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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212506/dimensional-and-discrete-variations-on-the-psychosis-continuum-in-a-dutch-crowd-sourcing-population-sample
#1
J T W Wigman, K J Wardenaar, R B K Wanders, S H Booij, B F Jeronimus, L van der Krieke, M Wichers, P de Jonge
BACKGROUND: Mild psychotic experiences are common in the general population. Although transient and benign in most cases, these experiences are predictive of later mental health problems for a significant minority. The goal of the present study was to perform examinations of the dimensional and discrete variations in individuals' reporting of subclinical positive and negative psychotic experiences in a unique Dutch internet-based sample from the general population. METHODS: Positive and negative subclinical psychotic experiences were measured with the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences in 2870 individuals...
December 18, 2016: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209000/carrea-s-index-and-tooth-dimensions-an-avant-garde-in-stature-estimation-an-observational-study
#2
Rayapureddy Sruthi, Reddy Sudhakara Reddy, Nallakunta Rajesh, Koneru Jyothirmai, Madgula Preethi, Thungala Navya Teja
INTRODUCTION: Identifying victims in case of mass disasters when only human remains are present is quite a challenging task. Although other peripheral extremities of human body are used in estimating stature, in situations where only skull is available, teeth play an important role in personal identification. The present study used Carrea's index in stature estimation using tooth dimensions. AIM: This study is intended to correlate the anterior mandibular tooth dimensions with that of real stature using Carrea's index and also to know the applicability and validity of this index to the current study population...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206950/use-of-pellet-guns-for-crowd-control-in-kashmir-how-lethal-is-non-lethal
#3
Siddarth David
The use of pellet guns during the recent unrest in Kashmir as a method of crowd control has been questioned because of several deaths and numerous injuries. Across the world, these rubber pellets have been shown to inflict serious injuries, permanent disability, and death. The volatility of mob violence, inaccuracies in aim of the pellets, over-use of the pellet guns, and the perception of their harmlessness enhances the destructive potential of these so-called non-lethal weapons. There is also the larger ethical question whether any form of pain, however minimal, could be inflicted to control violent crowds...
December 13, 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202925/public-health-aspects-of-the-world-s-largest-mass-gathering-the-2013-kumbh-mela-in-allahabad-india
#4
Satchit Balsari, P Gregg Greenough, Dhruv Kazi, Aaron Heerboth, Shraddha Dwivedi, Jennifer Leaning
India's Kumbh Mela remains the world's largest and longest mass gathering. The 2013 event, where participants undertook a ritual bath, hosted over 70 million Hindu pilgrims during 55 days on a 1936 hectare flood plain at the confluence of the Yamuna and Ganga Rivers. On the holiest bathing days, the population surged. Unlike other religious, cultural, and sports mass gatherings, the Kumbh Mela's administration cannot estimate or limit the participant number. The event created serious and uncommon public health challenges: initiating crowd safety measures where population density and mobility directly contact flowing bodies of water; providing water, sanitation, and hygiene to a population that frequently defecates in the open; and establishing disease surveillance and resource use measures within a temporary health delivery system...
December 2016: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202338/a-new-strategy-for-emergency-department-crowding-high-turnover-utility-bed-intervention
#5
I-Hsin Lee, Chung-Ting Chen, Yi-Tzu Lee, Yueh-Shuang Hsu, Chia-Ling Lu, Hsien-Hao Huang, Teh-Fu Hsu, Chorng-Kuang How, David Hung-Tsang Yen, Ueng-Cheng Yang
BACKGROUND: This study applied a new strategy, termed high-turnover utility bed intervention, to offer early admission chances for emergency department (ED) patients and alleviate ED crowding. METHODS: This before-and-after observational cohort study was conducted at the ED of an urban tertiary hospital. On January 1, 2012, 14 utility beds were prepared exclusively for ED patient use. A strict 48-hour course limit for each patient was formulated to govern these high-turnover beds...
February 12, 2017: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199324/establishing-a-reliable-framework-for-harnessing-the-creative-power-of-the-scientific-crowd
#6
Adrian J Carter, Amy Donner, Wen Hwa Lee, Chas Bountra
Discovering new medicines is difficult and increasingly expensive. The pharmaceutical industry has responded to this challenge by embracing open innovation to access external ideas. Historically, partnerships were usually bilateral, and the drug discovery process was shrouded in secrecy. This model is rapidly changing. With the advent of the Internet, drug discovery has become more decentralised, bottom-up, and scalable than ever before. The term open innovation is now accepted as just one of many terms that capture different but overlapping levels of openness in the drug discovery process...
February 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199303/mechanical-stretch-triggers-rapid-epithelial-cell-division-through-piezo1
#7
S A Gudipaty, J Lindblom, P D Loftus, M J Redd, K Edes, C F Davey, V Krishnegowda, J Rosenblatt
Despite acting as a barrier for the organs they encase, epithelial cells turn over at some of the fastest rates in the body. However, epithelial cell division must be tightly linked to cell death to preserve barrier function and prevent tumour formation. How does the number of dying cells match those dividing to maintain constant numbers? When epithelial cells become too crowded, they activate the stretch-activated channel Piezo1 to trigger extrusion of cells that later die. However, it is unclear how epithelial cell division is controlled to balance cell death at the steady state...
February 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197408/module-anchored-network-inference-a-sequential-module-based-approach-to-novel-gene-network-construction-from-genomic-expression-data-on-human-disease-mechanism
#8
Annamalai Muthiah, Susanna R Keller, Jae K Lee
Different computational approaches have been examined and compared for inferring network relationships from time-series genomic data on human disease mechanisms under the recent Dialogue on Reverse Engineering Assessment and Methods (DREAM) challenge. Many of these approaches infer all possible relationships among all candidate genes, often resulting in extremely crowded candidate network relationships with many more False Positives than True Positives. To overcome this limitation, we introduce a novel approach, Module Anchored Network Inference (MANI), that constructs networks by analyzing sequentially small adjacent building blocks (modules)...
2017: International Journal of Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196693/public-perceptions-of-overlapping-surgery
#9
Michael Kent, Richard Whyte, Aaron Fleishman, David Tomich, Lachlan Forrow, James Rodrigue
BACKGROUND: Overlapping surgery is highly contentious, both in regards to the safety of the practice and the degree to which patients should be informed. However, no study has surveyed attitudes of the general public in regards to overlapping surgery, and willingness to consent to such a procedure. STUDY DESIGN: A survey regarding overlapping surgery was completed by participants using Amazon Mechanical Turk (mTurk), an online crowd-sourcing worksite. Responders completed a 51-question survey regarding their knowledge of overlapping surgery, expectations regarding disclosure during the informed consent process, and their willingness to participate in such a procedure...
February 11, 2017: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196375/adding-temporally-localized-noise-can-enhance-the-contribution-of-target-knowledge-on-contrast-detection
#10
Daphné Silvestre, Patrick Cavanagh, Angelo Arleo, Rémy Allard
External noise paradigms are widely used to characterize sensitivity by comparing the effect of a variable on contrast threshold when it is limited by internal versus external noise. A basic assumption of external noise paradigms is that the processing properties are the same in low and high noise. However, recent studies (e.g., Allard & Cavanagh, 2011; Allard & Faubert, 2014b) suggest that this assumption could be violated when using spatiotemporally localized noise (i.e., appearing simultaneously and at the same location as the target) but not when using spatiotemporally extended noise (i...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195538/a-question-of-ethics-not-nationalism-author-s-response
#11
Siddarth David
The aim of the comment "Use of pellet guns for crowd control in Kashmir: How lethal is 'non-lethal'?" was neither to disparage the armed forces, nor recommend counterinsurgency strategies, nor support any particular community or group. It sought to raise discussions around the question pointed out by the responder himself, namely, "the ethical point of view" on the use of pellet guns in controlling violent mobs. The author also feels that the question is not so much about "favouring" the protestors or the security forces, but whether an instrument that causes significant fatalities and morbidities among bystanders should continue to be used as a method of crowd control...
January 27, 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195534/should-a-medical-ethics-journal-discuss-the-actions-of-the-security-forces
#12
Ravindra B Ghooi
This refers to the comment "Use of pellet guns for crowd control in Kashmir: How lethal is 'non-lethal'?" by Siddarth David in the Indian Journal of Medical Ethics. My objection is not to the ethics of the use of pellet guns, but to the ethics of publishing such an article in a journal devoted to medical ethics.
January 27, 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195135/co-operation-competition-and-crowding-a-discrete-framework-linking-allee-kinetics-nonlinear-diffusion-shocks-and-sharp-fronted-travelling-waves
#13
Stuart T Johnston, Ruth E Baker, D L Sean McElwain, Matthew J Simpson
Invasion processes are ubiquitous throughout cell biology and ecology. During invasion, individuals can become isolated from the bulk population and behave differently. We present a discrete, exclusion-based description of the birth, death and movement of individuals. The model distinguishes between individuals that are part of, or are isolated from, the bulk population by imposing different rates of birth, death and movement. This enables the simulation of various co-operative or competitive mechanisms, where there is either a positive or negative benefit associated with being part of the bulk population, respectively...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194464/ring-opening-of-a-sterically-crowded-1-2-oxaphosphetane-complex
#14
A W Kyri, P Brehm, G Schnakenburg, R Streubel
The first example of a ring opening reaction of a 1,2-oxaphosphetane complex is reported, i.e., water in the presence of [Li(12-crown-4)]Cl furnished a C-OH functional phosphinito complex. Employment of the latter in ring forming reactions with Me2ECL2 (E = Si, Ge) using different nitrogen bases is also described.
February 14, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192508/multiswarm-comprehensive-learning-particle-swarm-optimization-for-solving-multiobjective-optimization-problems
#15
Xiang Yu, Xueqing Zhang
Comprehensive learning particle swarm optimization (CLPSO) is a powerful state-of-the-art single-objective metaheuristic. Extending from CLPSO, this paper proposes multiswarm CLPSO (MSCLPSO) for multiobjective optimization. MSCLPSO involves multiple swarms, with each swarm associated with a separate original objective. Each particle's personal best position is determined just according to the corresponding single objective. Elitists are stored externally. MSCLPSO differs from existing multiobjective particle swarm optimizers in three aspects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192234/meningococcal-carriage-in-dutch-adolescents-and-young-adults-a-cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-cohort-study
#16
Mariëtte B van Ravenhorst, Merijn W Bijlsma, Marlies A van Houten, Veerle M D Struben, Annaliesa S Anderson, Joseph Eiden, Hao Li, Kathrin U Jansen, Hal Jones, Nicholas Kitchin, Louise Pedneault, Elisabeth A M Sanders, Arie van der Ende
OBJECTIVES: Current information on rates and dynamics of meningococcal carriage is essential for public health policy. This study aimed to determine meningococcal carriage prevalence, its risk factors and duration in the Netherlands, where meningococcal C vaccine coverage is >90%. Several methods to identify serogroups of meningococcal carriage isolates among adolescent and young adults were compared. METHODS: Oropharyngeal swabs from 1715 subjects 13-23 years of age were collected in 2013-2014; 300 were prospectively followed over 8 months...
February 10, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192233/use-of-ontology-structure-and-bayesian-models-to-aid-the-crowdsourcing-of-icd-11-sanctioning-rules
#17
Yun Lou, Samson W Tu, Csongor Nyulas, Tania Tudorache, Robert J G Chalmers, Mark A Musen
The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is the de facto standard international classification for mortality reporting and for many epidemiological, clinical, and financial use cases. The next version of ICD, ICD-11, will be submitted for approval by the World Health Assembly in 2018. Unlike previous versions of ICD, where coders mostly select single codes from pre-enumerated disease and disorder codes, ICD-11 coding will allow extensive use of multiple codes to give more detailed disease descriptions...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188202/progressive-prediction-of-hospitalisation-in-the-emergency-department-uncovering-hidden-patterns-to-improve-patient-flow
#18
Yuval Barak-Corren, Shlomo Hanan Israelit, Ben Y Reis
INTRODUCTION: One of the factors contributing to ED crowding is the lengthy delay in transferring an admitted patient from the ED to an inpatient department (ie, boarding time). An earlier start of the admission process using an automatic hospitalisation prediction model could potentially shorten these delays and reduce crowding. METHODS: Clinical, operational and demographic data were retrospectively collected on 80 880 visits to the ED of Rambam Health Care Campus in Haifa, Israel, from January 2011 to January 2012...
February 10, 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186083/corrigendum-lipid-ii-independent-antimicrobial-mechanism-of-nisin-depends-on-its-crowding-and-degree-of-oligomerization
#19
Ashutosh Prince, Padmani Sandhu, Pankaj Ror, Eva Dash, Shingarika Sharma, Manoranjan Arakha, Suman Jha, Yusuf Akhter, Mohammed Saleem
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182476/evolving-the-keys-to-visual-crowding
#20
Erik Van der Burg, Christian N L Olivers, John Cass
Peripheral vision can be severely impaired by nearby clutter. Decades of research using sparse displays have established that this phenomenon, known as visual crowding, follows Bouma's rule: Interference occurs for target-distractor separations up to half the target's eccentricity. Although considered a fundamental constraint on human vision, it is unclear whether Bouma's rule holds in dense heterogeneous visual environments. Using a genetic algorithm we investigated crowding in densely cluttered displays. Participants were instructed to identify the orientation of a target line (6° eccentricity) among 284 distractor lines...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
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