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Metabolic compensation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166161/will-invertebrates-require-increasingly-carbon-rich-food-in-a-warming-world
#1
Thomas R Anderson, Dag O Hessen, Maarten Boersma, Jotaro Urabe, Daniel J Mayor
Elevated temperature causes metabolism and respiration to increase in poikilothermic organisms. We hypothesized that invertebrate consumers will therefore require increasingly carbon-rich diets in a warming environment because the increased energetic demands are primarily met using compounds rich in carbon, that is, carbohydrates and lipids. Here, we test this hypothesis using a new stoichiometric model that has carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) as currencies. Model predictions did not support the hypothesis, indicating instead that the nutritional requirements of invertebrates, at least in terms of food quality expressed as C∶N ratio, may change little, if at all, at elevated temperature...
December 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165230/para-like-protein-influences-the-distribution-of-multi-copy-chromosomes-in-cyanobacterium-synechococcus-elongatus-pcc-7942
#2
Satoru Watanabe, Aska Noda, Ryudo Ohbayashi, Kana Uchioke, Ami Kurihara, Shizuka Nakatake, Sayumi Morioka, Yu Kanesaki, Taku Chibazakura, Hirofumi Yoshikawa
While many bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, harbour a single-copy chromosome, freshwater cyanobacteria have multiple copies of each chromosome per cell. Although it has been reported that multi-copy chromosomes are evenly distributed along the major axis of the cell in cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, the distribution mechanism of these chromosomes remains unclear. In S. elongatus, the carboxysome, a metabolic microcompartment for carbon fixation that is distributed in a similar manner to the multi-copy chromosomes, is regulated by ParA-like protein (hereafter ParA)...
November 21, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162628/etiopathogenesis-and-pharmacological-prevention-of-a-type-2-diabetes-model-in-male-mice
#3
Alberto Loizzo, Santi M Spampinato, Gabriele Campana, Stefano Loizzo
We describe a stress-derived type-2 diabetes model in male mice, and formulate new hypotheses on how the model was induced, how diabetes-like alterations were prevented through specific pharmacological treatments, and how its possible neuroendocrine pathogenesis could be hypothesized. Pregnant females arrived in our laboratory on their 14th day of conceptional age. After birth, control mice never showed any apparent behavioral-metabolic-endocrine alterations. However, application of postnatal stress (brief mother deprivation, plus sham injection, daily from birth to weaning), was followed in adult male mice by two series of diabetes-like alterations...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161576/unraveling-physiological-biochemical-and-molecular-mechanisms-involved-in-olive-olea-europaea-l-cv-ch%C3%A3-toui-tolerance-to-drought-and-salt-stresses
#4
Mariem Ben Abdallah, Dalila Trupiano, Antonella Polzella, Elena De Zio, Mauro Sassi, Andrea Scaloni, Mokhtar Zarrouk, Nabil Ben Youssef, Gabriella Stefania Scippa
Olive (Olea europaea L.) is an economically important crop for the Mediterranean basin, where prolonged drought and soil salinization may occur. This plant has developed a series of mechanisms to tolerate and grow under these adverse conditions. By using an integrated approach, we described in Chétoui olive cultivar the changes in plant growth, oxidative damage and osmolyte accumulation in leaves, in combination with corresponding changes in physiological parameters and proteome. Our results showed, under both stress conditions, a greater growth reduction of the aboveground plant organs than of the underground counterparts...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161309/dronedarone-produces-early-regression-of-myocardial-remodelling-in-structural-heart-disease
#5
Begoña Quintana-Villamandos, Jose Juan Gomez de Diego, María Jesús Delgado-Martos, David Muñoz-Valverde, María Luisa Soto-Montenegro, Manuel Desco, Emilio Delgado-Baeza
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in hypertension is associated with a greater risk of sustained supraventricular/atrial arrhythmias. Dronedarone is an antiarrhythmic agent that was recently approved for the treatment of atrial fibrillation. However, its effect on early regression of LVH has not been reported. We tested the hypothesis that short-term administration of dronedarone induces early regression of LVH in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). METHODS: Ten-month-old male SHRs were randomly assigned to an intervention group (SHR-D), where animals received dronedarone treatment (100 mg/kg) for a period of 14 days, or to a control group (SHR) where rats were given vehicle...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160035/mosaic-uniparental-disomy-results-in-gm1-gangliosidosis-with-normal-enzyme-assay
#6
Kenneth A Myers, Mark F Bennett, Chung W Chow, Susan M Carden, Simone A Mandelstam, Melanie Bahlo, Ingrid E Scheffer
Inherited metabolic disorders are traditionally diagnosed using broad and expensive panels of screening tests, often including invasive skin and muscle biopsy. Proponents of next-generation genetic sequencing have argued that replacing these screening panels with whole exome sequencing (WES) would save money. Here, we present a complex patient in whom WES allowed diagnosis of GM1 gangliosidosis, caused by homozygous GLB1 mutations, resulting in β-galactosidase deficiency. A 10-year-old girl had progressive neurologic deterioration, macular cherry-red spot, and cornea verticillata...
November 21, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158891/overexpression-of-hypoxia-inducible-factor-and-metabolic-pathways-possible-targets-of-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Davinder Singh, Rohit Arora, Pardeep Kaur, Balbir Singh, Rahul Mannan, Saroj Arora
Cancer, the main cause of human deaths in the modern world is a group of diseases. Anticancer drug discovery is a challenge for scientists because of involvement of multiple survival pathways of cancer cells. An extensive study on the regulation of each step of these pathways may help find a potential cancer target. Up-regulated HIF-1 expression and altered metabolic pathways are two classical characteristics of cancer. Oxygen-dependent (through pVHL, PHDs, calcium-mediated) and independent (through growth factor signaling pathway, mdm2 pathway, HSP90) regulation of HIF-1α leads to angiogenesis, metastasis, and cell survival...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155460/antarctic-emerald-rockcod-have-the-capacity-to-compensate-for-warming-when-uncoupled-from-co2-acidification
#8
Brittany E Davis, Erin E Flynn, Nathan A Miller, Frederick A Nelson, Nann A Fangue, Anne E Todgham
Increases in atmospheric CO2 levels and associated ocean changes are expected to have dramatic impacts on marine ecosystems. Although the Southern Ocean is experiencing some of the fastest rates of change, few studies have explored how Antarctic fishes may be affected by co-occurring ocean changes, and even fewer have examined early life stages. To date, no studies have characterized potential trade-offs in physiology and behavior in response to projected multiple climate change stressors (ocean acidification and warming) on Antarctic fishes...
November 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127820/waterborne-zn-influenced-zn-uptake-and-lipid-metabolism-in-two-intestinal-regions-of-juvenile-goby-synechogobius-hasta
#9
Shi-Cheng Ling, Zhi Luo, Guang-Hui Chen, Dian-Guang Zhang, Xu Liu
The present study explored the influence of Zn addition in the water on Zn transport and lipid metabolism of two intestinal regions in goby Synechogobius hasta. Zn contents in water were 0.004 (control), 0.181 and 0.361mg Zn L(-1), respectively. The experiment lasted for 28 days. TG and Zn contents, mRNA contents of genes of Zn transport and lipid metabolism, and enzyme activity from anterior and mid-intestine tissues were analyzed. In anterior intestine, Zn addition in the water increased Zn contents, and mRNA concentrations of ZIP4, ZIP5, ATGL, PPARα, ZNF202 and KLF7, decreased TG contents, 6PGD and G6PD activities, and mRNA contents of 6PGD, G6PD, FAS, PPARγ, ICDH and KLF4...
November 8, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127747/-treatment-strategy-of-type-2%C3%A2-diabetes-used-in-czech-republic-after-metformin-therapy-failure
#10
Štěpán Svačina, Petra Ovesná, Matyáš Kuhn, Martina Nováčková
INTRODUCTION: Type 2 diabetes is an enormous medical problem caused by increasing prevalence of the disease and increasing prevalence of severe chronic complications of diabetes. New ADA/EASD guidelines and also Czech diabetes society guidelines enable effective individual approach to the patient. Goal of the therapy is optimal compensation of diabetes and prevention of acute and chronic complications of diabetes and decrease of mortality. Diabetes therapy is started by education in diet a regime combined with metformin...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125492/towards-an-understanding-of-energy-impairment-in-huntington-s-disease-brain
#11
Janet M Dubinsky
This review systematically examines the evidence for shifts in flux through energy generating biochemical pathways in Huntington's disease (HD) brains from humans and model systems. Compromise of the electron transport chain (ETC) appears not to be the primary or earliest metabolic change in HD pathogenesis. Rather, compromise of glucose uptake facilitates glucose flux through glycolysis and may possibly decrease flux through the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), limiting subsequent NADPH and GSH production needed for antioxidant protection...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Huntington's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121435/altered-intracellular-signaling-by-imatinib-increases-the-anti-cancer-effects-of-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-in-cml-cells
#12
Takuya Hirao, Masashi Yamaguchi, Megumi Kikuya, Hiroji Chibana, Kousei Ito, Shigeki Aoki
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), including imatinib (IM), improve the outcome of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) therapy. However, TKI treatment is long-term and can induce resistance to TKIs, which often leads to a poor clinical outcome in CML patients. Here, we examined the effect of continuous IM exposure on intracellular energy metabolism in K562 cells, a human Philadelphia chromosome-positive CML cell line, and its subsequent sensitivity to anti-cancer agents. Contrary to our expectations, we found that continuous IM exposure increased sensitivity to TKIs...
November 9, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117613/evaluation-of-the-relation-between-omentin-1-and-vitamin-d-in-postmenopausal-women-with-or-without-osteoporosis
#13
O Dikker, S Bekpinar, Gul Ozdemirler, Mujdat Uysal, Muberra Vardar, Sevgi Atar, Murat Usta, Berrin Huner
Introduction Crosstalk between bone and adipose tissues is implicated in several pathologic conditions related to bone metabolism. Omentin-1, a 34-kD protein, is released from omental adipose tissue. A few studies indicated the effect of omentin-1 on bone health and bone mineral density (BMD) and the interaction of omentin-1 with vitamin D. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between omentin-1, vitamin D, and BMD in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis compared with non-osteoporotic counterparts...
November 8, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116131/context-dependent-compensation-among-phosphatidylserine-recognition-receptors
#14
Kristen K Penberthy, Claudia Rival, Laura S Shankman, Michael H Raymond, Jianye Zhang, Justin S A Perry, Chang Sup Lee, Claudia Z Han, Suna Onengut-Gumuscu, Krzysztof Palczewski, Jeffrey J Lysiak, Kodi S Ravichandran
Phagocytes express multiple phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) receptors that recognize apoptotic cells. It is unknown whether these receptors are interchangeable or if they play unique roles during cell clearance. Loss of the PtdSer receptor Mertk is associated with apoptotic corpse accumulation in the testes and degeneration of photoreceptors in the eye. Both phenotypes are linked to impaired phagocytosis by specialized phagocytes: Sertoli cells and the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE). Here, we overexpressed the PtdSer receptor BAI1 in mice lacking MerTK (Mertk (-/-) Bai1 (Tg) ) to evaluate PtdSer receptor compensation in vivo...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113989/cold-hearted-bats-uncoupling-of-heart-rate-and-metabolism-during-torpor-at-subzero-temperatures
#15
Shannon E Currie, Clare Stawski, Fritz Geiser
Many hibernating animals thermoregulate during torpor and defend their body temperature (Tb) below 10°C by an increase in metabolic rate. Above a critical temperature (Tcrit) animals usually thermoconform. We investigated the physiological responses above and below Tcrit for a small tree dwelling bat (Chalinolobus gouldii, ∼14 g) that is often exposed to subzero temperatures during winter. Through simultaneous measurement of heart rate (HR) and oxygen consumption (V̇O2) we show that the relationship between oxygen transport and cardiac function is substantially altered in thermoregulating torpid bats between 1 and -2°C, compared with thermoconforming torpid bats at mild ambient temperatures (Ta 5-20°C)...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112104/cardiogenic-shock-due-to-end-stage-heart-failure-and-acute-myocardial-infarction-characteristics-and-outcome-of-temporary-mechanical-circulatory-support
#16
Hoong Sern Lim, Neil Howell
BACKGROUND: Mechanical circulatory support (MCS) is increasingly used in cardiogenic shock, but outcomes may differ between patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or end-stage heart failure (ESHF). This study aimed to describe the characteristics of patients with cardiogenic shock due to AMI and ESHF. METHODS: Single centre study of consecutive patients with cardiogenic shock due to AMI (n = 26) and ESHF (n = 42) who underwent MCS (extracorporeal life support, Impella or temporary ventricular assist devices)...
November 3, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109103/hepatocyte-nuclear-factor-1a-deficiency-causes-hemolytic-anemia-in-mice-by-altering-erythrocyte-sphingolipid-homeostasis
#17
Karin von Wnuck Lipinski, Sarah Weske, Petra Keul, Susann Peters, Hideo A Baba, Gerd Heusch, Markus H Gräler, Bodo Levkau
The Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor (HNF) family regulates complex networks of metabolism and organ development. Human mutations in its prototypical member HNF1A cause maturity-onset of diabetes of the young (MODY) type 3. In this study, we identified an important role for HNF1A in the preservation of erythrocyte membrane integrity, calcium homeostasis and osmotic resistance through a yet unrecognized link of HNF1A to sphingolipid homeostasis. HNF1A(-/-) mice displayed microcytic hypochromic anemia with reticulocytosis that was partially compensated by avid extramedullary erythropoiesis at all erythroid stages in the spleen thereby excluding erythroid differentiation defects...
November 6, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106621/high-day-and-night-time-temperatures-affect-grain-growth-dynamics-in-contrasting-rice-genotypes
#18
Wanju Shi, Xinyou Yin, Paul C Struik, Celymar Solis, Fangming Xie, Ralf C Schmidt, Min Huang, Yingbin Zou, Changrong Ye, S V Krishna Jagadish
Rice grain yield and quality are predicted to be highly vulnerable to global warming. Five genotypes including heat-tolerant and susceptible checks, a heat-tolerant near-isogenic line and two hybrids were exposed to control (31 °C/23 °C, day/night), high night-time temperature (HNT; 31 °C/30 °C), high day-time temperature (HDT; 38 °C/23 °C) and high day- and night-time temperature (HNDT; 38 °C/30 °C) treatments for 20 consecutive days during the grain-filling stage. Grain-filling dynamics, starch metabolism enzymes, temporal starch accumulation patterns and the process of chalk formation were quantified...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101585/comparative-transcriptomic-insights-into-the-mechanisms-of-electron-transfer-in-geobacter-co-cultures-with-activated-carbon-and-magnetite
#19
Shiling Zheng, Fanghua Liu, Meng Li, Leilei Xiao, Oumei Wang
Both activated carbon and magnetite have been reported to promote the syntrophic growth of Geobacter metallireducens and Geobacter sulfurreducens co-cultures, the first model to show direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET); however, differential transcriptomics of the promotion on co-cultures with these two conductive materials are unknown. Here, the comparative transcriptomic analysis of G. metallireducens and G. sulfurreducens co-cultures with granular activated carbon (GAC) and magnetite was reported...
October 31, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099763/vitamin-c-and-immune-function
#20
REVIEW
Anitra C Carr, Silvia Maggini
Vitamin C is an essential micronutrient for humans, with pleiotropic functions related to its ability to donate electrons. It is a potent antioxidant and a cofactor for a family of biosynthetic and gene regulatory enzymes. Vitamin C contributes to immune defense by supporting various cellular functions of both the innate and adaptive immune system. Vitamin C supports epithelial barrier function against pathogens and promotes the oxidant scavenging activity of the skin, thereby potentially protecting against environmental oxidative stress...
November 3, 2017: Nutrients
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