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Metabolic compensation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715125/acute-alcohol-binge-deteriorates-metabolic-and-respiratory-compensation-capability-after-blunt-chest-trauma-followed-by-hemorrhagic-shock-a-new-research-model
#1
Nils Wagner, Niklas Franz, Scott Dieteren, Mario Perl, Katharina Mörs, Ingo Marzi, Borna Relja
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The clinical relevance of blunt (thoracic) chest trauma (TxT) and hemorrhagic shock is indisputable due to the high prevalence of this injury type, as well as its close association with mortality and/or preventable deaths. Furthermore, there is an ongoing discussion about the influence of alcohol in trauma patients. Thus, we established a model of TxT followed by hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation (H/R) in alcohol-intoxicated rats. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Depending on group allocation, twelve (sub-acute) or two (acute) hours before experimentation, the animals received a single oral dose of alcohol (ethanol, EtOH) or saline (NaCl) followed by TxT, hemorrhagic shock (35 ± 3 mm Hg) and resuscitation (TxT+H/R)...
July 17, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713464/a-rapidly-incremented-tethered-swimming-test-for-defining-domain-specific-training-zones
#2
Dalton M Pessôa Filho, Leandro O C Siqueira, Astor R Simionato, Mário A C Espada, Daniel S Pestana, Fred J DiMenna
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a tethered-swimming incremental test comprising small increases in resistive force applied every 60 seconds could delineate the isocapnic region during rapidly-incremented exercise. Sixteen competitive swimmers (male, n = 11; female, n = 5) performed: (a) a test to determine highest force during 30 seconds of all-out tethered swimming (Favg) and the ΔF, which represented the difference between Favg and the force required to maintain body alignment (Fbase), and (b) an incremental test beginning with 60 seconds of tethered swimming against a load that exceeded Fbase by 30% of ΔF followed by increments of 5% of ΔF every 60 seconds...
June 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710073/zinc-mediates-the-srebp-scd-axis-to-regulate-lipid-metabolism-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#3
Jing-Jing Zhang, Jun-Jun Hao, Yu-Ru Zhang, Yan-Li Wang, Ming-Yi Li, Hui-Lai Miao, Xiao-Ju Zou, Bin Liang
Maintenance of lipid homeostasis is crucial for cells in response to lipid requirements or surplus. The SREBPs transcription factors play essential roles in regulating lipid metabolism and are associated with many metabolic diseases. However, SREBP regulation of lipid metabolism is still less understood. Here, we show that reduction of SBP-1, the only homologue of SREBPs in C. elegans, surprisingly leads to high level of zinc. On the contrary, zinc reduction by mutation of sur-7, encoding a member of the cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) family, restores the fat accumulation and fatty acid profile of sbp-1(ep79) mutant...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709938/a-cross-sectional-comparison-of-brain-glucose-and-ketone-metabolism-in-cognitively-healthy-older-adults-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-early-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
E Croteau, C A Castellano, M Fortier, C Bocti, T Fulop, N Paquet, S C Cunnane
INTRODUCTION: Deteriorating brain glucose metabolism precedes the clinical onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and appears to contribute to its etiology. Ketone bodies, mainly β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate, are the primary alternative brain fuel to glucose. Some reports suggest that brain ketone metabolism is unchanged in AD but, to our knowledge, no such data are available for MCI. OBJECTIVE: To compare brain energy metabolism (glucose and acetoacetate) and some brain morphological characteristics in cognitively healthy older adult controls (CTL), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early AD...
July 11, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708664/esmolol-administration-to-control-tachycardia-in-an-ovine-model-of-peritonitis
#5
Koji Hosokawa, Fuhong Su, Fabio Silvio Taccone, Emiel Hendrik Post, Adriano José Pereira, Antoine Herpain, Jacques Creteur, Jean-Louis Vincent
BACKGROUND: Excessive adrenergic signaling may be harmful in sepsis. Using β-blockers to reduce sympathetic overactivity may modulate sepsis-induced cardiovascular, metabolic, immunologic, and coagulation alterations. Using a randomized ovine fecal peritonitis model, we investigated whether administration of a short-acting β-blocker, esmolol, could control tachycardia without deleterious effects on hemodynamics, renal perfusion, cerebral perfusion, cerebral metabolism, or outcome. METHODS: After induction of fecal peritonitis, 14 anesthetized, mechanically ventilated, and hemodynamically monitored adult female sheep were randomly assigned to receive a continuous intravenous infusion of esmolol to control heart rate between 80 and 100 bpm (n = 7) or a saline infusion (control group, n = 7)...
July 13, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705662/transcriptional-response-of-the-extremophile-red-alga-cyanidioschyzon-merolae-to-changes-in-co2-concentrations
#6
Nadine Rademacher, Thomas J Wrobel, Alessandro W Rossoni, Samantha Kurz, Andrea Bräutigam, Andreas P M Weber, Marion Eisenhut
Cyanidioschyzon merolae (C. merolae) is an acidophilic red alga growing in a naturally low carbon dioxide (CO2) environment. Although it uses a ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase with high affinity for CO2, the survival of C. merolae relies on functional photorespiratory metabolism. In this study, we quantified the transcriptomic response of C. merolae to changes in CO2 conditions. We found distinct changes upon shifts between CO2 conditions, such as a concerted up-regulation of photorespiratory genes and responses to carbon starvation...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698277/deep-sea-hydrothermal-vent-viruses-compensate-for-microbial-metabolism-in-virus-host-interactions
#7
Tianliang He, Hongyun Li, Xiaobo Zhang
Viruses are believed to be responsible for the mortality of host organisms. However, some recent investigations reveal that viruses may be essential for host survival. To date, it remains unclear whether viruses are beneficial or harmful to their hosts. To reveal the roles of viruses in the virus-host interactions, viromes and microbiomes of sediment samples from three deep-sea hydrothermal vents were explored in this study. To exclude the influence of exogenous DNAs on viromes, the virus particles were purified with nuclease (DNase I and RNase A) treatments and cesium chloride density gradient centrifugation...
July 11, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689718/long-term-and-acute-effects-of-temperature-and-oxygen-on-metabolism-food-intake-growth-and-heat-tolerance-in-a-freshwater-gastropod
#8
K Natan Hoefnagel, Wilco C E P Verberk
Temperature affects the physiology and life-history of ectothermic animals, often increasing metabolic rate and decreasing body size. Oxygen limitation has been put forward as a mechanism to explain thermal responses of body size and the ability to survive stress. However the time-scales involved in growth performance and heat tolerance differ radically. In order to increase our understanding of oxygen and temperature effects on body size and heat tolerance and the time scale involved, we reared Lymnaea stagnalis under six combinations of temperature and oxygen tension from hatching up to an age of 300 days and recorded shell length during this whole period...
August 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689717/compensation-of-thermal-constraints-along-a-natural-environmental-gradient-in-a-malagasy-iguanid-lizard-oplurus-quadrimaculatus
#9
Ole Theisinger, W Berg, K H Dausmann
Physiological or behavioural adjustments are a prerequisite for ectotherms to cope with different thermal environments. One of the world's steepest environmental gradients in temperature and precipitation can be found in southeastern Madagascar. This unique gradient allowed us to study the compensation of thermal constraints in the heliothermic lizard Oplurus quadrimaculatus on a very small geographic scale. The lizard occurs from hot spiny forest to intermediate gallery and transitional forest to cooler rain forest and we investigated whether these habitat differences are compensated behaviourally or physiologically...
August 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689716/exploring-physiological-plasticity-and-local-thermal-adaptation-in-an-intertidal-crab-along-a-latitudinal-cline
#10
Juan Diego Gaitán-Espitia, Leonardo D Bacigalupe, Tania Opitz, Nelson A Lagos, Sebastián Osores, Marco A Lardies
Intertidal organisms have evolved physiological mechanisms that enable them to maintain performance and survive during periods of severe environmental stress with temperatures close to their tolerance limits. The level of these adaptive responses in thermal physiology can vary among populations of broadly distributed species depending on their particular environmental context and genetic backgrounds. Here we examined thermal performances and reaction norms for metabolic rate (MR) and heart rate (HR) of seven populations of the porcelanid crab Petrolisthes violaceus from markedly different thermal environments across the latitudinal gradient of ~3000km...
August 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689503/long-term-adaptation-capacity-of-ponies-effect-of-season-and-feed-restriction-on-blood-and-physiological-parameters
#11
L Brinkmann, A Riek, M Gerken
Domesticated horses are increasingly kept under semi-natural housing conditions, whereas their adaptation capacity is not fully investigated. In all, 10 Shetland pony mares were held under semi-extensive conditions for 1 year. In winter animals were allocated into two feeding groups (60% and 100% of maintenance energy requirement, respectively). Triiodothyronine, thyroxine, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), total bilirubin, total protein, triglyceride, glucose, insulin and hair length were measured at monthly intervals, whereas BW, body condition score, cresty neck score and resting heart rate were recorded every 2 weeks...
July 10, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688716/exercise-induced-glut4-transcription-via-inactivation-of-hdac4-5-in-mouse-skeletal-muscle-in-an-ampk%C3%AE-2-dependent-manner
#12
Yanmei Niu, Tianyi Wang, Sujuan Liu, Hairui Yuan, Huige Li, Li Fu
Abnormal glucose metabolism induces various metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Regular exercise improved glucose uptake and enhanced glucose oxidation by increasing GLUT4 transcription in skeletal muscle. However, the regulatory mechanisms of GLUT4 transcription in response to exercise are poorly understood. AMPK is a sensor of exercise and upstream kinase of class II HDACs that act as transcriptional repressors. We used 6-week treadmill exercise or one single-bout exercise wild type or AMPKα2(-/-) C57BL/6J mice to explore how HDACs regulate GLUT4 transcription and the underlying molecular mechanisms mediated by AMPK in the physiologic process of exercise...
July 6, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687371/body-weight-loss-effective-satiation-and-absence-of-homeostatic-neuropeptide-compensation-in-male-sprague-dawley-rats-schedule-fed%C3%A2-a-protein-crosslinked-diet
#13
Nikki Cassie, Richard L Anderson, Dana Wilson, Anne Pawsey, Julian G Mercer, Perry Barrett
Food structure contributes to the induction of satiation and the maintenance of satiety following intake of a meal. There is evidence from human studies that protein-crosslinking of a milk-protein based meal may enhance satiety, but the mechanism underpinning this effect is unknown. We investigated whether a rat model would respond in a similar manner and might provide mechanistic insight into enhanced satiety by structural modification of a food source. Rats were schedule fed a modified AIN-93M based diet in a liquid form or protein-crosslinked to produce a soft-solid form...
July 5, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680100/the-sulfoquinovosyltransferase-like-enzyme-sqd2-2-is-involved-in-flavonoid-glycosylation-regulating-sugar-metabolism-and-seed-setting-in-rice
#14
Xinqiao Zhan, Qingwen Shen, Xuemin Wang, Yueyun Hong
Seed setting is an important trait that contributes to seed yield and relies greatly on starch accumulation. In this study, a sulfoquinovosyl transferase-like protein, designated as SQD2.2 involved in seed setting and flavonoid accumulation, was identified and characterized in rice. Rice SQD2.2 is localized to the cytoplasm, and the SQD2.2 transcript was highest in leaves. Rice SQD2.2-overexpressing (OE) plants exhibited a decreased seed setting rate and diminished tiller number simultaneously with an increased glycosidic flavonoid level compared with wild-type (WT) plants...
July 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675878/contrasting-habitats-but-comparable-microbial-decomposition-in-the-benthic-and-hyporheic-zone
#15
Ute Risse-Buhl, Clara Mendoza-Lera, Helge Norf, Javier Pérez, Jesús Pozo, Jeanette Schlief
Input of allochthonous leaf litter is the main carbon source for heterotrophic metabolism in low-order forested streams. A major part of this leaf litter is accumulated at benthic retention structures or buried in the hyporheic zone. As a result of hyporheic sediment characteristics, hyporheic physicochemistry differs from that of the benthic zone selecting the microbial community. The present study aimed at understanding the influence of the hydrological and physiochemical differences between the benthic and hyporheic zone on microbial leaf litter decomposition and on the structure and function of the associated microbial community...
July 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674658/confluence-does-not-affect-the-expression-of-mir-375-and-its-direct-targets-in-rat-and-human-insulin-secreting-cell-lines
#16
Jones K Ofori, Helena A Malm, Ines G Mollet, Lena Eliasson, Jonathan Lou S Esguerra
MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs, which negatively regulate the expression of target genes. They have emerged as important modulators in beta cell compensation upon increased metabolic demand, failure of which leads to reduced insulin secretion and type 2 diabetes. To elucidate the function of miRNAs in beta cells, insulin-secreting cell lines, such as the rat insulinoma INS-1 832/13 and the human EndoC-βH1, are widely used. Previous studies in the cancer field have suggested that miRNA expression is influenced by confluency of adherent cells...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670460/factors-affecting-heat-related-diseases-in-outdoor-workers-exposed-to-extreme-heat
#17
Jungsun Park, Yangho Kim, Inbo Oh
BACKGROUND: The objectives of the present study are to: (i) evaluate the effect of environmental and metabolic heat on heat-related illnesses in outdoor workers; and (ii) evaluate the effect of personal factors, including heat acclimation, on the risk of heat-related illnesses in outdoor workers. METHODS: We identified 47 cases of illnesses from exposure to environmental heat in outdoor workers in Korea from 2010 to 2014, based on review of workers' compensation data...
2017: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666653/the-liver-is-a-metabolic-and-immunologic-organ-a-reconsideration-of-metabolic-decompensation-due-to-infection-in-inborn-errors-of-metabolism-iem
#18
REVIEW
Tatyana N Tarasenko, Peter J McGuire
Metabolic decompensation in inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) is characterized by a rapid deterioration in metabolic status leading to life-threatening biochemical perturbations (e.g. hypoglycemia, hyperammonemia, acidosis, organ failure). Infection is the major cause of metabolic decompensation in patients with IEM. We hypothesized that activation of the immune system during infection leads to further perturbations in end-organ metabolism resulting in increased morbidity. To address this, we established model systems of metabolic decompensation due to infection...
June 24, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665040/multifunctional-enzymes-from-reduced-genomes-model-proteins-for-simple-primordial-metabolism
#19
Burckhard Seelig
Billions of years of evolution have yielded today's complex metabolic networks driven by efficient and highly specialized enzymes. In contrast, the metabolism of the earliest cellular life forms was likely much simpler with only a few enzymes of comparatively low activity. It has been speculated that these early enzymes had low specificities and in turn were able to perform multiple functions. In this issue of Molecular Microbiology, Ferla et al. describe examples of enzymes that catalyze chemically distinct reactions while using the same active site...
June 30, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664920/fgf1-a-new-weapon-to-control-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#20
REVIEW
Emanuel Gasser, Christopher P Moutos, Michael Downes, Ronald M Evans
A hypercaloric diet combined with a sedentary lifestyle is a major risk factor for the development of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and associated comorbidities. Standard treatment for T2DM begins with lifestyle modification, and includes oral medications and insulin therapy to compensate for progressive β-cell failure. However, current pharmaceutical options for T2DM are limited in that they do not maintain stable, durable glucose control without the need for treatment intensification...
June 30, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
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