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Plasticity in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447879/parental-preferences-for-the-first-consultation-for-microtia
#1
Claire V A van Hövell Tot Westerflier, Inge Stegeman, Marvick S M Muradin, Adriana L Smit, Corstiaan C Breugem
OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to investigate subjective information concerning parental experiences and preferences with regard to the initial information that is provided right after the birth of a child with microtia. The analysis of these data is intended to help professionals improve the way in which such conversations are conducted. As a result, future parents may feel better informed and, hence, better fit to cope with challenges they may encounter having a child with microtia...
March 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447794/plasticity-after-pediatric-cochlear-implantation-implication-from-changes-in-peripheral-plasma-level-of-bdnf-and-auditory-nerve-responses
#2
Razieh Alemi, Masoud Motassadi Zarandy, Mohammad Taghi Joghataei, Ali Eftekharian, Mohammad Reza Zarrindast, Nasim Vousooghi
INTRODUCTION: Sensory neural hearing loss could lead to some structural and physiological changes in the auditory pathways, such as alteration in the expression of neurotrophins. These factors, especially Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), play an important role in synaptic functions and experience-related plasticity. Restoring cochlear function after hearing loss is possible through cochlear implantation (CI). Evaluation of the blood concentration changes of neurotrophins as prerequisites of plasticity could help scientists to determine the prognosis of CI as in the candidacy procedure or enhancing prosthesis function by adding the exact needed amount of BDNF to the electrode array...
February 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441827/urinary-bisphenol-a-concentrations-in-relation-to-asthma-in-a-sample-of-egyptian-children
#3
M M Youssef, Ems El-Din, M M AbuShady, N R El-Baroudy, T A Abd El Hamid, A F Armaneus, A S El Refay, J Hussein, D Medhat, Y A Latif
BACKGROUND: Bronchial asthma is one of the top disabling diseases in pediatrics. Limited research has been studied the association of the widely used plastic monomer bisphenol A (BPA) with childhood asthma. OBJECTIVE: To compare the levels of urinary BPA in asthmatic and control children and to investigate the implication of BPA among other risk factors for the development of asthma. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This case-control study included 97 children (45 asthmatic and 52 healthy controls) aged 3-8 years...
January 1, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438595/effects-of-early-alcohol-exposure-on-functional-organization-and-microstructure-of-a-visual-tactile-integrative-circuit
#4
Shiyu Tang, Su Xu, Rao P Gullapalli, Alexandre E Medina
BACKGROUND: Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) often have deficits associated with multisensory processing. Because ethanol disrupts activity-dependent neuronal plasticity, a process that is essential for refining connections during cortical development, we hypothesize that early alcohol exposure results in alterations in multisensory cortical networks, which could explain the multisensory processing deficits seen in FASD. Here, we use a gyrencephalic animal model to test the prediction that early alcohol exposure alters the functional connectivity and microstructural features of the rostral posterior parietal cortex (PPr), a visual-tactile integrative area...
February 13, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437246/early-movement-restriction-leads-to-enduring-disorders-in-muscle-and-locomotion
#5
Maxime Delcour, Vicky S Massicotte, Michaël Russier, Hélène Bras, Julie Peyronnet, Marie-Hélène Canu, Florence Cayetanot, Mary F Barbe, Jacques-Olivier Coq
Motor control and body representation in the central nervous system (CNS) as well as musculoskeletal architecture and physiology are shaped during development by sensorimotor experience and feedback, but the emergence of locomotor disorders during maturation and their persistence over time remain a matter of debate in the absence of brain damage. By using transient immobilization of the hind limbs, we investigated the enduring impact of postnatal sensorimotor restriction (SMR) on gait and posture on treadmill, age-related changes in locomotion, musculoskeletal histopathology and Hoffmann reflex in adult rats without brain damage...
February 13, 2018: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435977/characterization-of-mesenchymal-stem-stromal-cells-with-lymphoid-tissue-organizer-cell-potential-in-tonsils-from-children
#6
Alejandro Prados, Raquel Muñoz-Fernández, Pablo Fernandez-Rubio, Enrique G Olivares
Lymphoid tissue organizer (LTo) cells, identified in mouse and human embryos, are thought to be precursors of stromal cells in secondary lymphoid organs. Whether LTo cells are present in human adults, however remains unknown. We obtained 15 stromal cell lines from tonsils from children who underwent tonsillectomy, and studied the antigen phenotype of these tonsil stromal cell (TSC) lines by flow cytometry and RT-PCR. Cell lines met the minimal criteria proposed by the International Society for Cellular Therapy to define human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs): plastic-adherent capacity; expression of CD73, CD90 and CD105, lack of CD45, CD19 and HLA-DR; and capacity to differentiate into adipocytes, osteoblasts and chondrocytes...
February 12, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433792/clinical-characteristics-of-influenza-virus-induced-lower-respiratory-infection-during-the-2015-to-2016-season
#7
Kazuhiro Uda, Kensuke Shoji, Chitose Koyama-Wakai, Munehiro Furuichi, Noriyasu Iwase, Seiichiro Fujisaki, Shinji Watanabe, Isao Miyairi
BACKGROUND: Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infections often manifest severe respiratory symptoms, particularly in patients with a past history of allergic disease. Most of these findings were reported during the 2009 pandemic. The purpose of this study was to detail the clinical characteristics of influenza virus-induced lower respiratory infection (LRI) during the A(H1N1)pdm09-predominant 2015-2016 season. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical characteristics of influenza-induced LRI cases in children admitted to a tertiary children's hospital...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433011/cling-film-plastic-wrap-an-innovation-for-dead-body-packaging-preservation-and-transportation-by-first-responders-as-a-replacement-for-cadaver-body-bag-in-large-scale-disasters
#8
Lay See Khoo, Poh Soon Lai, Mohd Hilmi Saidin, Zahari Noor, Mohd Shah Mahmood
Cadaver body bags are the conventional method to contain a human body or human remains, which includes the use for storage and transportation of the deceased at any crime scene or disaster scene. During disasters, most often than not, the first responders including the police will be equipped with cadaver body bags to do scene processing of human remains and collection of personal belongings at the disaster site. However, in an unanticipated large scale disasters involving hundreds and thousands of fatalities, cadaver body bags supplies may be scarce...
February 9, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428822/intranasal-bdnf-administration-promotes-visual-function-recovery-in-adult-amblyopic-rats
#9
REVIEW
Gabriele Sansevero, Laura Baroncelli, Manuela Scali, Alessandro Sale
Amblyopia is the most common cause of visual impairment in one eye, with a prevalence of 1-5% in the world population. While amblyopia can be efficiently treated in children, it becomes irreversible in adults, due to the decline in neural plasticity past the end of the visual cortex critical period. Accordingly, no pharmacological approaches are available to rescue visual functions in adult amblyopic subjects. We report that non-invasive intranasal infusion of BDNF increased levels of this neurotrophic factor in V1 and induced a recovery of visual acuity, ocular dominance and visual depth perception in adult amblyopic rats, both in reverse-occluded animals and in those with unrestricted binocular sight...
February 8, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427282/neonatal-exposure-to-low-dose-1-2-sevoflurane-increases-rats-hippocampal-neurogenesis-and-synaptic-plasticity-in-later-life
#10
Xi Chen, Xue Zhou, Lu Yang, Xu Miao, Di-Han Lu, Xiao-Yu Yang, Zhi-Bin Zhou, Wen-Bin Kang, Ke-Yu Chen, Li-Hua Zhou, Xia Feng
The increasing usage of general anesthetics on young children and infants has drawn extensive attention to the effects of these drugs on cognitive function later in life. Recent animal studies have revealed improvement in hippocampus-dependent performance after lower concentrations of sevoflurane exposure. However, the long-term effects of low-dose sevoflurane on the developing brain remain elusive. On postnatal day (P) 7, rats were treated with 1.2% sevoflurane (1.2% sevo group), 2.4% sevoflurane (2.4% sevo group), and air control (C group) for 6 h...
February 9, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417007/practices-and-attitudinal-behavior-about-drinking-water-in-an-urban-slum-of-district-rohtak-haryana-a-community-based-study
#11
Ramesh Verma, Avneet Singh, Abhas Khurana, Pragya Dixit, Ranvir Singh
Background: Globally, approximately, one billion people lack access to safe drinking water and 1.59 million deaths per year are because of contaminated water, primarily in children age <5 years. WHO reported that more than 90% of diarrhea cases can be prevented by enhancing the availability of clean water and improving hygiene measures. Methodology: The study was conducted in an urban slum of Rohtak district. Investigator interviewed the mothers at their home having children age less than 5 years using study tools in their vernacular language...
July 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414596/the-different-distribution-of-enzymatic-collagen-cross-links-found-in-adult-and-children-bone-result-in-different-mechanical-behavior-of-collagen
#12
Baptiste Depalle, Andre G Duarte, Imke A K Fiedler, Laurent Pujo-Menjouet, Markus J Buehler, Jean-Philippe Berteau
Enzymatic collagen cross-linking has been shown to play an important role in the macroscopic elastic and plastic deformation of bone across ages. However, its direct contribution to collagen fibril deformation is unknown. The aim of this study is to determine how covalent intermolecular connections from enzymatic collagen cross-links contribute to collagen fibril elastic and plastic deformation of adults and children's bone matrix. We used ex vivo data previously obtained from biochemical analysis of children and adults bone samples (n = 14; n = 8, respectively) to create 22 sample-specific computational models of cross-linked collagen fibrils...
February 1, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403132/can-plasticity-transform-functions-in-neurodegeneration-in-children-as-well-as-adults-an-observational-study
#13
Sadanandavalli Retnaswami Chandra, Safwan Ahamed, Chandra Sasitharan Vidhya Annapoorni
Introduction: Creativity is a physiological need based biological function very essential for survival. However, generally in disorders of progressive cognitive dysfunction creative skills are lost. However there are situations where these potentials are temporarily enhanced. Patients and Methods: We did an observational study of children and adults, 5 adults and 2 childrens, who showed extraordinary creativity evaluated based on evidence shown by patient, peers and re produced in test situation...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391132/neonatal-ethanol-and-choline-treatments-alter-the-morphology-of-developing-rat-hippocampal-pyramidal-neurons-in-opposite-directions
#14
C M Goeke, M L Roberts, J G Hashimoto, D A Finn, M Guizzetti
Some of the neurobehavioral deficits identified in children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs) have been recapitulated in a binge model of gestational third trimester-equivalent ethanol (EtOH) exposure, in which Sprague-Dawley rats are intragastrically intubated between post-natal day (PD) 4 and PD9 with high doses of EtOH. In this model, the ameliorating effects of choline (Chol) administration on hippocampus-dependent behaviors altered by EtOH have also been extensively documented. In the present study, we investigated the effects of EtOH (5 g/kg/day) and/or Chol (100 mg/kg/day) on morphometric parameters of CA1 pyramidal neurons by Golgi-Cox staining followed by Neurolucida tracing and analysis...
January 29, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371895/computerized-auditory-training-in-students-electrophysiological-and-subjective-analysis-of-therapeutic-effectiveness
#15
Ândrea de Melo, Carolina Lisbôa Mezzomo, Michele Vargas Garcia, Eliara Pinto Vieira Biaggio
Introduction  Computerized auditory training (CAT) has been building a good reputation in the stimulation of auditory abilities in cases of auditory processing disorder (APD). Objective  To measure the effects of CAT in students with APD, with typical or atypical phonological acquisition, through electrophysiological and subjective measures, correlating them pre- and post-therapy. Methods  The sample for this study includes14 children with APD, subdivided into children with APD and typical phonological acquisition (G1), and children with APD and atypical phonological acquisition (G2)...
January 2018: International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29365026/association-of-heritable-cognitive-ability-and-psychopathology-with-white-matter-properties-in-children-and-adolescents
#16
Dag Alnæs, Tobias Kaufmann, Nhat Trung Doan, Aldo Córdova-Palomera, Yunpeng Wang, Francesco Bettella, Torgeir Moberget, Ole A Andreassen, Lars T Westlye
Importance: Many mental disorders emerge during adolescence, which may reflect a cost of the potential for brain plasticity offered during this period. Brain dysconnectivity has been proposed as a common factor across diagnostic categories. Objective: To investigate the hypothesis that brain dysconnectivity is a transdiagnostic phenotype in adolescence with increased susceptibility and symptoms of psychiatric disease. Design, Setting, and Participants: We investigated clinical symptoms as well as cognitive function in 6487 individuals aged 8 to 21 years from November 1, 2009, to November 30, 2011, in the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort and analyzed diffusion magnetic resonance imaging brain scans for 748 of the participants...
January 24, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359236/role-of-plastics-on-human-health
#17
Pramod Kumar
Plastics, currently the universal workhorse materials of modern economy, because of their low cost and varied functional properties are posing serious threat to environment and consumer's health in many direct and indirect ways. Rising concern about the impact of plastics on environment and human health, has forced the industry to look for alternatives. This review studies current understanding of benefits and concerns surrounding use of plastics, reviews literature about health effects in humans and discusses the current state of evidence, as well as future research trends...
January 23, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351027/custom-made-palatal-shield-use-in-cleft-palate-and-fistula-repair-a-potential-benefit-for-fast-postoperative-recovery
#18
Anouk Tan, Kees Heijdenrijk, Chantal M Moues
OBJECTIVE: To review our experience with a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) protective shield used as an adjunct to protect the newly restored palate in wide bilateral cleft and complex fistula closure without diet restrictions. DESIGN: Clinical cohort study. SETTING: Division of Plastic Surgery and Maxillary Surgery. PATIENTS: A selection of 22 cleft palate children undergoing (tertiary) palatal fistula repair (n = 16) or closure of a complex wide primary palatal defect (n = 6)...
February 2018: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350926/concentrations-and-migratabilities-of-hazardous-elements-in-second-hand-children-s-plastic-toys
#19
Andrew Turner
About 200 second-hand plastic toys sourced in the UK have been analysed by x-ray fluorescence spectrometry for hazardous elements (As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, Sb, Se) and Br as a proxy for brominated flame retardants. Each element was detected in > 20 toys or components thereof with the exception of As, Hg and Se, with the frequent occurrence of Br, Cd and Pb and at maximum concentrations of about 16,000, 20,000 and 5000 μg g-1, respectively, of greatest concern from a potential exposure perspective. Migration was evaluated on components of 26 toys under simulated stomach conditions (0...
January 19, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339100/genetic-variation-in-the-dopamine-system-influences-intervention-outcome-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#20
Rochellys Diaz Heijtz, Rita Almeida, Ann Christin Eliasson, Hans Forssberg
BACKGROUND: There is large variation in treatment responses in children with cerebral palsy. Experimental and clinical results suggest that dopamine neurotransmission and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signalling are involved in motor learning and plasticity, which are key factors in modern habilitation success. We examined whether naturally occurring variations in dopamine and BDNF genes influenced the treatment outcomes. METHODS: Thirty-three children (18-60months of age) with spastic unilateral cerebral palsy were enrolled in the study...
January 9, 2018: EBioMedicine
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