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Plasticity in children

A Rafik, M Lahlou, M Diouri, N Bahechar, A Chlihi
Hand burns in children are common and may lead to debilitating sequelae. Therefore, full functional restoration of the hand is the goal of treatment. To assess the epidemiological, clinical and development aspects of the burns, we conducted a retrospective study over 4 years, from January 2011 to January 2015. It evaluated 313 children suffering from burns and treated at the National Burn and Plastic Surgery Unit of Ibn Richd Teaching Hospital in Casablanca. Most patients were aged 3-6 years (70%), with a slight male predominance...
December 31, 2015: Annals of Burns and Fire Disasters
Marybeth Grant-Beuttler, Jenifer Jennings, Christina McCauley, Robert Dulay, Katlyn Grossnickle, Kerri Kill, John Hay
PURPOSE: To develop an electronic version of the Children's Self-Perceptions of Adequacy in and Predilection for Physical Activity (eCSAPPA), which would allow individual administration to children younger than nine years of age. METHODS: Fifty-four, four - nine-year-old children completed the eCSAPPA and the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2). Parental measures of physical activity, and body mass index were obtained. Twenty-one participants additionally completed the paper version of the CSAPPA...
October 21, 2016: Pediatric Exercise Science
Peter A Lioufas, Michelle R Quayle, James C Leong, Paul G McMenamin
: To explore the potential viability and limitations of 3D printed models of children with cleft palate deformity. BACKGROUND: The advantages of 3D printed replicas of normal anatomical specimens have previously been described. The creation of 3D prints displaying patient-specific anatomical pathology for surgical planning and interventions is an emerging field. Here we explored the possibility of taking rare pediatric radiographic data sets to create 3D prints for surgical education...
September 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Natália de Almeida Carvalho Duarte, Luanda André Collange Grecco, Nelci Zanon, Manuela Galli, Felipe Fregni, Claudia Santos Oliveira
A review of the literature was performed to answer the following questions: Does motor cortex excitability correlate with motor function? Do motor cortex excitability and cortex activation change after a rehabilitation program that results in improvements in motor outcomes? Can the 10-20 electroencephalography (EEG) system be used to locate the primary motor cortex when employing transcranial direct current stimulation? Is there a bihemispheric imbalance in individuals with cerebral palsy similar to what is observed in stroke survivors? the authors found there is an adaptation in the geometry of motor areas and the cortical representation of movement is variable following a brain lesion...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Meng Liao, Haoxing Zhao, Longqian Liu, Qian Li, Yun Dai, Yudong Zhang, Yifeng Zhou
Perceptual learning is considered a potential treatment for amblyopia even in adult patients who have progressed beyond the critical period of visual development because adult amblyopes retain sufficient visual plasticity. When perceptual learning is performed with the correction of high-order aberrations (HOAs), a greater degree of neural plasticity is present in normal adults and those with highly aberrated keratoconic eyes. Because amblyopic eyes show more severe HOAs than normal eyes, it is interesting to study the effects of HOA-corrected visual perceptual learning in amblyopia...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Kate Hoffman, Amelia Lorenzo, Craig M Butt, Linda Adair, Amy H Herring, Heather M Stapleton, Julie L Daniels
BACKGROUND: Organophosphate compounds are commonly used in residential furniture, electronics, and baby products as flame retardants and are also used in other consumer products as plasticizers. Although the levels of exposure biomarkers are generally higher among children and decrease with age, relatively little is known about the individual characteristics associated with higher levels of exposure. Here, we investigate urinary metabolites of several organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) in a cohort of pregnant women to evaluate patterns of exposure...
October 13, 2016: Environment International
Victoria C Johnson, Katie R Kryski, Haroon I Sheikh, Heather J Smith, Shiva M Singh, Elizabeth P Hayden
Persistently elevated behavioral inhibition (BI) in children is a marker of vulnerability to psychopathology. However, little research has considered the joint influences of caregiver and child factors that may moderate the continuity of BI in early childhood, particularly genetic variants that may serve as markers of biological plasticity, such as the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR). We explored this issue in 371 preschoolers and their caregivers, examining whether parent characteristics (i...
November 2016: Development and Psychopathology
Simin Soleimanifar, Zahra Jafari, Masoud Motasaddi Zarandy, Houman Asadi, Hamid Haghani
INTRODUCTION: Children with cochlear implants (CIs) may experience few opportunities for positive musical experiences, and musical perception is therefore often not sufficiently developed. This paper investigates and discusses the relationship between intelligence quotient (IQ) and musical ability in children with CIs compared with children with normal hearing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a comparative analytical study conducted in 48 children with unilateral CI and 48 normal-hearing children, 6-8 years of age, with 'normal' IQ and no formal music training...
September 2016: Iranian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
Volker Ressel, Ruth O'Gorman Tuura, Ianina Scheer, Hubertus J A van Hedel
BACKGROUND: Rehabilitation in children with acquired brain injury is a challenging endeavour. There is a large variability in motor recovery between patients, and a need to optimize therapies by exploiting cerebral plasticity and recovery mechanisms. This retrospective study aims to identify tract-based markers that could serve as predictors of functional outcome following rehabilitation. METHODS: Twenty-nine children with traumatic brain injury (n = 14) or stroke (n = 15) underwent a 3 T Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) measurement, including Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) between admission to the Hospital and onset of rehabilitation therapy at the Rehabilitation Centre...
October 12, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Robert D Levitan, Pauline Jansen, Barbara Wendland, Henning Tiemeier, Vincent W Jaddoe, Patricia P Silveira, James L Kennedy, Leslie Atkinson, Alison Fleming, Marla Sokolowski, Helene Gaudreau, Meir Steiner, Laurette Dubé, Jill Hamilton, Ellen Moss, Ashley Wazana, Michael Meaney
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that early exposure to low maternal sensitivity is a risk factor for obesity in children and adolescents. A separate line of study shows that the seven-repeat (7R) allele of the dopamine-4 receptor gene (DRD4) increases susceptibility to environmental factors including maternal sensitivity. The current study integrates these lines of work by examining whether preschoolers carrying the 7R allele are more vulnerable to low maternal sensitivity as it relates to overweight/obesity risk...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Yair Shachar, Allan Billig, Katya Chapchay, Jhonatan Elia, Neta Adler, Alexander Margulis
BACKGROUND: Large congenital melanocytic nevi entail significant medical and cosmetic ramifications for patients and families. Reconstruction is a challenging endeavor, especially when the lesion is present on the limbs. The literature describes various methods by which a plastic surgeon can address reconstruction; yet, to date, there has been no series describing a method that provides consistent results with low complication rates. In this study, we describe our surgical technique for reconstruction of the upper extremity after excision of large circumferential CNM with a pre-expanded bi-pedicled flap, namely the "sleeve" flap...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
Ishfaq A Sheikh, Muhammad Yasir, Muhammad Abu-Elmagd, Tanveer A Dar, Adel M Abuzenadah, Ghazi A Damanhouri, Mohammed Al-Qahtani, Mohd A Beg
BACKGROUND: Currently, alternate plasticizers are used to replace phthalate plasticizers in children's toys, medical equipments and food packaging, due to the adverse effects of phthalate compounds on human health and laws prohibiting their use. Current information regarding the safety and potential adverse effects of alternate plasticizers is limited and recent studies have found alternate plasticizers to display similar characteristics to those observed in phthalate plasticizers. This study was undertaken to evaluate and predict the potential endocrine disrupting activity of the three most commonly used alternate plasticizers: di(2-ethylhexyl)terephthalate (DEHT), tris(2-ethylhexyl)trimellitate (TOTM), and diisononyl hexahydrophthalate (DINCH) against human sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) using in silico approaches...
September 30, 2016: BMC Structural Biology
Yufeng Miao, Runhuai Wang, Chan Lu, Jinping Zhao, Qihong Deng
The plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is ubiquitous in the environment and considered as carcinogen; however, the carcinogenic risk of human exposure to DEHP in the air via inhalation is lacking. A probabilistic incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) model was implemented to quantitatively estimate the potential cancer risk of DEHP via human inhalation by using Monte Carlo simulation. We assessed the cancer risk in different age groups (children, adolescents, and adults) exposed to different DEHP concentrations (background low, indoor moderate, and occupational high) for different durations (2, 8, and 20 years)...
October 7, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Michelle A Schafman, Yun-Seok Kang, Kevin Moorhouse, Susan E White, John H Bolte, Amanda M Agnew
Thoracic injuries from motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) are common in children and the elderly and are associated with a high rate of mortality for both groups. Rib fractures, in particular, are linked to high mortality rates which increase with the number of fractures sustained. Anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) and computational models have been developed to improve vehicle safety, however these tools are constructed based on limited physical datasets. To-date, no study has explored variation of rib structural properties across the entire age spectrum with data obtained using the same experimental methodology to allow for comparison...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
Angelina Paolozza, Douglas P Munoz, Donald Brien, James N Reynolds
BACKGROUND: Saccades are rapid eye movements that bring an image of interest onto the retina. Previous research has found that in healthy individuals performing eye movement tasks, the location of a previous visual target can influence performance of the saccade on the next trial. This rapid behavioral adaptation represents a form of immediate neural plasticity within the saccadic circuitry. Our studies have shown that children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) are impaired on multiple saccade measures...
September 22, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Penha Cristina Barradas, Tiago Savignon, Alex C Manhães, Frank Tenório, Alan P da Costa, Marta C Cunha-Rodrigues, Juliana Vaillant
Hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury is an important cause of death and disabilities. Despite all improvements in neonatal care, the number of children who suffer some kind of injury during birth has remained stable in the last decade. A great number of studies have shown alterations in neural cells and many animal models have been proposed in the last 5 decades. Robinson et al. (2005) proposed an HI model in which the uterine arteries are temporarily clamped on the 18th gestation day. The findings were quite similar to the ones observed in postmortem studies...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Natashia M Seemann, Sebastian K King, Abdul Elkadri, Thomas Walters, Joel Fish, Jacob C Langer
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Perianal Crohn's disease (PCD) can affect both quality of life and psychological wellbeing. A subset of pediatric patients with complex PCD require surgical intervention, although appropriate timing and treatment regimens remain unclear. This study aimed to describe a large pediatric cohort in a tertiary center to determine the range of surgical management in children with complex PCD. METHODS: A retrospective review of children requiring operative intervention for PCD over 13 years (2002-2014) was performed...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
G Magalon
In this document, Pr Guy Magalon presents a reflection on the plastic pediatric surgery drawn from 30 years of surgical practice. His thinking is supported by several examples of plastic surgery results from children reviewed in adulthood. These cases highlight the evolution of surgical practices and the need for continuing education for surgeons to adapt to technical progress. Professor Magalon honors his masters and shares his personal vision of the principles of pediatric plastic surgery.
October 2016: Annales de Chirurgie Plastique et Esthétique
Yuwei Zhou, Uygar Teomete, Ozgur Dandin, Onur Osman, Taner Dandinoglu, Ulas Bagci, Weizhao Zhao
Bowing fractures are incomplete fractures of tubular long bones, often observed in pediatric patients, where plain radiographic film is the non-invasive imaging modality of choice in routine radiological workflow. Due to weak association between bent bone and distinct cortex disruption, bowing fractures may not be diagnosed properly while reading plain radiography. Missed fractures and dislocations are common in accidents and emergency practice, particularly in children. These missed injuries can result in more complicated treatment or even long-term disability...
September 17, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Cheryl Clarkson, Flora M Antunes, Maria E Rubio
UNLABELLED: Sound deprivation by conductive hearing loss increases hearing thresholds, but little is known about the response of the auditory brainstem during and after conductive hearing loss. Here, we show in young adult rats that 10 d of monaural conductive hearing loss (i.e., earplugging) leads to hearing deficits that persist after sound levels are restored. Hearing thresholds in response to clicks and frequencies higher than 8 kHz remain increased after a 10 d recovery period. Neural output from the cochlear nucleus measured at 10 dB above threshold is reduced and followed by an overcompensation at the level of the lateral lemniscus...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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