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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340393/when-public-health-intervention-is-not-successful-cost-sharing-crowd-out-and-selection-in-korea-s-national-cancer-screening-program
#1
Hyuncheol Bryant Kim, Sun-Mi Lee
This study investigates the impact of and behavioral responses to cost sharing in Korea's National Cancer Screening Program, which provides free stomach and breast cancer screenings to those with an income below a certain cutoff. Free cancer screening substantially increases the screening take up rate, yielding more cancer detections. However, the increase in cancer detection is quickly crowded out by cancer detection through other channels such as diagnostic testing and private cancer screening. Further, compliers are much less likely to have cancer than never takers...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334556/impact-of-a-hospitalwide-quality-improvement-initiative-on-emergency-department-throughput-and-crowding-measures
#2
James D Melton, Fred Blind, A Brad Hall, Maureen Leckie, April Novotny
BACKGROUND: This pre- and postintervention analysis evaluates the impact of a systemwide, comprehensive, executively supported quality improvement (QI) project on emergency department (ED) throughput measures and crowding in a large nonacademic community hospital. METHODS: The two primary endpoints used to assess the impact of the project were (1) the percentage of all patients who were door-in to door-out in less than three hours and (2) the percentage of patients who left without being seen (LWBS)...
December 2016: Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331350/risk-factors-for-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-among-tuberculosis-patients-a-case-control-study
#3
Abdulhalik Workicho, Wondwosen Kassahun, Fessahaye Alemseged
BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) did not receive major attention until recently in sub-Saharan Africa where the tuberculosis incidence and risk factors are highest. Factors leading to development of drug resistance need to be understood to develop appropriate control strategies for national programs. The objective of this study was to identify the risk factors for MDR-TB among tuberculosis patients. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted to assess sociodemographic, behavioral and clinical risk factors using a structured questionnaire and clinical record reviewing...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328209/multidk-a-multiple-descriptor-multiple-kernel-approach-for-molecular-discovery-and-its-application-to-the-discovery-of-organic-flow-battery-electrolytes
#4
Sung-Jin Kim, Adrián Jinich, Alán Aspuru-Guzik
We propose a multiple descriptor multiple kernel (MultiDK) method for efficient molecular discovery using machine learning. We show that the MultiDK method improves both the speed and accuracy of molecular property prediction. We apply the method to the discovery of electrolyte molecules for aqueous redox flow batteries. Using \emph{multiple-type - as opposed to single-type - descriptors}, we obtain more relevant features for machine learning. Following the principle of 'wisdom of the crowds', the combination of multiple-type descriptors significantly boosts prediction performance...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328080/crowding-in-how-indian-civil-society-organizations-began-mobilizing-around-climate-change
#5
Tuomas Ylä-Anttila, Pradip Swarnakar
This paper argues that periodic waves of crowding-in to 'hot' issue fields are a recurring feature of how globally networked civil society organizations operate, especially in countries of the Global South. We elaborate on this argument through a study of Indian civil society mobilization around climate change. Five key mechanisms contribute to crowding-in processes: (1) the expansion of discursive opportunities; (2) the event effects of global climate change conferences; (3) the network effects created by expanding global civil society networks; (4) the adoption and innovation of action repertoires; and (5) global pressure effects creating new opportunities for civil society...
March 22, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327993/stepwise-distributed-open-innovation-contests-for-software-development-acceleration-of-genome-wide-association-analysis
#6
Andrew Hill, Po-Ru Loh, Ragu B Bharadwaj, Pascal Pons, Jingbo Shang, Eva Guinan, Karim Lakhani, Iain Kilty, Scott A Jelinsky
BACKGROUND: The association of differing genotypes with disease related phenotypic traits offers great potential to both help identify new therapeutic targets and support stratification of patients who would gain the greatest benefit from specific drug classes. Development of low cost genotyping and sequencing has made collecting large scale genotyping data routine in population and therapeutic intervention studies. In addition, a range of new technologies are being used to capture numerous new and complex phenotypic descriptors...
February 28, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327525/prevalence-of-malocclusion-in-3-to-5-year-old-children-in-shanghai-china
#7
Xinhua Zhou, Ying Zhang, Yan Wang, Hao Zhang, Li Chen, Yuehua Liu
The aim of the present study was to obtain the prevalence of malocclusions in preschool children in Shanghai, China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 2335 children aged 3-5 years from kindergartens. Several occlusal parameters were clinically assessed, including second deciduous molar terminal plane, canine relationship, degree of overjet and overbite, anterior and posterior crossbite, and the presence or absence of physiologic spaces and crowding. All parents of subjects were asked to fill in the oral health knowledge questionnaires...
March 22, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320651/collaborative-active-visual-recognition-from-crowds-a-distributed-ensemble-approach
#8
Gang Hua, Chengjiang Long, Ming Yang, Yan Gao
Active learning is an effective way of engaging users to interactively train models for visual recognition more efficiently. The vast majority of previous works focused on active learning with a single human oracle. The problem of active learning with multiple oracles in a collaborative setting has not been well explored. We present a collaborative computational model for active learning with multiple human oracles, the input from whom may be subject to different levels of noise. It leads to not only an ensemble kernel machine that is robust to label noise, but also a principled label quality measure to online detect irresponsible labelers...
March 15, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318260/correction-to-molecular-crowding-accelerates-ribozyme-docking-and-catalysis
#9
Bishnu P Paudel, David Rueda
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316926/apert-syndrome-with-s252w-fgfr2-mutation-and-characterization-using-phenomizer-an-indian-case-report
#10
Fulesh Kunwar, Shikha Tewari, Sonal R Bakshi
Human genetic disease needs differential diagnosis to optimize clinical management, enable prenatal detection, and genetic counselling. The current methods of robust DNA sequencing also require next generation phenotyping to match with for better interpretation of genotypic and phenotypic heterogeneity commonly observed. We report use of human ontology based phenotypic characterization with Phenomizer that gives statistical score for possible diagnoses based on which, the gene mutation was studied. A case of craniosynostosis which refers to a group of syndromes characterized by a premature fusion of skull was studied...
January 2017: Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314103/computational-study-of-the-forces-driving-aggregation-of-ultrasmall-nanoparticles-in-biological-fluids
#11
Sergio A Hassan
Nanoparticle (NP) aggregation can lead to prolonged retention in tissues or embolism, among other adverse effects. Successful use in biomedicine thus requires the capability to make NPs with limited aggregative potential. Rational design is presently a challenge due to incomplete knowledge of their interactions in biofluids. Recently, ultrasmall gold NPs passivated with endogenous antioxidant glutathione have shown promise for use in vivo. Computer simulations are here conducted to identify the forces underlying aggregation (or lack thereof) of these NPs in a cell culture...
March 21, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314048/modeling-electrokinetics-in-ionic-liquids
#12
Chao Wang, Jie Bao, Wenxiao Pan, Xin Sun
Using direct numerical simulations, we provide a thorough study regarding the electrokinetics of ionic liquids. In particular, modified Poisson-Nernst-Planck (MPNP) equations are solved to capture the crowding and overscreening effects characteristic of an ionic liquid. For modeling electrokinetic flows in an ionic liquid, the MPNP equations are coupled with Navier-Stokes equations to study the coupling of ion transport, hydrodynamics, and electrostatic forces. Specifically, we consider the ion transport between two parallel charged surfaces, charging dynamics in a nanopore, capacitance of electric double-layer capacitors, electro-osmotic flow in a nanochannel, electroconvective instability on a plane ion-selective surface, and electroconvective flow on a curved ion-selective surface...
March 17, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306301/combining-diffusion-nmr-and-small-angle-neutron-scattering-enables-precise-measurements-of-polymer-chain-compression-in-a-crowded-environment
#13
Swomitra Palit, Lilin He, William A Hamilton, Arun Yethiraj, Anand Yethiraj
The effect of particles on the behavior of polymers in solution is important in a number of important phenomena such as the effect of "crowding" proteins in cells, colloid-polymer mixtures, and nanoparticle "fillers" in polymer solutions and melts. In this Letter, we study the effect of spherical inert nanoparticles (which we refer to as "crowders") on the diffusion coefficient and radius of gyration of polymers in solution using pulsed-field-gradient NMR and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), respectively...
March 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304378/generating-highly-accurate-prediction-hypotheses-through-collaborative-ensemble-learning
#14
Nino Arsov, Martin Pavlovski, Lasko Basnarkov, Ljupco Kocarev
Ensemble generation is a natural and convenient way of achieving better generalization performance of learning algorithms by gathering their predictive capabilities. Here, we nurture the idea of ensemble-based learning by combining bagging and boosting for the purpose of binary classification. Since the former improves stability through variance reduction, while the latter ameliorates overfitting, the outcome of a multi-model that combines both strives toward a comprehensive net-balancing of the bias-variance trade-off...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303126/the-influence-of-host-stress-on-the-mechanism-of-infection-lost-microbiomes-emergent-pathobiomes-and-the-role-of-interkingdom-signaling
#15
John C Alverdy, James N Luo
Mammals constantly face stressful situations, be it extended periods of starvation, sleep deprivation from fear of predation, changing environmental conditions, or loss of habitat. Today, mammals are increasingly exposed to xenobiotics such as pesticides, pollutants, and antibiotics. Crowding conditions such as those created for the purposes of meat production from animals or those imposed upon humans living in urban environments or during world travel create new levels of physiologic stress. As such, human progress has led to an unprecedented exposure of both animals and humans to accidental pathogens (i...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301851/the-effect-of-focus-and-phrase-position-on-east-norwegian-lexical-tonal-accents
#16
Niamh E Kelly, Rajka Smiljanic
Two experiments examined the acoustic correlates of the disyllabic tonal accent contrast in the Trøndersk dialect of Norwegian, and how narrow focus and phrasal position shape the contrast. Production results showed that both tonal accents have a high-low (HL) pitch contour, with different timing. In narrow focus, the pitch contrast was enlarged through asymmetrical F0 changes. When at the right edge of an accent phrase (AP), the accents were shown to have a higher L, lower AP H% tone, shorter stressed vowel, and longer final vowel...
March 17, 2017: Phonetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301768/theory-and-modeling-of-rna-structure-and-interactions-with-metal-ions-and-small-molecules
#17
Li-Zhen Sun, Dong Zhang, Shi-Jie Chen
In addition to continuous rapid progress in RNA structure determination, probing, and biophysical studies, the past decade has seen remarkable advances in the development of a new generation of RNA folding theories and models. In this article, we review RNA structure prediction models and models for ion-RNA and ligand-RNA interactions. These new models are becoming increasingly important for a mechanistic understanding of RNA function and quantitative design of RNA nanotechnology. We focus on new methods for physics-based, knowledge-based, and experimental data-directed modeling for RNA structures and explore the new theories for the predictions of metal ion and ligand binding sites and metal iondependent RNA stabilities...
March 15, 2017: Annual Review of Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301576/restored-mutant-receptor-corticoid-binding-in-chaperone-complexes-by-trimethylamine-n-oxide
#18
Aaron L Miller, W Austin Elam, Betty H Johnson, Shagufta H Khan, Raj Kumar, E Brad Thompson
Without a glucocorticoid (GC) ligand, the transcription factor glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is largely cytoplasmic, with its GC-binding domain held in high affinity conformation by a cluster of chaperones. Binding a GC causes serial dis- and re-associations with chaperones, translocation of the GR to the nucleus, where it binds to DNA sites and associates with coregulatory proteins and basic transcription complexes. Herein, we describe the effects of a potent protective osmolyte, trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), on a conditions-dependent "activation-labile" mutant GR (GRact/l), which under GR-activating conditions cannot bind GCs in cells or in cell cytosols...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301531/the-myopia-of-crowds-cognitive-load-and-collective-evaluation-of-answers-on-stack-exchange
#19
Keith Burghardt, Emanuel F Alsina, Michelle Girvan, William Rand, Kristina Lerman
Crowds can often make better decisions than individuals or small groups of experts by leveraging their ability to aggregate diverse information. Question answering sites, such as Stack Exchange, rely on the "wisdom of crowds" effect to identify the best answers to questions asked by users. We analyze data from 250 communities on the Stack Exchange network to pinpoint factors affecting which answers are chosen as the best answers. Our results suggest that, rather than evaluate all available answers to a question, users rely on simple cognitive heuristics to choose an answer to vote for or accept...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301497/long-term-outcomes-of-ciliary-sulcus-versus-capsular-bag-fixation-of-intraocular-lenses-in-children-an-ultrasound-biomicroscopy-study
#20
Yun-E Zhao, Xian-Hui Gong, Xue-Ning Zhu, He-Ming Li, Meng-Jun Tu, Terry G Coursey, Stephen C Pflugfelder, Feng Gu, Ding Chen
PURPOSE: To evaluate the long-term outcomes of ciliary sulcus versus capsular bag fixation of intraocular lenses (IOLs) in children after pediatric cataract surgery. METHODS: IOL was implanted in the ciliary sulcus in 21 eyes of 14 children, and in the capsular bag in 19 eyes of 12 children for the treatment of pediatric cataract in an institutional setting. Ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) was performed. Main outcome measures included IOL decentration, IOL tilt, anterior chamber depth (ACD), angle-opening distance at 500 μm (AOD500), trabecular-iris angle (TIA), best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), and incidence of postoperative complications...
2017: PloS One
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