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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109185/folding-of-intrinsically-disordered-plant-lea-proteins-is-driven-by-glycerol-induced-crowding-and-the-presence-of-membranes
#1
Anne Bremer, Martin Wolff, Anja Thalhammer, Dirk K Hincha
Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are related to cellular dehydration tolerance. Most LEA proteins are predicted to have no stable secondary structure in solution, i.e. to be intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs), but they may acquire α-helical structure upon drying. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana the LEA proteins COR15A and COR15B are highly induced upon cold treatment and are necessary for the plants to attain full freezing tolerance. Freezing leads to increased intracellular crowding due to dehydration by extracellular ice crystals...
January 21, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107348/predicting-length-of-stay-among-patients-discharged-from-the-emergency-department-using-an-accelerated-failure-time-model
#2
Chung-Hsien Chaou, Hsiu-Hsi Chen, Shu-Hui Chang, Petrus Tang, Shin-Liang Pan, Amy Ming-Fang Yen, Te-Fa Chiu
BACKGROUND: Emergency department (ED) crowding continues to be an important health care issue in modern countries. Among the many crucial quality indicators for monitoring the throughput process, a patient's length of stay (LOS) is considered the most important one since it is both the cause and the result of ED crowding. The aim of this study is to identify and quantify the influence of different patient-related or diagnostic activities-related factors on the ED LOS of discharged patients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107006/facilitated-diffusion-of-transcription-factor-proteins-with-anomalous-bulk-diffusion
#3
Lin Liu, Andrey G Cherstvy, Ralf Metzler
What are the physical laws of the diffusive search of proteins for their specific binding sites on DNA in the presence of the macromolecular crowding in cells? We performed extensive computer simulations to elucidate the protein target search on DNA. The novel feature is the viscoelastic non-Brownian protein bulk diffusion recently observed experimentally. We examine the influence of the protein-DNA binding affinity and the anomalous diffusion exponent on the target search time. In all cases an optimal search time is found...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106622/effect-of-combination-vaccines-on-hepatitis-b-vaccine-compliance-in-children-in-the-united-states
#4
Samantha K Kurosky, Keith L Davis, Claudia M Galindo
BACKGROUND: An increasingly crowded immunization schedule threatens the completion and compliance of hepatitis B vaccinations (HepB), the primary method of hepatitis B prevention. Combination vaccines have been proposed to alleviate this problem. METHODS: Data from the 2011 National Immunization Survey Public Use File were utilized (GSK study identifier: HO-11-770) to compare HepB completion and compliance rates between 3 groups of children: those who received HepB combination vaccine, those who received non-HepB combination vaccine, and those who received HepB single-antigen vaccine only...
January 17, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105721/bioarchaeology-in-the-ancient-near-east-challenges-and-future-directions-for-the-southern-levant
#5
Susan Guise Sheridan
The synthesis of biological anthropology, archaeology, and social theory provides a bioarchaeological model to reconstruct nuanced aspects of demography, diet, disease, death, daily activities, and biodistance, even in the absence of discrete burials. Numerous skeletal assemblages in the southern Levant are composed of mixed and fragmented bones resulting from generational use of cemeteries, mass burial, and additional communal burial practices. Others become commingled due to taphonomic processes such as flooding, geological events, or human mediated mechanisms like looting, improper excavation, and poor curation...
January 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104709/utility-of-social-media-and-crowd-sourced-data-for-pharmacovigilance-a-scoping-review-protocol
#6
Andrea C Tricco, Wasifa Zarin, Erin Lillie, Ba Pham, Sharon E Straus
INTRODUCTION: Adverse events associated with medications are under-reported in postmarketing surveillance systems. A systematic review of published data from 37 studies worldwide (including Canada) found the median under-reporting rate of adverse events to be 94% in spontaneous reporting systems. This scoping review aims to assess the utility of social media and crowd-sourced data to detect and monitor adverse events related to health products including pharmaceuticals, medical devices, biologics and natural health products...
January 19, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103190/learning-supervised-topic-models-for-classification-and-regression-from-crowds
#7
Filipe Rodrigues, Mariana Lourenco, Bernardete Ribeiro, Francisco Pereira
The growing need to analyze large collections of documents has led to great developments in topic modeling. Since documents are frequently associated with other related variables, such as labels or ratings, much interest has been placed on supervised topic models. However, the nature of most annotation tasks, prone to ambiguity and noise, often with high volumes of documents, deem learning under a single-annotator assumption unrealistic or unpractical for most real-world applications. In this article, we propose two supervised topic models, one for classification and another for regression problems, which account for the heterogeneity and biases among different annotators that are encountered in practice when learning from crowds...
January 5, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103067/why-peer-crowds-matter-incorporating-youth-subcultures-and-values-in-health-education-campaigns
#8
Meghan Bridgid Moran, Matthew W Walker, Tesfa N Alexander, Jeffrey W Jordan, Dana E Wagner
Grounded on research showing that peer crowds vary in risk behavior, several recent health behavior interventions, including the US Food and Drug Administration's Fresh Empire campaign, have targeted high-risk peer crowds. We establish the scientific foundations for using this approach. We introduce peer crowd targeting as a strategy for culturally targeting health behavior interventions to youths. We use social identity and social norms theory to explicate the theoretical underpinnings of this approach. We describe Fresh Empire to demonstrate how peer crowd targeting functions in a campaign and critically evaluate the benefits and limitations of this approach...
January 19, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102665/cosolute-and-crowding-effects-on-a-side-by-side-protein-dimer
#9
Alex J Guseman, Gary J Pielak
The effects of small (~102 Da) and larger (>103 Da) cosolutes on protein stability are broadly understood: excluding volume stabilizes proteins, and chemical interactions are stabilizing when repulsive, but destabilizing when attractive. Proteins, however, rarely work alone. Here, we investigate the effects of small and larger cosolutes on the equilibrium stability of the simplest defined protein-protein interactions, the side-by-side homodimer formed by the A34F variant of the 56-residue B1 domain of protein G...
January 19, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100700/pbrowse-a-web-based-platform-for-real-time-collaborative-exploration-of-genomic-data
#10
Peter S Szot, Andrian Yang, Xin Wang, Chirag Parsania, Uwe Röhm, Koon Ho Wong, Joshua W K Ho
Genome browsers are widely used for individually exploring various types of genomic data. A handful of genome browsers offer limited tools for collaboration among multiple users. Here, we describe PBrowse, an integrated real-time collaborative genome browser that enables multiple users to simultaneously view and access genomic data, thereby harnessing the wisdom of the crowd. PBrowse is based on the Dalliance genome browser and has a re-designed user and data management system with novel collaborative functionalities, including real-time collaborative view, track comment and an integrated group chat feature...
January 18, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100000/interdisciplinary-management-of-an-adult-patient-with-significant-restorative-treatment-needs-and-a-complex-malocclusion
#11
Naresh Shah, Desmond Cheer-Vern Ong, Elissa Freer
Transverse maxillary deficiency may be associated with dental crowding, compromised aesthetics and impaired function. Non-surgical correction of maxillary transverse deficiency through rapid maxillary expansion is routinely performed for young patients, however, surgical intervention is generally required for adults. An interdisciplinary treatment approach is necessary to achieve the desired treatment objectives for challenging cases. This case report demonstrates a pleasing treatment outcome for a patient with a severe maxillary transverse deficiency, significant crowding and extensive active caries...
January 18, 2017: Australian Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099047/factors-influencing-the-breastfeeding-practices-of-young-mothers-living-in-a-maternity-shelter
#12
Rosann Edwards, Wendy E Peterson, Joy Noel-Weiss, Cathryn Shearer Fortier
BACKGROUND: Young mothers have the lowest breastfeeding rates in Canada. Young mothers and their infants who access maternity shelters are especially at risk for poor outcomes, some of which breastfeeding may help to mitigate, yet little is known of the breastfeeding practices of this population. Research aim: The purpose of this study was to answer the research question, "What factors influence the breastfeeding practices of young mothers who live or have lived in a maternity shelter?" METHODS: The study was conducted using interpretive description methodology and inductive content analysis...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097056/rhea-a-transparent-and-modular-r-pipeline-for-microbial-profiling-based-on-16s-rrna-gene-amplicons
#13
Ilias Lagkouvardos, Sandra Fischer, Neeraj Kumar, Thomas Clavel
The importance of 16S rRNA gene amplicon profiles for understanding the influence of microbes in a variety of environments coupled with the steep reduction in sequencing costs led to a surge of microbial sequencing projects. The expanding crowd of scientists and clinicians wanting to make use of sequencing datasets can choose among a range of multipurpose software platforms, the use of which can be intimidating for non-expert users. Among available pipeline options for high-throughput 16S rRNA gene analysis, the R programming language and software environment for statistical computing stands out for its power and increased flexibility, and the possibility to adhere to most recent best practices and to adjust to individual project needs...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089324/the-peculiar-functions-of-the-bacterial-extracellular-matrix
#14
REVIEW
Anna Dragoš, Ákos T Kovács
A biofilm is a common life form where bacterial cells crowd together surrounded by an extracellular matrix (ECM). Traditionally, the ECM is considered as a structural material that glues and shields the biofilm cells. Here we describe alternative functions of the ECM, highlighting how it benefits microbes beyond the biofilms. Next to protecting free-living cells, the ECM participates in signaling, migration, and genetic exchange either being freely shared with other species or being exclusive to siblings. Considering the structural and recently discovered functions of the ECM, we also attempt to revise its role in sociomicrobiology...
January 11, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088138/fast-simulation-of-brownian-dynamics-in-a-crowded-environment
#15
Stephen Smith, Ramon Grima
Brownian dynamics simulations are an increasingly popular tool for understanding spatially extended biochemical reaction systems. Recent improvements in our understanding of the cellular environment show that volume exclusion effects are fundamental to reaction networks inside cells. These systems are frequently studied by incorporating inert hard spheres (crowders) into three-dimensional Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations; however these methods are extremely slow owing to the sheer number of possible collisions between particles...
January 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087098/emergency-department-crowding-associated-with-differences-in-cxr-interpretations-between-emergency-physicians-and-radiologists
#16
Bernard P Chang, Darnell Cain, Stephen R Mitroff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 29, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081570/the-population-ecology-of-technology-an-empirical-study-of-us-biotechnology-patents-from-1976-to-2003
#17
Ad van den Oord, Arjen van Witteloostuijn
A detailed understanding of technological change as an evolutionary process is currently not well understood. To increase our understanding, we build upon theory from organizational ecology to develop a model of endogenous technological growth and determine to what extent the pattern of technological growth can be attributed to the structural or systemic characteristics of the technology itself. Through an empirical investigation of patent data in the biotechnology industry from 1976 to 2003, we find that a technology's internal (i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080126/know-thy-enemy-education-about-terrorism-improves-social-attitudes-toward-terrorists
#18
Jordan Theriault, Peter Krause, Liane Young
Hatred of terrorists is an obstacle to the implementation of effective counterterrorism policies-it invites indiscriminate retaliation, whereas many of the greatest successes in counterterrorism have come from understanding terrorists' personal and political motivations. Drawing from psychological research, traditional prejudice reduction strategies are generally not well suited to the task of reducing hatred of terrorists. Instead, in 2 studies, we explored education's potential ability to reduce extreme negative attitudes toward terrorists...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078823/hippo-vs-crab-tissue-specific-functions-of-the-mammalian-hippo-pathway
#19
REVIEW
Miki Nishio, Tomohiko Maehama, Hiroki Goto, Keisuke Nakatani, Wakako Kato, Hirofumi Omori, Yosuke Miyachi, Hideru Togashi, Yohei Shimono, Akira Suzuki
The Hippo signaling pathway is a vital suppressor of tumorigenesis that is often inactivated in human cancers. In normal cells, the Hippo pathway is triggered by external forces such as cell crowding, or changes to the extracellular matrix or cell polarity. Once activated, Hippo signaling down-regulates transcription supported by the paralogous cofactors YAP1 and TAZ. The Hippo pathway's functions in normal and cancer biology have been dissected by studies of mutant mice with null or conditional tissue-specific mutations of Hippo signaling elements...
January 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078801/abnormal-pollen-vacuolation1-apv1-is-required-for-male-fertility-by-contributing-to-anther-cuticle-and-pollen-exine-formation-in-maize
#20
Yamuna Somaratne, Youhui Tian, Hua Zhang, Mingming Wang, Yanqing Huo, Fengge Cao, Li Zhao, Huabang Chen
Anther cuticle and pollen exine are the major protective barriers against various stresses. The proper functioning of genes expressed in the tapetum is vital for the development of pollen exine and anther cuticle. In this study, we report a tapetum-specific gene, Abnormal Pollen Vacuolation1 (APV1), in maize that affects anther cuticle and pollen exine formation. The apv1 mutant was completely male sterile. Its microspores were swollen, less vacuolated, with a flat and empty anther locule. In the mutant, the anther epidermal surface was smooth, shiny, and plate-shaped compared with the three-dimensional crowded ridges and randomly formed wax crystals on the epidermal surface of the wild type...
January 12, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
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