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Plasticity in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333668/development-of-extemporaneously-compounded-aripiprazole-oral-suspensions-for-use-in-children
#1
Lance A Pramann, Lawrence W Davidow, Leon van Haandel, Ryan S Funk
The purpose of this study was to develop extemporaneously compounded oral liquid formulations of aripiprazole for use in pediatric patients and those patients unable to swallow the solid oral dosage forms. Aripiprazole tablets(30 mg) were ground to a fine powder and suspended at a concentration of 1.0 mg/mL in either a 1:1 blend of Ora-Plus and Ora-Sweet, or 1% methylcellulose and Simple Syrup NF. Five amber, plastic liquid prescription bottles of each formulation were stored at 4°C, and aripiprazole content was measured by ultra-performance liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry at 0, 14, 32, 67, and 91 days...
May 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333666/extended-stability-of-morphine-and-sildenafil-for-oral-use-in-infants-and-young-children
#2
Milap C Nahata
Morphine and sildenafil are commercially available at high concentrations which may lead to errors in measuring small volumes to provide low doses needed in infants. The purpose of this study was to assess the stability of morphine sulfate and sildenafil citrate in extemporaneously prepared suspensions for oral use. Morphine (0.2 mg/mL) was prepared from dilution of morphine elixir (2 mg/mL) with distilled water and stored in amber, plastic syringes at 25°C for 60 days. The mean concentration of morphine exceeded 95% of the initial concentration for the entire 60-day study period...
May 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326677/implantation-and-positioning-of-a-transcutaneous-magnetic-bone-conduction-hearing-system-for-children-with-microtia-in-preparation-for-auricular-reconstruction
#3
Shradha Sharma, Neil Bulstrode, Andrew Marshall
Microtia is a complex congential issue, which can have a functional and psychosocial effect on patients(1) . It can occur spontaneously or as part of a syndrome. Microtia is a condition in which otolaryngologists and plastic surgeons work closely together in order to reconstruct the ear aesthetically whilst facilitating effective aiding. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
March 22, 2017: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324848/is-level-of-prematurity-a-risk-plasticity-factor-at-three-years-of-age
#4
Kristin Hadfield, Fearghal O'Brien, Aaron Gerow
Children born preterm have poorer outcomes than children born full-term, but the caregiving environment can ameliorate some of these differences. Recent research has proposed that preterm birth may be a plasticity factor, leading to better outcomes for preterm than full-term infants in higher quality environments. This analysis uses data from two waves of an Irish study of children (at 9 months and 3 years of age, n=11,134 children) and their caregivers (n=11,132 mothers, n=9998 fathers) to investigate differences in how caregiving affects social, cognitive, and motor skills between full-term, late preterm, and very preterm children...
March 18, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281298/children-with-atopic-dermatitis-and-frequent-emollient-use-have-increased-urinary-levels-of-low-molecular-weight-phthalate-metabolites-and-parabens
#5
Line E K Overgaard, Katharina M Main, Hanne Frederiksen, Steen Stender, Pal B Szecsi, Hywel C Williams, Jacob P Thyssen
BACKGROUND: Parabens may be added to cosmetic and personal care products for preservation purposes. Low-molecular weight (LMW) phthalate diesters function as plasticizers, fixatives or solvents in such products, but may also be found in small quantities as contaminants from plastic containers. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between emollient use, atopic dermatitis and FLG mutations, respectively, with urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites and parabens in Danish children...
March 9, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274486/phthalates-non-phthalate-plasticizers-and-bisphenols-in-swedish-preschool-dust-in-relation-to-children-s-exposure
#6
Kristin Larsson, Christian H Lindh, Bo Ag Jönsson, Georgios Giovanoulis, Momina Bibi, Matteo Bottai, Anna Bergström, Marika Berglund
Children are exposed to a wide range of chemicals in their everyday environments, including the preschool. In this study, we evaluated the levels of phthalates, non-phthalate plasticizers and bisphenols in dust from 100 Swedish preschools and identified important exposure factors in the indoor environment. In addition, children's total exposure to these chemicals was determined by urine analysis to investigate their relation with dust exposure, and to explore the time trends by comparing with children who provided urine fifteen years earlier...
March 5, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272277/value-based-payment-reform-and-the-medicare-access-and-chip-reauthorization-act-macra-of-2015-a-primer-for-plastic-surgeons
#7
Lee Squitieri, Kevin C Chung
In 2015, the U.S. Congress passed the Medicare Access and CHIP (Children's Health Insurance Program) Reauthorization Act (MACRA), which effectively repealed the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) sustainable growth rate (SGR) formula and established the CMS Quality Payment Program (QPP). MACRA represents an unparalleled acceleration toward value-based payment models and a departure from traditional volume-driven fee-for-service reimbursement. The QPP includes two paths for provider participation: the merit-based incentive payment system (MIPS) and advanced alternative payment models (APMs)...
March 6, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262536/challenges-in-salvaging-urinary-continence-following-failed-bladder-exstrophy-repair-in-a-developing-country
#8
Moneer K Hanna, Ibrahim Bassiouny
INTRODUCTION: The management of urinary incontinence following failed bladder exstrophy repairs is not well defined, some surgeons recommend urinary diversion, others would pursue reconstructive surgery. OBJECTIVE: Herein we review our experience with various strategies for management of urinary incontinence and their outcome in 61 patients born with bladder exstrophy who failed their initial repairs. We also examine the impact of diverse factors in making the surgical decision for patients with limited resources in a developing country...
January 29, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261940/establishing-the-feasibility-of-a-community-and-primary-health-care-intervention-to-raise-awareness-of-symptoms-of-type-1-diabetes-the-early-detection-of-type-1-diabetes-in-youth-eddy-study
#9
J Townson, J W Gregory, L Cowley, D Gallagher, S Channon, M Robling, D Williams, C Hughes, S Murphy, L Lowes
AIMS: To design, develop, and evaluate the feasibility of delivering a multi-component community based intervention to parents and primary health care professionals to raise awareness of the symptoms of Type 1 diabetes (T1D) in childhood in 3 adjoining borough counties of South Wales. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Parent and primary health care advisory groups were established to design the intervention. Qualitative interviews with stakeholders and parents assessed the acceptability, feasibility and any potential impact of the intervention...
March 6, 2017: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250966/pph-butterfly-a-novel-device-to-treat-postpartum-haemorrhage-through-uterine-compression
#10
Caroline Cunningham, Peter Watt, Nasreen Aflaifel, Simon Collins, Dot Lambert, John Porter, Tina Lavender, Tony Fisher, Andrew Weeks
OBJECTIVE: Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is a significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. The most common cause is an inability of the uterus to contract adequately after childbirth. In bimanual compression (BMC), one hand is placed within the vagina and the other hand is on the abdominal wall to compress the uterus. It is effective, but very uncomfortable for the woman. We designed a device that could replicate BMC without inserting a hand vaginally, therefore being less invasive...
February 2017: BMJ Innovations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250606/successful-removal-of-foreign-body-bronchus-using-c-arm-guided-insertion-of-fogarty-catheter-through-plastic-bead
#11
Ravindra Ganuji Wankhede, Gaurab Maitra, Subhabrata Pal, Anirban Ghoshal, Soumen Mitra
Foreign body aspiration is still a cause of significant morbidity in children. Complications occur due to difficulty in diagnosis and treatment. An eight-year-old child presented with a history of recurrent cough for 3 days. Rigid bronchoscopy under general anesthesia revealed plastic bead occupying right main bronchus. Removal with grasping forceps failed for several times due to spherical, smooth, and large bead. Finally, Fogarty catheter was passed through bead under C-arm guidance and successfully removed...
February 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245068/positive-effects-of-neurofeedback-on-autism-symptoms-correlate-with-brain-activation-during-imitation-and-observation
#12
Michael Datko, Jaime Pineda, Ralph-Axel Müller
Autism has been characterized by atypical task-related brain activation and functional connections, coinciding with deficits in sociocommunicative abilities. However, evidence of the brain's experience-dependent plasticity suggests that abnormal activity patterns may be reversed with treatment. In particular, neurofeedback training, an intervention based on operant conditioning resulting in self-regulation of brain electrical oscillations, has shown increasing promise in addressing abnormalities in brain function and behavior...
February 28, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240866/wastewater-based-epidemiology-as-a-new-tool-for-estimating-population-exposure-to-phthalate-plasticizers
#13
Iria González-Mariño, Rosario Rodil, Iván Barrio, Rafael Cela, José Benito Quintana
This study proposes the monitoring of phthalate metabolites in wastewater as a nonintrusive and economic alternative to urine analysis for estimating human exposure to phthalates. To this end, a solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed, allowing for the determination of eight phthalate metabolites in wastewater (limits of quantification between 0.5 and 32 ng L(-1)). The analysis of samples from the NW region of Spain showed that these substances occur in raw wastewater up to ca...
March 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236728/language-plasticity-after-hemispherotomy-of-the-dominant-hemisphere-in-3-patients-implication-of-non-linguistic-networks
#14
Christine Bulteau, Isabelle Jambaqué, Catherine Chiron, Sebastian Rodrigo, Georg Dorfmüller, Olivier Dulac, Lucie Hertz-Pannier, Marion Noulhiane
The neural networks involved in language recovery following hemispherotomy of the dominant hemisphere after language acquisition in children remain poorly known. Twelve hemispherotomized children (mean age at surgery: 11.3years) with comparable post-operative neuropsychological patterns underwent multi-task language functional MRI. Three of them had recovered from an initial postoperative aphasia i.e., hemispherotomy was performed on the language-dominant hemisphere. Our main results revealed (1) perisylvian activations in all patients after either left or right hemispherotomy; (2) no differences in activations between groups regarding the side of hemispherotomy; (3) additional activations in pre-frontal (3/3) and hippocampal/parahippocampal and occipito-parietal (2/3) areas, when comparing language activation in each of the three subjects with hemispherotomy of the language-dominant hemisphere to the group of 9 non-dominant hemispherotomized patients...
February 22, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230411/the-bilingual-adaptation-how-minds-accommodate-experience
#15
Ellen Bialystok
According to some estimates, more than half of the world's population is multilingual to some extent. Because of the centrality of language use to human experience and the deep connections between linguistic and nonlinguistic processing, it would not be surprising to find that there are interactions between bilingualism and cognitive and brain processes. The present review uses the framework of experience-dependent plasticity to evaluate the evidence for systematic modifications of brain and cognitive systems that can be attributed to bilingualism...
March 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230293/influence-of-complex-childhood-diseases-on-variation-in-growth-and-skeletal-development
#16
REVIEW
Babette S Zemel
The study of human growth and skeletal development by human biologists is framed by the larger theoretical concerns regarding the underpinnings of population variation and human evolution. This unique perspective is directly relevant to the assessment of child health and well-being at the individual and group level, as well as the construction of growth charts. Environmental, behavioral (nutrition and physical activity), and disease-related factors can prevent attainment of full genetic potential for growth...
February 23, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219124/our-experience-in-using-telehealth-for-paediatric-plastic-surgery-in-western-australia
#17
Debesh Rimal, Ju Hui Huang Fu, David Gillett
BACKGROUND: Western Australia accounts for one-third of Australia's total land mass. Princess Margaret Hospital is the only dedicated plastic surgery tertiary referral centre providing services to over 500 000 children across the state. The aim of this study is to share our experience using telehealth for service provision and delivery of care in a geographically challenging setting. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted, and data were extracted from patients' notes...
February 20, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217829/vitamin-d-and-autism-what-s-new
#18
REVIEW
John Jacob Cannell
An increasing amount of evidence points to the possibility that gestational and early childhood vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D < 40 ng/ml] cause some cases of autism. Vitamin D is metabolized into a seco-steroid hormone that regulates about 3% of the 26,000 genes in the coding human genome. It is also a neurosteroid that is active in brain development, having effects on cellular proliferation, differentiation, calcium signaling, neurotrophic and neuroprotective actions; it also appears to have an effect on neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity...
February 20, 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212307/antiretroviral-treatment-in-hiv-1-positive-mothers-neurological-implications-in-virus-free-children
#19
REVIEW
Antonio Victor Campos Coelho, Paola Maura Tricarico, Fulvio Celsi, Sergio Crovella
Since the worldwide introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in human immunodeficiency virus type 1, HIV-1-positive mothers, together with HIV-1 testing prior to pregnancy, caesarian birth and breastfeeding cessation with replacement feeding, a reduction of HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) has been observed in the last few years. As such, an increasing number of children are being exposed in utero to ART. Several questions have arisen concerning the neurological effects of ART exposure in utero, considering the potential effect of antiretroviral drugs on the central nervous system, a structure which is in continuous development in the fetus and characterized by great plasticity...
February 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203210/auditory-and-visual-electrophysiology-of-deaf-children-with-cochlear-implants-implications-for-cross-modal-plasticity
#20
David P Corina, Shane Blau, Todd LaMarr, Laurel A Lawyer, Sharon Coffey-Corina
Deaf children who receive a cochlear implant early in life and engage in intensive oral/aural therapy often make great strides in spoken language acquisition. However, despite clinicians' best efforts, there is a great deal of variability in language outcomes. One concern is that cortical regions which normally support auditory processing may become reorganized for visual function, leaving fewer available resources for auditory language acquisition. The conditions under which these changes occur are not well understood, but we may begin investigating this phenomenon by looking for interactions between auditory and visual evoked cortical potentials in deaf children...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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