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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937905/combined-orthodontic-and-surgical-treatment-in-a-8-years-old-patient-affected-by-severe-obstructive-sleep-apnea-a-case-report
#1
Antonio Gracco, Giovanni Bruno, Alberto de Stefani, Rosario Marchese Ragona, Sergio Mazzoleni, Edoardo Stellini
An eight-years-old girl showed a restless sleep with snoring and severe apnea episodes, a mandibular retrognathia, mouth breathing, maxillary transverse discrepancy, mandibular transverse discrepancy, moderate crowding and anterior open-bite. The CBCT showed an anterior collapse of the epiglottis. The treatment consisted in a rapid palatal expansion, an epiglottoplasty and a reduction of the tongue base. Polysomnography revealed that apnea-hypopnea index improved from 21,8 episodes/hr at the baseline to 0,6 episodes/hr, average oxygen saturation from 96,5% to 98,1%, oxygen desaturation events from 23,4 episodes/hr to 1/hr...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936795/the-ugly-truth-about-ourselves-and-our-robot-creations-the-problem-of-bias-and-social-inequity
#2
Ayanna Howard, Jason Borenstein
Recently, there has been an upsurge of attention focused on bias and its impact on specialized artificial intelligence (AI) applications. Allegations of racism and sexism have permeated the conversation as stories surface about search engines delivering job postings for well-paying technical jobs to men and not women, or providing arrest mugshots when keywords such as "black teenagers" are entered. Learning algorithms are evolving; they are often created from parsing through large datasets of online information while having truth labels bestowed on them by crowd-sourced masses...
September 21, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935608/mechanical-coupling-of-microtubule-dependent-motor-teams-during-peroxisome-transport-in-drosophila-s2-cells
#3
María Cecilia De Rossi, Diana E Wetzler, Lorena Benseñor, María Emilia De Rossi, Mariela Sued, Daniela Rodríguez, Vladimir Gelfand, Luciana Bruno, Valeria Levi
BACKGROUND: Intracellular transport requires molecular motors that step along cytoskeletal filaments actively dragging cargoes through the crowded cytoplasm. Here, we explore the interplay of the opposed polarity motors kinesin-1 and cytoplasmic dynein during peroxisome transport along microtubules in Drosophila S2 cells. METHODS: We used single particle tracking with nanometer accuracy and millisecond time resolution to extract quantitative information on the bidirectional motion of organelles...
September 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934505/combining-asymmetric-13c-labeling-and-isotopic-filter-edit-noesy-a-novel-strategy-for-rapid-and-logical-rna-resonance-assignment
#4
Regan M LeBlanc, Andrew P Longhini, Stuart F J Le Grice, Bruce A Johnson, Theodore K Dayie
Although ∼98% of the human genomic output is transcribed as non-protein coding RNA, <2% of the protein data bank structures comprise RNA. This huge structural disparity stems from combined difficulties of crystallizing RNA for X-ray crystallography along with extensive chemical shift overlap and broadened linewidths associated with NMR of RNA. While half of the deposited RNA structures in the PDB were solved by NMR methods, the usefulness of NMR is still limited by the high cost of sample preparation and challenges of resonance assignment...
September 19, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932696/an-automated-workflow-for-quantifying-rna-transcripts-in-individual-cells-in-large-data-sets
#5
Matthew C Pharris, Tzu-Ching Wu, Xinping Chen, Xu Wang, David M Umulis, Vikki M Weake, Tamara L Kinzer-Ursem
Advanced molecular probing techniques such as single molecule fluorescence in situ hybridization (smFISH) or RNAscope can be used to assess the quantity and spatial location of mRNA transcripts within cells. Quantifying mRNA expression in large image sets usually involves automated counting of fluorescent spots. Though conventional spot counting algorithms may suffice, they often lack high-throughput capacity and accuracy in cases of crowded signal or excessive noise. Automatic identification of cells and processing of many images is still a challenge...
2017: MethodsX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930443/hydrogel-tethering-enhances-interdomain-stabilization-of-single-chain-antibodies
#6
Yijia Xiong, Nicole R Ford, Karen A Hecht, Guritno Roesijadi, Thomas C Squier
Here we identify the importance of molecular crowding agents in the functional stabilization of scFv antibodies. Antibodies were tethered through an engineered calmodulin (CaM) binding peptide into a stimulus-responsive hydrogel composed of poly-(ethylene glycol) (PEG) functionalized CaM. Macromolecular crowding is modulated by transient heating, which acts to decrease effective pore sizes. Using a fluorescent ligand bound to the scFv, frequency-domain fluorescence spectroscopy was used to assess the structural coupling between the VH and VL domains and relationships with functional stabilization...
September 20, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930428/ion-transport-in-confined-geometries-below-the-nanoscale-access-resistance-dominates-protein-channel-conductance-in-diluted-solutions
#7
Antonio Alcaraz, M Lidón López, María Queralt-Martín, Vicente M Aguilella
Synthetic nanopores and mesoscopic protein channels have common traits like the importance of electrostatic interactions between the permeating ions and the nanochannel. Ion transport at the nanoscale occurs under confinement conditions so that the usual assumptions made in microfluidics are challenged, among others, by interfacial effects such as access resistance (AR). Here, we show that a sound interpretation of electrophysiological measurements in terms of channel ion selective properties requires the consideration of interfacial effects, up to the point that they dominate protein channel conductance in diluted solutions...
September 22, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929984/developing-a-hospital-disaster-preparedness-plan-for-mass-casualty-incidents-lessons-learned-from-the-downtown-beirut-bombing
#8
Mazen El Sayed, Ali F Chami, Eveline Hitti
Mass casualty incidents (MCIs) are becoming more frequent worldwide, especially in the Middle East where violence in Syria has spilled over to many neighboring countries. Lebanon lacks a coordinated prehospital response system to deal with MCIs; therefore, hospital preparedness plans are essential to deal with the surge of casualties. This report describes our experience in dealing with an MCI involving a car bomb in an urban area of downtown Beirut, Lebanon. It uses general response principles to propose a simplified response model for hospitals to use during MCIs...
September 20, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929156/imperfect-crowding-adaptation-of-mammalian-cells-towards-osmotic-stress-and-its-modulation-by-osmolytes
#9
David Gnutt, Oliver Brylski, Eugen Edengeiser, Martina Havenith, Simon Ebbinghaus
Changes of the extracellular milieu could affect cellular crowding. To prevent detrimental effects, cells use adaptation mechanisms to react to such conditions. Using fluorescent crowding sensors, we show that the initial response to osmotic stress is fast but imperfect, while the slow response renders cells more tolerant to stress, particularly in the presence of osmolytes.
September 20, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928399/a-ring-polymer-model-shows-how-macromolecular-crowding-controls-chromosome-arm-organization-in-escherichia-coli
#10
Chanil Jeon, Youngkyun Jung, Bae-Yeun Ha
Macromolecular crowding influences various cellular processes such as macromolecular association and transcription, and is a key determinant of chromosome organization in bacteria. The entropy of crowders favors compaction of long chain molecules such as chromosomes. To what extent is the circular bacterial chromosome, often viewed as consisting of "two arms", organized entropically by crowding? Using computer simulations, we examine how a ring polymer is organized in a crowded and cylindrically-confined space, as a coarse-grained bacterial chromosome...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926644/assessment-of-housing-density-space-allocation-and-social-hierarchy-of-laboratory-rats-on-behavioural-measures-of-welfare
#11
Timothy Hugh Barker, Rebecca Peta George, Gordon Stanley Howarth, Alexandra Louise Whittaker
Minimum space allowances for laboratory rats are legislated based on weight and stocking rates, with the understanding that increased housing density encourages crowding stress. However, there is little evidence for these recommendations, especially when considering positive welfare outcomes. This study consisted of two experiments which investigated the effects of housing density (rats per cage), space allocation (surface area per rat) and social rank (dominance hierarchy) on the ability to perform simple behavioural tests...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925997/precision-annotation-of-digital-samples-in-ncbi-s-gene-expression-omnibus
#12
Dexter Hadley, James Pan, Osama El-Sayed, Jihad Aljabban, Imad Aljabban, Tej D Azad, Mohamad O Hadied, Shuaib Raza, Benjamin Abhishek Rayikanti, Bin Chen, Hyojung Paik, Dvir Aran, Jordan Spatz, Daniel Himmelstein, Maryam Panahiazar, Sanchita Bhattacharya, Marina Sirota, Mark A Musen, Atul J Butte
The Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) contains more than two million digital samples from functional genomics experiments amassed over almost two decades. However, individual sample meta-data remains poorly described by unstructured free text attributes preventing its largescale reanalysis. We introduce the Search Tag Analyze Resource for GEO as a web application (http://STARGEO.org) to curate better annotations of sample phenotypes uniformly across different studies, and to use these sample annotations to define robust genomic signatures of disease pathology by meta-analysis...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924915/multiscale-modeling-of-diffusion-in-a-crowded-environment
#13
Lina Meinecke
We present a multiscale approach to model diffusion in a crowded environment and its effect on the reaction rates. Diffusion in biological systems is often modeled by a discrete space jump process in order to capture the inherent noise of biological systems, which becomes important in the low copy number regime. To model diffusion in the crowded cell environment efficiently, we compute the jump rates in this mesoscopic model from local first exit times, which account for the microscopic positions of the crowding molecules, while the diffusing molecules jump on a coarser Cartesian grid...
September 18, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924304/nedocs-vs-subjective-evaluation-%C3%A2-is-the-health-personnel-of-the-emergency-department-aware-of-its-overcrowding
#14
Mauricio Garcia-Romero, Claudia Geraldine Rita-Gáfaro, Jairo Quintero-Manzano, Anderson Bermon Angarita
INTRODUCTION: An emergency department (ED) is considered to be "overcrowded" when the number of patients exceeds its treatment capacity and it does not have the conditions to meet the needs of the next patient to be treated. This study evaluates overcrowding in the emergency department of a hospital in Colombia. OBJECTIVE: To compare the objective NEDOCS scale with a subjective evaluation by ED health staff in order to evaluate the differences between the two. METHODS: The NEDOCS scale was applied and a subjective overcrowding survey was administered to the medical staff and the charge nurse on duty 6 times per day (6:00 a...
June 30, 2017: Colombia Médica: CM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922967/contemporary-hiv-aids-research-insights-from-knowledge-management-theory
#15
Chris William Callaghan
Knowledge management as a field is concerned with the management of knowledge, including the management of knowledge in research processes. Knowledge management theory has the potential to support research into problems such as HIV, antibiotic resistance and others, particularly in terms of aspects of scientific research related to the contribution of social science. To date, however, these challenges remain with us, and theoretical contributions that can complement natural science efforts to eradicate these problems are needed...
December 2017: SAHARA J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921691/quantitative-determination-and-validation-of-octreotide-acetate-using-1-h-nmr-spectroscopy-with-internal-standard-method
#16
Chen Yu, Qian Zhang, Peng-Yao Xu, Yin Bai, Wen-Bin Shen, Bin Di, Meng-Xiang Su
Quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR) is a well-established technique in quantitative analysis. We presented a validated (1) H quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance ((1) H-qNMR) method for assay of octreotide acetate (OCT-Ac), a kind of cyclic octopeptide. Deuterium oxide was used to remove the undesired exchangeable peaks, which was referred to as proton exchange, in order to make the quantitative signals isolated in the crowded spectrum of the peptide and ensure precise quantitative analysis. Gemcitabine hydrochloride was chosen as the suitable internal standard (IS)...
September 15, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry: MRC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920983/unified-elucidation-of-the-entropy-driven-and-opposed-hydrophobic-effects
#17
Masahiro Kinoshita, Tomohiko Hayashi
The association of nonpolar solutes is generally believed to be entropy driven, which has been shown to be true for the contact of small molecules, ellipsoids, and plates. However, it has been reported with surprise that a model cavity-ligand binding is entropy opposed. How can these apparently conflicting behaviors be elucidated? Here, we calculate the potential of mean force between hard-sphere solutes with various diameters in water and its entropic and enthalpic components using a statistical-mechanical theory for molecular liquids...
September 18, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919556/measuring-inotocin-receptor-gene-expression-in-chronological-order-in-ant-queens
#18
Sarah Chérasse, Serge Aron
In vertebrates and invertebrates, oxytocin/vasopressin-like peptides modulate a variety of behaviors. The recent discovery of the gene and receptor sequences of inotocin, the insect ortholog of oxytocin/vasopressin, opens new opportunities for understanding the role of this peptide family in regulating behaviors in the most populated class of living animals. Ants live in highly organized colonies. Once a year, they produce future queens that soon leave the nest to mate and found new colonies. During the first months of their lives, ant queens display a sequence of behaviors ranging from copulation and social interactions to violent fighting...
September 14, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917842/multi-scale-simulations-of-biological-systems-using-the-opep-coarse-grained-model
#19
Fabio Sterpone, Sébastien Doutreligne, Thanh Thuy Tran, Simone Melchionna, Marc Baaden, Phuong H Nguyen, Philippe Derreumaux
Biomolecules are complex machines that are optimized by evolution to properly fulfill or contribute to a variety of biochemical tasks in the cellular environment. Computer simulations based on quantum mechanics and atomistic force fields have been proven to be a powerful microscope for obtaining valuable insights into many biological, physical, and chemical processes. Many interesting phenomena involve, however, a time scale and a number of degrees of freedom, notably if crowding is considered, that cannot be explored at an atomistic resolution...
September 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917306/evaluation-of-surface-antigen-tf1-17-in-feline-tritrichomonas-foetus-isolates
#20
E N Gould, L B Corbeil, S A Kania, M K Tolbert
Tritrichomonas foetus (T. foetus) is a flagellated protozoa that infects the distal ileum and proximal colon of domestic cats, as well as the urogenital tract of cattle. Feline trichomonosis is recognized as a prevalent cause of chronic diarrhea in cats worldwide. The suspected route of transmission is fecal-oral, with cats in densely crowded environments at highest risk for infection. Thus, the recommended strategy for minimizing spread of infection is to identify and isolate T. foetus-positive cats from the general population...
September 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
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