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Plasticity in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222684/how-much-do-plastic-surgeons-add-to-the-closure-of-myelomeningoceles
#1
Rhian Bevan, Nicholas Wilson-Jones, Imran Bhatti, Chirag Patel, Paul Leach
PURPOSE: This study reviews the outcomes of children undergoing myelomeningocele (MMC) repair in the paediatric neurosurgical department in Cardiff. These procedures are historically performed by paediatric neurosurgeons with occasional support from plastic surgeons for the larger lesions. We reviewed the postoperative outcomes over a 9-year period to assess the efficacy of having a plastic surgeon present at all MMC closures. METHODS: Analysis of a prospectively collected database of all MMC closures performed at University Hospital Wales from April 2009 to August 2017 was used...
December 8, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209173/fundamental-elements-in-autism-from-neurogenesis-and-neurite-growth-to-synaptic-plasticity
#2
REVIEW
James Gilbert, Heng-Ye Man
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a set of neurodevelopmental disorders with a high prevalence and impact on society. ASDs are characterized by deficits in both social behavior and cognitive function. There is a strong genetic basis underlying ASDs that is highly heterogeneous; however, multiple studies have highlighted the involvement of key processes, including neurogenesis, neurite growth, synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity in the pathophysiology of neurodevelopmental disorders. In this review article, we focus on the major genes and signaling pathways implicated in ASD and discuss the cellular, molecular and functional studies that have shed light on common dysregulated pathways using in vitro, in vivo and human evidence...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196864/choosing-an-appropriate-physical-exercise-to-reduce-stereotypic-behavior-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-a-non-randomized-crossover-study
#3
C Y Andy Tse, C L Pang, Paul H Lee
Considerable evidence has shown that physical exercise could be an effective treatment in reducing stereotypical autism spectrum disorder (ASD) behaviors in children. The present study seeks to examine the underlying mechanism by considering the theoretical operant nature of stereotypy. Children with ASD (n = 30) who exhibited hand-flapping and body-rocking stereotypies were asked to participate in both control (story-time) and experimental (ball-tapping-exercise intervention) conditions. The experimental condition comprised 15 min of ball tapping during which the children were asked to tap a plastic ball as many times as they could...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195135/urinary-metabolites-of-organophosphate-esters-concentrations-and-age-trends-in-australian-children
#4
Chang He, Leisa-Maree L Toms, Phong Thai, Nele Van den Eede, Xianyu Wang, Yan Li, Christine Baduel, Fiona A Harden, Amy L Heffernan, Peter Hobson, Adrian Covaci, Jochen F Mueller
There is growing concern around the use of organophosphate esters (OPEs) due to their suspected reproductive toxicity, carcinogenicity, and neurotoxicity. OPEs are used as flame retardants and plasticizers, and due to their extensive application in consumer products, are found globally in the indoor environment. Early life exposure to OPEs is an important risk factor for children's health, but poorly understood. To study age and sex trends of OPE exposures in infants and young children, we collected, pooled, and analysed urine samples from children aged 0-5years from Queensland, Australia for 9 parent OPEs and 11 metabolites...
November 28, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184724/an-algorithmic-approach-to-operative-management-of-complex-pediatric-dog-bites-3-year-review-of-a-level-i-regional-referral-pediatric-trauma-hospital
#5
Kaveh Alizadeh, Ali Shayesteh, Min Li Xu
Background: Incidence of dog bites continues to rise among the pediatric population and serves as a public health threat for the well-being of children. Plastic surgeons are at the forefront of initial management and eventual outcome of these devastating injuries. This study set out to determine the nature of dog bite injuries treated over a 3-year period at a large level 1 pediatric trauma center. Methods: A retrospective review of emergency room records of all pediatric patients (age, 0-18 years old) who sustained dog bites between January 2012 and December 2014 were gathered...
October 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165555/prenatal-exposure-to-di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-dehp-disrupts-ovarian-function-in-a-transgenerational-manner-in-female-mice
#6
Saniya Rattan, Emily Brehm, Liying Gao, Sarah Niermann, Jodi A Flaws
Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a plasticizer found in polyvinyl chloride products such as vinyl flooring, plastic food containers, medical devices, and children's toys. DEHP is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant and is a known endocrine disrupting chemical. Little is known about the effects of prenatal DEHP exposure on the ovary and whether effects occur in subsequent generations. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to DEHP disrupts ovarian functions in the F1, F2, and F3 generations of female mice...
November 20, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163099/a-computational-analysis-of-neural-mechanisms-underlying-the-maturation-of-multisensory-speech-integration-in-neurotypical-children-and-those-on-the-autism-spectrum
#7
Cristiano Cuppini, Mauro Ursino, Elisa Magosso, Lars A Ross, John J Foxe, Sophie Molholm
Failure to appropriately develop multisensory integration (MSI) of audiovisual speech may affect a child's ability to attain optimal communication. Studies have shown protracted development of MSI into late-childhood and identified deficits in MSI in children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Currently, the neural basis of acquisition of this ability is not well understood. Here, we developed a computational model informed by neurophysiology to analyze possible mechanisms underlying MSI maturation, and its delayed development in ASD...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162165/epigenetic-correlates-of-neonatal-contact-in-humans
#8
Sarah R Moore, Lisa M McEwen, Jill Quirt, Alex Morin, Sarah M Mah, Ronald G Barr, W Thomas Boyce, Michael S Kobor
Animal models of early postnatal mother-infant interactions have highlighted the importance of tactile contact for biobehavioral outcomes via the modification of DNA methylation (DNAm). The role of normative variation in contact in early human development has yet to be explored. In an effort to translate the animal work on tactile contact to humans, we applied a naturalistic daily diary strategy to assess the link between maternal contact with infants and epigenetic signatures in children 4-5 years later, with respect to multiple levels of child-level factors, including genetic variation and infant distress...
December 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153191/atresiaplasty-in-congenital-aural-atresia-what-the-facial-plastic-surgeon-needs-to-know
#9
REVIEW
Douglas S Ruhl, Bradley W Kesser
Patients with microtia and congenital aural atresia should have a comprehensive hearing assessment early in life. Options for hearing habilitation should be presented, and children with bilateral aural atresia should be fitted with a bone conducting hearing device to support normal speech and language development. If atresia surgery is pursued, the microtia surgeon must be aware of certain principles. This article presents recommendations on options for potentially improving hearing in children with congenital aural atresia: assessing surgical candidacy; chronology and timing of surgeries; functional importance of certain ear structures; and understanding the possible locations of an aberrant facial nerve to avoid injury in these patients...
February 2018: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151803/cognitive-consequences-of-trilingualism
#10
Scott R Schroeder, Viorica Marian
Aims and Objectives: The objectives of the present research were to examine the cognitive consequences of trilingualism and explain them relative to the cognitive consequences of bilingualism. Approach: A comparison of cognitive abilities in trilinguals and bilinguals was conducted. In addition, we proposed a cognitive plasticity framework to account for cognitive differences and similarities between trilinguals and bilinguals. Data and Analysis: Three aspects of cognition were analyzed: (1) cognitive reserve in older adults, as measured by age of onset of Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment; (2) inhibitory control in children and younger adults, as measured by response times on behavioral Simon and flanker tasks; and (3) memory generalization in infants and toddlers, as measured by accuracy on behavioral deferred imitation tasks...
2017: International Journal of Bilingualism: Cross-disciplinary, Cross-linguistic Studies of Language Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133062/anatomical-and-physiological-basis-of-continuous-spike-wave-of-sleep-syndrome-after-early-thalamic-lesions
#11
Alberto Leal, Eulália Calado, José P Vieira, Carla Mendonça, José C Ferreira, Hugo Ferreira, Daniel Carvalho, Fátima Furtado, Roseli Gomes, José P Monteiro
OBJECTIVE: Early neonatal thalamic lesions account for about 14% of continuous spike-wave of sleep (CSWS) syndrome, representing the most common etiology in this epileptic encephalopathy in children, and promise useful insights into the pathophysiology of the disease. METHODS: We describe nine patients with unilateral neonatal thalamic lesions which progressed to CSWS. Longitudinal whole-night and high-density electroencephalograms (EEGs) were performed, as well as detailed imaging and clinical evaluation...
November 10, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132025/micro-quechers-extraction-coupled-to-gc-ms-for-a-fast-determination-of-bisphenol-a-in-human-urine
#12
Luísa Correia-Sá, Sónia Norberto, Cristina Delerue-Matos, Conceição Calhau, Valentina F Domingues
Bisphenol A (BPA) is considered an endocrine disruptor and public concern over BPA exposure has been raised. Several studies have assessed human exposure to this plasticizer, confirming its ubiquitous presence and highlighting children as a public of special concern. A simple, efficient, cheap and green analytical procedure is reported within this paper. This paper reports, for the first time, the development of a modified Micro-QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) method coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as a new strategy for the efficient extraction and determination of Bisphenol A in human urine samples...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126512/what-is-an-endocrine-disruptor
#13
Claude Monneret
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and potential EDCs are mostly man-made found in various materials. By interfering with the body's endocrine system, endocrine disruptors produce adverse developmental, reproductive, neurological, and immune effects in humans, abnormal growth patterns and neurodevelopmental delays in children. Thus, diethylstilbestrol (DES) a non-steroidal estrogen, which is regarded as a proof of concept, induces clear cell carcinoma among young women. EDCS may be found in plastic bottles and metal food cans (BPA), medical devices (phthalates), detergents, flame retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers), food (BPA), toys (phthalates), cosmetics and drugs (parabens), and pesticides (alkyl phenols such as nonylphenol)...
September 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122348/associations-of-urinary-phthalate-metabolites-with-residential-characteristics-lifestyles-and-dietary-habits-among-young-children-in-shanghai-china
#14
Chenxi Liao, Wei Liu, Jialing Zhang, Wenming Shi, Xueying Wang, Jiao Cai, Zhijun Zou, Rongchun Lu, Chanjuan Sun, Heng Wang, Chen Huang, Zhuohui Zhao
Exposure to household phthalates has been reported to have adverse effects on children's health. In this paper, we used phthalate metabolites in the first morning urine as indicators of household phthalate exposures and examined their associations with residential characteristics, lifestyles and dietary habits among young children. During 2013-2014, we collected morning urines from children aged 5-10years in Shanghai, China and obtained the related information about analyzed factors in this study by questionnaires...
November 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120853/ultrastructural-characteristics-of-the-respective-forms-of-hepatic-stellate-cells-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-as-an-example-of-high-fibroblastic-cell-plasticity-the-first-assessment-in-children
#15
Joanna Maria Lotowska, Maria Elzbieta Sobaniec-Lotowska, Dariusz Marek Lebensztejn
PURPOSE: Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), mainly responsible for extracellular matrix synthesis, is assumed to be central event in the process of liver fibrogenesis. The major objective of the research was to analyze the ultrastructural profile of activated HSCs in children with chronic hepatitis B (chB), with respect to fibrosis intensity. MATERIALS/METHODS: Ultrastructural investigations of HSCs were conducted on liver bioptates from 70 children with clinicopathologically diagnosed chB before antiviral treatment...
November 6, 2017: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118206/social-origins-of-developmental-risk-for-mental-and-physical-illness
#16
Judy L Cameron, Kathie L Eagleson, Nathan A Fox, Takao K Hensch, Pat Levitt
Adversity in early childhood exerts an enduring impact on mental and physical health, academic achievement, lifetime productivity, and the probability of interfacing with the criminal justice system. More science is needed to understand how the brain is affected by early life stress (ELS), which produces excessive activation of stress response systems broadly throughout the child's body (toxic stress). Our research examines the importance of sex, timing and type of stress exposure, and critical periods for intervention in various brain systems across species...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117832/prevalence-of-absence-of-palmaris-longus-and-its-association-with-gender-hand-dominance-and-absence-of-fds-tendon-to-little-finger-among-malay-population
#17
Mei Wen Yong, Nabihah Yusof, Lekhraj Rampal, Manohar Arumugam
BACKGROUND: Palmaris Longus is being widely used in reconstructive, plastic and cosmetic surgeries due to its long tendon. It is the most readily available source for tendon grafting. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of absence of Palmaris Longus and its association with gender, hand dominance and absence of FDS (flexor digitorum superficialis) tendon to little finger among Malay population. METHODS: An analytical cross sectional study design was used and a self-administered proforma was distributed for data collection...
December 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery Asian-Pacific Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116306/short-mood-and-feelings-questionnaire-for-screening-children-and-adolescents-for-plastic-surgery-cross-cultural-validation-study
#18
Eduardo Sucupira, Miguel Sabino, Edson Luiz de Lima, Gal Moreira Dini, Maria José Azevedo de Brito, Lydia Masako Ferreira
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Patient-reported outcome measurements assessing the emotional state of children and adolescents who seek plastic surgery are important for determining whether the intervention is indicated or not. The aim of this study was to cross-culturally adapt and validate the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (child/adolescent and parent versions) for Brazilian Portuguese, test its psychometric properties and assess the emotional state of children and adolescents who seek plastic surgery...
November 6, 2017: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114213/visually-evoked-visual-auditory-changes-associated-with-auditory-performance-in-children-with-cochlear-implants
#19
Maojin Liang, Junpeng Zhang, Jiahao Liu, Yuebo Chen, Yuexin Cai, Xianjun Wang, Junbo Wang, Xueyuan Zhang, Suijun Chen, Xianghui Li, Ling Chen, Yiqing Zheng
Activation of the auditory cortex by visual stimuli has been reported in deaf children. In cochlear implant (CI) patients, a residual, more intense cortical activation in the frontotemporal areas in response to photo stimuli was found to be positively associated with poor auditory performance. Our study aimed to investigate the mechanism by which visual processing in CI users activates the auditory-associated cortex during the period after cochlear implantation as well as its relation to CI outcomes. Twenty prelingually deaf children with CI were recruited...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108856/etiology-of-pediatric-acquired-blepharoptosis
#20
Sulakshan Rasiah, Thomas G Hardy, James E Elder, Cheng Yi Ng, Alan McNab
PURPOSE: To describe the etiology of acquired pediatric blepharoptosis in a large clinical series and to elucidate the causes of the disease. METHODS: The medical records of all patients presenting with acquired blepharoptosis at two specialist ocular plastics practices and a pediatric ophthalmology practice during a period of up to 25 years were reviewed retrospectively and classified according to their diagnosis. Patients were grouped into children (<18 years), younger adults (18-40 years), and older adults (>40 years)...
November 3, 2017: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
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