, Kelly N Botteron, James J Hudziak, Vladimir S Fonov, D Louis Collins, Benjamin C Campbell, Linda Booij, Catherine Herba, Patricia Monnier, Simon Ducharme, James T McCracken
Existing studies suggest that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) may be important for human brain development and cognition. For example, molecular studies have hinted at the critical role of DHEA in enhancing brain plasticity. Studies of human brain development also support the notion that DHEA is involved in preserving cortical plasticity. Further, some, though not all, studies show that DHEA administration may lead to improvements in working memory in adults. Yet these findings remain limited by an incomplete understanding of the specific neuroanatomical mechanisms through which DHEA may impact the CNS during development...
September 15, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944414/the-spectrum-of-skin-biopsies-and-excisions-in-a-pediatric-skin-center
#9
Martin Theiler, Kathrin Neuhaus, Katrin Kerl, Lisa Weibel
Little is known about the spectrum of pediatric skin disorders requiring biopsy/excision, their indication, impact on further management, and the accuracy of clinical diagnosis. We aimed to address these questions in the patient population seen at our Swiss University referral center for Pediatric Dermatology and Plastic Surgery. All skin biopsies/excisions performed in patients aged ≤ 16 years over a period of 2 years were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 506 samples were included. The majority of biopsies/excisions (n = 413, 82%) was performed for tumors, cysts, and hamartomas and 18% for other skin conditions...
September 25, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939618/an-airway-traffic-jam-a-plastic-traffic-cone-masquerading-as-bronchial-carcinoma
#10
Nicholas Denny, Usman Maqsood, Stephen Fowler, Mohammed Munavvar
Tracheobronchial foreign body (TFB) aspiration is a common occurrence in children compared with adults. Long-standing cases of TFB aspiration during childhood presenting in an adult have rarely been reported. We report the unique case of an endobronchial Playmobil traffic cone that went undetected for 40 years and presented as a suspected bronchogenic carcinoma. This was subsequently removed successfully with flexible bronchoscopy. To our knowledge this is the first case of a TFB that was overlooked this length of time...
September 21, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919088/resilience-in-mathematics-after-early-brain-injury-the-roles-of-parental-input-and-early-plasticity
#11
Dana E Glenn, Özlem Ece Demir-Lira, Dominic J Gibson, Eliza L Congdon, Susan C Levine
Children with early focal unilateral brain injury show remarkable plasticity in language development. However, little is known about how early brain injury influences mathematical learning. Here, we examine early number understanding, comparing cardinal number knowledge of typically developing children (TD) and children with pre- and perinatal lesions (BI) between 42 and 50 months of age. We also examine how this knowledge relates to the number words children hear from their primary caregivers early in life...
July 24, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918339/interference-of-dibutylphthalate-on-human-prostate-cell-viability
#12
Mariana Di Lorenzo, Maurizio Forte, Salvatore Valiante, Vincenza Laforgia, Maria De Falco
Dibutylphthalate (DBP) is an environmental pollutant widely used as plasticizer in a variety of industrial applications worldwide. This agent can be found in personal-care products, children's toy, pharmaceuticals, food products. Exposure to DBP can occur via ingestion and inhalation as well as intravenous or skin contact. DBP belongs to the family of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and its effects on reproductive system were demonstrated both in vivo and in vitro. In the present study we evaluated the effects of DBP on human prostate adenocarcinoma epithelial cells (LNCaP) in order to highlight xenoestrogens influence on human prostate...
September 14, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912059/piracetam-inhibits-ethanol-etoh-induced-memory-deficit-by-mediating-multiple-pathways
#13
Yifan Yang, Jian Feng, Fangyuan Xu, Jianglin Wang
Excessive ethanol (EtOH) intake, especially to prenatal exposure, can significantly affect cognitive function and cause permanent learning and memory injures in children. As a result, how to protect children from EtOH neurotoxicity has gained increasing attention in recent years. Piracetam (Pir) is a nootropic drug derived from c-aminobutyric acid and can manage cognition impairments in multiple neurological disorders. Studies have shown that Pir can exert therapeutic effects on EtOH-induced memory impairments, but the underlying mechanism is still unknown...
September 11, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904337/toxoplasma-modulates-signature-pathways-of-human-epilepsy-neurodegeneration-cancer
#14
Huân M Ngô, Ying Zhou, Hernan Lorenzi, Kai Wang, Taek-Kyun Kim, Yong Zhou, Kamal El Bissati, Ernest Mui, Laura Fraczek, Seesandra V Rajagopala, Craig W Roberts, Fiona L Henriquez, Alexandre Montpetit, Jenefer M Blackwell, Sarra E Jamieson, Kelsey Wheeler, Ian J Begeman, Carlos Naranjo-Galvis, Ney Alliey-Rodriguez, Roderick G Davis, Liliana Soroceanu, Charles Cobbs, Dennis A Steindler, Kenneth Boyer, A Gwendolyn Noble, Charles N Swisher, Peter T Heydemann, Peter Rabiah, Shawn Withers, Patricia Soteropoulos, Leroy Hood, Rima McLeod
One third of humans are infected lifelong with the brain-dwelling, protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. Approximately fifteen million of these have congenital toxoplasmosis. Although neurobehavioral disease is associated with seropositivity, causality is unproven. To better understand what this parasite does to human brains, we performed a comprehensive systems analysis of the infected brain: We identified susceptibility genes for congenital toxoplasmosis in our cohort of infected humans and found these genes are expressed in human brain...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902248/facial-profile-esthetics-in-operated-children-with-bilateral-cleft-lip-and-palate
#15
Rita de Cássia Moura Carvalho Lauris, Leopoldino Capelozza, Louise Resti Calil, José Roberto Pereira Lauris, Guilherme Janson, Daniela Gamba Garib
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the facial profile esthetics of rehabilitated children with complete bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP), comparing the judgment of professionals related and not related to cleft rehabilitation and laypersons. Methods: Thirty children in the mixed dentition (24 male; 6 female) with a mean age of 7.8 years were evaluated using facial profile photographs by 25 examiners: 5 orthodontists and 5 plastic surgeons with experience in cleft care, 5 orthodontists and 5 plastic surgeons without experience in oral cleft rehabilitation and 5 graduated laymen...
July 2017: Dental Press Journal of Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901367/effects-of-developmental-arsenite-exposure-on-hippocampal-synapses-in-mouse-offspring
#16
Fenghong Zhao, Yingjun Liao, Hongge Tang, Jie Piao, Gaoyang Wang, Yaping Jin
Arsenic exposure through drinking water can impair the learning and memory ability of children in China and other countries. Synaptic plasticity plays a key role in the process of learning and memory. Alterations in the expression of presynaptic and postsynaptic proteins can be used to evaluate synaptic plasticity, and further to evaluate impairment in learning and memory ability. Thereby, the aim of this study was to explore the mechanisms underlying arsenic neurotoxicity by focusing on alterations in the hippocampal synapses of mouse offspring induced by developmental arsenite exposure...
September 13, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900415/perinatal-western-diet-consumption-leads-to-profound-plasticity-and-gabaergic-phenotype-changes-within-hypothalamus-and-reward-pathway-from-birth-to-sexual-maturity-in-rat
#17
Julie Paradis, Pierre Boureau, Thomas Moyon, Sophie Nicklaus, Patricia Parnet, Vincent Paillé
Perinatal maternal consumption of energy dense food increases the risk of obesity in children. This is associated with an overconsumption of palatable food that is consumed for its hedonic property. The underlying mechanism that links perinatal maternal diet and offspring preference for fat is still poorly understood. In this study, we aim at studying the influence of maternal high-fat/high-sugar diet feeding [western diet (WD)] during gestation and lactation on the reward pathways controlling feeding in the rat offspring from birth to sexual maturity...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891963/the-effect-of-bisphenol-a-on-puberty-a-critical-review-of-the-medical-literature
#18
REVIEW
Alberto Leonardi, Marta Cofini, Donato Rigante, Laura Lucchetti, Clelia Cipolla, Laura Penta, Susanna Esposito
Many scientific studies have revealed a trend towards an earlier onset of puberty and have disclosed an increasing number of children that display precocious puberty. As an explanation, some authors have considered the global socio-economic improvement across different populations, and other authors have considered the action of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Among these, bisphenol A (BPA), an aromatic compound largely used worldwide as a precursor of some plastics and chemical additives, is well known for its molecular oestrogen-like and obesogenic actions...
September 10, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890130/effects-of-perinatal-bisphenol-a-exposure-on-the-volume-of-sexually-dimorphic-nuclei-of-juvenile-rats-a-clarity-bpa-consortium-study
#19
Sheryl E Arambula, Joelle Fuchs, Jinyan Cao, Heather B Patisaul
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high volume endocrine disrupting chemical found in a wide variety of products including plastics and epoxy resins. Human exposure is nearly ubiquitous, and higher in children than adults. Because BPA has been reported to interfere with sex steroid hormone signaling, there is concern that developmental exposure, even at levels below the current FDA No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) of 5mg/kg body weight (bw)/day, can disrupt brain sexual differentiation. The current studies were conducted as part of the CLARITY-BPA (Consortium Linking Academic and Regulatory Insights on BPA Toxicity) program and tested the hypothesis that perinatal BPA exposure would induce morphological changes in hormone sensitive, sexually dimorphic brain regions...
September 7, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888583/food-and-drug-administration-warning-on-anesthesia-and-brain-development-implications-for-obstetric-and-fetal-surgery
#20
Olutoyin A Olutoye, Byron Wycke Baker, Michael A Belfort, Oluyinka O Olutoye
There has been growing concern about the detrimental effects of certain anesthetic agents on the developing brain. Preclinical studies in small animal models as well as nonhuman primates suggested loss or death of brain cells and consequent impaired neurocognitive function following anesthetic exposure in neonates and late gestation fetuses. Human studies in this area are limited and currently inconclusive. On Dec. 14, 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration issued a warning regarding impaired brain development in children following exposure to certain anesthetic agents used for general anesthesia, namely the inhalational anesthetics isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane, and the intravenous agents propofol and midazolam, in the third trimester of pregnancy...
September 6, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
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