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Plasticity in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069928/functional-organization-of-cutaneous-and-muscle-afferent-synapses-onto-immature-spinal-lamina-i-projection-neurons
#1
Jie Li, Mark L Baccei
: It is well-established that sensory afferents innervating muscle are more effective at inducing hyperexcitability within spinal cord circuits compared to skin afferents, which likely contributes to the higher prevalence of chronic musculoskeletal pain compared to pain of cutaneous origin. However, the mechanisms underlying these differences in central nociceptive signaling remain incompletely understood, as nothing is known about how superficial dorsal horn (SDH) neurons process sensory input from muscle vs...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065226/effects-of-two-intranasal-dexmedetomidine-doses-as-premedication-on-sevoflurane-ec50-for-successful-laryngeal-mask-airway-placement-in-children
#2
Jin Xu, Xiao-Ming Deng, Ling-Xin Wei, Dong Yang, Ju-Hui Liu, Juan Zhi, Ya-Nan Li
Objective To observe the effects of two different intranasal dexmedetomidine doses as premedication on the EC50 of sevoflurane for successful laryngeal mask airway placement in children. Methods Children aged 3-6 years, of American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status 1, and scheduled for plastic surgery were enrolled in this study. Children were assigned to receive either spray administration of intranasal dexmedetomidine 1 μg/kg (group D1, n=21) or 2 μg/kg (group D2, n=20) approximately 30 minutes before anesthesia...
December 20, 2016: Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058242/advertisements-for-children-s-entertainment-products-in-a-popular-parenting-magazine-sedentary-or-active
#3
Corey H Basch, Aleksandar Kecojevic, Valerie Cadorett, Charles E Basch
Background: The purpose of this study was to describe advertisements of children's entertainment products in a popular magazine, Parents, and to determine if they illustrated behavior that was physically active or sedentary. Methods: The sample was comprised of Parents magazines (January 2010 to December 2015). Coding involved determining if the advertisement was promoting sedentary or active behavior. Results: Nearly all of the 169 advertisements in the sample (n = 166; 97.6%) were for products that depicted sedentary behavior...
2017: Health Promotion Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056017/when-hearing-is-tricky-speech-processing-strategies-in-prelingually-deafened-children-and-adolescents-with-cochlear-implants-having-good-and-poor-speech-performance
#4
Magdalene Ortmann, Pienie Zwitserlood, Arne Knief, Johanna Baare, Stephanie Brinkheetker, Antoinette Am Zehnhoff-Dinnesen, Christian Dobel
Cochlear implants provide individuals who are deaf with access to speech. Although substantial advancements have been made by novel technologies, there still is high variability in language development during childhood, depending on adaptation and neural plasticity. These factors have often been investigated in the auditory domain, with the mismatch negativity as an index for sensory and phonological processing. Several studies have demonstrated that the MMN is an electrophysiological correlate for hearing improvement with cochlear implants...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012670/perfluoroalkyl-acids-and-their-precursors-in-indoor-air-sampled-in-children-s-bedrooms
#5
Kerstin Winkens, Jani Koponen, Jasmin Schuster, Mahiba Shoeib, Robin Vestergren, Urs Berger, Anne M Karvonen, Juha Pekkanen, Hannu Kiviranta, Ian T Cousins
The contamination levels and patterns of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and their precursors in indoor air of children's bedrooms in Finland, Northern Europe, were investigated. Our study is among the most comprehensive indoor air monitoring studies (n = 57) and to our knowledge the first one to analyse air in children's bedrooms for PFASs (17 PFAAs and 9 precursors, including two acrylates, 6:2 FTAC and 6:2 FTMAC). The most frequently detected compound was 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (8:2 FTOH) with the highest median concentration (3570 pg/m(3))...
December 21, 2016: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011120/effect-of-hearing-aids-use-on-speech-stimulus-decoding-through-speech-evoked-abr
#6
Renata Aparecida Leite, Fernanda Cristina Leite Magliaro, Jeziela Cristina Raimundo, Mara Gândara, Sergio Garbi, Ricardo Ferreira Bento, Carla Gentile Matas
INTRODUCTION: The electrophysiological responses obtained with the complex auditory brainstem response (cABR) provide objective measures of subcortical processing of speech and other complex stimuli. The cABR has also been used to verify the plasticity in the auditory pathway in the subcortical regions. OBJECTIVE: To compare the results of cABR obtained in children using hearing aids before and after 9 months of adaptation, as well as to compare the results of these children with those obtained in children with normal hearing...
December 8, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008395/nasopharynx-the-secret-vault-for-lost-foreign-bodies-of-the-upper-aerodigestive-tract
#7
Arijit Jotdar, Mainak Dutta, Sohag Kundu
INTRODUCTION: Foreign bodies in the upper aerodigestive tract often get lost following inappropriate attempts at removal. Children may present late with localized infection, posing a challenge to the otolaryngologists in a referral set-up in diagnosing and retrieving such foreign bodies. CASE REPORT: A two-year-old boy presented with refractory purulent rhinorrhea and intermittent low-grade fever. The symptoms suggested rhinosinusitis; however, following a high index of suspicion, he was referred for further evaluation, with the possibility of any hidden foreign object in the upper aerodigestive tract...
November 2016: Iranian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002134/neuroplasticity-and-amblyopia-vision-at-the-balance-point
#8
Vijay K Tailor, D Samuel Schwarzkopf, Annegret H Dahlmann-Noor
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: New insights into triggers and brakes of plasticity in the visual system are being translated into new treatment approaches which may improve outcomes not only in children, but also in adults. RECENT FINDINGS: Visual experience-driven plasticity is greatest in early childhood, triggered by maturation of inhibitory interneurons which facilitate strengthening of synchronous synaptic connections, and inactivation of others. Normal binocular development leads to progressive refinement of monocular visual acuity, stereoacuity and fusion of images from both eyes...
December 20, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002122/neuroplasticity-and-amblyopia-vision-at-the-balance-point
#9
Vijay K Tailor, D Samuel Schwarzkopf, Annegret H Dahlmann-Noor
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: New insights into triggers and brakes of plasticity in the visual system are being translated into new treatment approaches which may improve outcomes not only in children, but also in adults. RECENT FINDINGS: Visual experience-driven plasticity is greatest in early childhood, triggered by maturation of inhibitory interneurons which facilitate strengthening of synchronous synaptic connections, and inactivation of others. Normal binocular development leads to progressive refinement of monocular visual acuity, stereoacuity and fusion of images from both eyes...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986698/does-measurement-technique-explain-the-mismatch-between-european-head-size-and-who-charts
#10
Charlotte M Wright, Morven Bremner, Stefanie Lip, Joseph D Symonds
OBJECTIVE: To test whether different measuring techniques produce systematic differences in head size that could explain the large head circumferences found in Northern European children compared with the WHO standard. DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study. SETTING: Scotland, UK. PATIENTS: Study 1: 68 healthy children aged 0.4-18 months from mother and baby groups and a medical students teaching session. Study 2: 81 children aged 0...
December 16, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984133/perinatal-exposure-to-lead-pb-induces-ultrastructural-and-molecular-alterations-in-synapses-of-rat-offspring
#11
Magdalena Gąssowska, Irena Baranowska-Bosiacka, Joanna Moczydłowska, Małgorzata Frontczak-Baniewicz, Magdalena Gewartowska, Lidia Strużyńska, Izabela Gutowska, Dariusz Chlubek, Agata Adamczyk
Lead (Pb), environmentally abundant heavy-metal pollutant, is a strong toxicant for the developing central nervous system. Pb intoxication in children, even at low doses, is found to affect learning and memorizing, with devastating effects on cognitive function and intellectual development. However, the precise mechanism by which Pb impairs synaptic plasticity is not fully elucidated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of pre- and neonatal exposure to low dose of Pb (with Pb concentrations in whole blood below 10μg/dL) on the synaptic structure and the pre- and postsynaptic proteins expression in the developing rat brain...
October 29, 2016: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982220/amblyopia-neural-basis-and-therapeutic-approaches
#12
Caio César Peixoto Bretas, Renato Nery Soriano
Abnormalities in visual processing caused by visual deprivation or abnormal binocular interaction may induce amblyopia, which is characterized by reduced visual acuity. Occlusion therapy, the conventional treatment, requires special attention as occlusion of the fellow normal eye may reduce its visual acuity and impair binocular vision. Besides recovering visual acuity, some researchers have recommended restoration of stereoacuity and motor fusion and reverse suppression in order to prevent diplopia. Recent studies have documented that the amblyopic visual cortex has a normal complement of cells but reduced spatial resolution and a disordered topographical map...
September 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979682/evaluating-spatial-distribution-and-seasonal-variation-of-phthalates-using-passive-air-sampling-in-southern-india
#13
Srimurali Sampath, Krishna Kumar Selvaraj, Govindaraj Shanmugam, Vimalkumar Krishnamoorthy, Paromita Chakraborty, Babu Rajendran Ramaswamy
Usage of phthalates as plasticizers has resulted in worldwide occurrence and is becoming a serious concern to human health and environment. However, studies on phthalates in Indian atmosphere are lacking. Therefore, we studied the spatio-temporal trends of six major phthalates in Tamil Nadu, southern India, using passive air samplers. Phthalates were ubiquitously detected in all the samples and the average total phthalates found in decreasing order is pre-monsoon (61 ng m(-3)) > summer (52 ng m(-3)) > monsoon (17 ng m(-3))...
February 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977545/endoscopic-ultrasound-guided-drainage-of-walled-off-necrosis-in-children-with-fully-covered-self-expanding-metal-stents
#14
Zaheer Nabi, Sundeep Lakhtakia, Jahangeer Basha, Radhika Chavan, Mohan Ramchandani, Rajesh Gupta, Rakesh Kalapala, Santosh Darisetty, Rupjyoti Talukdar, D Nageshwar Reddy
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guided drainage with fully covered self-expanding metallic stents (FCSEMS) have been successfully used in adult patients. However, the utility of FCSEMS in children with walled off necrosis (WON) is unknown. The aim of present study was to evaluate the feasibility, safety and efficacy of EUS-drainage of WON using FCSEMS in children. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated the data of children (≤18 years) who underwent EUS-drainage of walled off necrosis (WON) using FCSEMS at our institution...
December 13, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974193/perinatal-exposure-to-lead-pb-induces-ultrastructural-and-molecular-alterations-in-synapses-of-rat-offspring
#15
Magdalena Gąssowska, Irena Baranowska-Bosiacka, Joanna Moczydłowska, Małgorzata Frontczak-Baniewicz, Magdalena Gewartowska, Lidia Strużyńska, Izabela Gutowska, Dariusz Chlubek, Agata Adamczyk
Lead (Pb), environmentally abundant heavy-metal pollutant, is a strong toxicant for the developing central nervous system. Pb intoxication in children, even at low doses, is found to affect learning and memorizing, with devastating effects on cognitive function and intellectual development. However, the precise mechanism by which Pb impairs synaptic plasticity is not fully elucidated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of pre- and neonatal exposure to low dose of Pb (with Pb concentrations in whole blood below 10μg/dL) on the synaptic structure and the pre- and postsynaptic proteins expression in the developing rat brain...
December 12, 2016: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931146/d-cycloserine-restores-experience-dependent-neuroplasticity-after-tbi-in-the-developing-rat-brain
#16
Naomi Sulit Sta Maria, Maxine Lane Reger, Yan Cai, Mary Anne Tezheart Mercado Baquing, Floyd Buen, Aditya Ponnaluri, David Hovda, Neil G Harris, Christopher C Giza
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children can cause persisting cognitive and behavioral dysfunction and inevitably raises concerns about lost potential in these injured youths. Lateral fluid percussion injury (FPI) in weanling rats pathologically affects hippocampal NMDAR- and AMPAR-mediated glutamatergic neurotransmission subacutely, within the first post-injury week. FPI to weanling rats has also been shown to impair enriched-environment (EE) induced enhancement of Morris water maze (MWM) learning and memory in adulthood...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927508/kyphectomy-in-children-with-severe-myelomeningocele-related-kyphosis
#17
R N Dunn, L N Bomela
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review of prospectively maintained database. OBJECTIVES: To review myelomeningocele patients with severe kyphosis undergoing kyphectomy surgery in terms of complications and clinical and radiographic outcomes. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Because of posterior element abnormality in myelomeningocele, the extensor muscles act as perverted flexors, driving progressive kyphosis that resulted in sitting, respiratory, and skin breakdown problems...
May 2016: Spine Deformity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911740/the-puzzle-of-visual-development-behavior-and-neural-limits
#18
Lynne Kiorpes
The development of visual function takes place over many months or years in primate infants. Visual sensitivity is very poor near birth and improves over different times courses for different visual functions. The neural mechanisms that underlie these processes are not well understood despite many decades of research. The puzzle arises because research into the factors that limit visual function in infants has found surprisingly mature neural organization and adult-like receptive field properties in very young infants...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906506/robustness-and-plasticity-in-development
#19
REVIEW
Patrick Bateson
Like the game of chess, the overall development of human behavior is highly regulated, and also many finer points of any particular individual life depend on early moves. The robust mechanisms that make species different from each other also impact processes that make individuals distinct from one another. Children both influence their environment and are influenced by it. As the development of any particular skill depends upon the contribution of particular environmental inputs at particular times, environmental variability can dramatically change the process...
January 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894901/bilingualism-yields-language-specific-plasticity-in-left-hemisphere-s-circuitry-for-learning-to-read-in-young-children
#20
K K Jasińska, M S Berens, I Kovelman, L A Petitto
How does bilingual exposure impact children's neural circuitry for learning to read? Theories of bilingualism suggests that exposure to two languages may yield a functional and neuroanatomical adaptation to support the learning of two languages (Klein et al., 2014). To test the hypothesis that this neural adaptation may vary as a function of structural and orthographic characteristics of bilinguals' two languages, we compared Spanish-English and French-English bilingual children, and English monolingual children, using functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy neuroimaging (fNIRS, ages 6-10, N =26)...
November 25, 2016: Neuropsychologia
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