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Metabolic compensation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821609/insulin-like-growth-factor-1-signalling-is-essential-for-mitochondrial-biogenesis-and-mitophagy-in-cancer-cells
#1
Amy Lyons, Michael Coleman, Sarah Riis, Cedric Favre, Ciara H O'Flanagan, Alexander V Zhdanov, Dmitri B Papkovsky, Stephen D Hursting, Rosemary O'Connor
Mitochondrial activity and metabolic reprogramming influence the phenotype of cancer cells and resistance to targeted therapy. We previously established that an Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1)-inducible mitochondrial UTP carrier (PNC1/SLC25A33) promotes cell growth. This prompted us to investigate whether IGF signaling is essential for mitochondrial maintenance in cancer cells, and whether this contributes to therapy resistance. Here, we show that IGF-1 stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis in a range of cell lines...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814306/blood-acid-base-status-in-impala-aepyceros-melampus-immobilised-and-maintained-under-total-intravenous-anaesthesia-using-two-different-drug-protocols
#2
Gareth E Zeiler, Leith C R Meyer
BACKGROUND: In mammals, homeostasis and survival are dependent on effective trans-membrane movement of ions and enzyme function, which are labile to extreme acid-base changes, but operate efficiently within a narrow regulated pH range. Research in patients demonstrating a pH shifts outside the narrow regulated range decreased the cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance and altered the oxygen binding to haemoglobin. These cardiopulmonary observations may be applicable to the risks associated with anaesthesia and performance of wildlife ungulates on game farms...
August 16, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812049/importance-of-adiponectin-activity-in-the-pathogenesis-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
REVIEW
Masaaki Waragai, Gilbert Ho, Yoshiki Takamatsu, Kazunari Sekiyama, Shuei Sugama, Takato Takenouchi, Eliezer Masliah, Makoto Hashimoto
A recent study suggested that insulin resistance may play a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this regard, it is of note that upregulation of plasma adiponectin (APN), a benign adipokine that sensitizes the insulin receptor signaling pathway and suppresses inflammation, has recently been associated with the severities of amyloid deposits and cognitive deficits in the elderly, suggesting that APN may enhance the risk of AD. These results are unanticipated because AD has been linked to type II diabetes and other metabolic disorders in which hypoadiponectinemia has been firmly established, and because APN ameliorated neuropathological features in a mouse model of neurodegeneration...
August 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798199/human-cerebral-blood-flow-control-during-hypoxia-focus-on-chronic-pulmonary-obstructive-disease-copd-and-obstructive-sleep-apnea-osa
#4
Andrew E Beaudin, Sara E Hartmann, Matiram Pun, Marc J Poulin
The brain is a vital organ that relies on a constant and adequate blood flow to match oxygen and glucose delivery with the local metabolic demands of active neurons. Thus, exquisite regulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) is particularly important under hypoxic conditions to prevent a detrimental decrease in the partial pressure of oxygen within the brain tissues. Cerebrovascular sensitivity to hypoxia, assessed as the change in CBF during a hypoxic challenge, represents the capacity of cerebral vessels to respond to, and compensate for, a reduced oxygen supply, and has been shown to be impaired or blunted in a number of conditions...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794226/asymmetry-costs-effects-of-wing-damage-on-hovering-flight-performance-in-the-hawkmoth-manduca-sexta
#5
María José Fernández, M Ellis Driver, Tyson L Hedrick
Flight performance is fundamental to the fitness of flying organisms. Whilst airborne, flying organisms face unavoidable wing wear and wing area loss. Many studies have tried to quantify consequences of wing area loss to flight performance with varied results; suggesting that not all types of damage are equal and different species may have different means compensating for some forms of wing damage with little to no cost. Here, we investigate the cost of control during hovering flight with damaged wings, specifically wings with asymmetric and symmetric reductions in area, by measuring maximum load lifting capacity and the metabolic power of hovering flight in hawkmoths (Manduca sexta)...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790799/bilateral-misalignment-compensating-full-dof-hip-exoskeleton-design-and-kinematic-validation
#6
Karen Junius, Marc Degelaen, Nina Lefeber, Eva Swinnen, Bram Vanderborght, Dirk Lefeber
A shared design goal for most robotic lower limb exoskeletons is to reduce the metabolic cost of locomotion for the user. Despite this, only a limited amount of devices was able to actually reduce user metabolic consumption. Preservation of the natural motion kinematics was defined as an important requirement for a device to be metabolically beneficial. This requires the inclusion of all human degrees of freedom (DOF) in a design, as well as perfect alignment of the rotation axes. As perfect alignment is impossible, compensation for misalignment effects should be provided...
2017: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790013/chronic-vitamin-e-deficiency-impairs-cognitive-function-in-adult-zebrafish-via-dysregulation-of-brain-lipids-and-energy-metabolism
#7
Melissa McDougall, Jaewoo Choi, Kathy Magnusson, Lisa Truong, Robert Tanguay, Maret G Traber
Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are a recognized model for studying the pathogenesis of cognitive deficits and the mechanisms underlying behavioral impairments, including the consequences of increased oxidative stress within the brain. The lipophilic antioxidant vitamin E (α-tocopherol; VitE) has an established role in neurological health and cognitive function, but the biological rationale for this action remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated behavioral perturbations due to chronic VitE deficiency in adult zebrafish fed from 45 days to 18-months of age diets that were either VitE-deficient (E-) or VitE-sufficient (E+)...
August 5, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789699/oral-pyridoxine-can-substitute-for-intravenous-pyridoxine-in-managing-patients-with-severe-poisoning-with-isoniazid-and-rifampicin-fixed-dose-combination-tablets-a-case-report
#8
M D S A Dilrukshi, C A P Ratnayake, C A Gnanathasan
BACKGROUND: Fixed drug combination of isoniazid and rifampicin is a rare cause of poisoning even in endemic countries for tuberculosis infection. Severe poisoning can cause severe morbidity and mortality if not treated promptly. Though intravenous pyridoxine is the preferred antidote for severe standard isoniazid poisoning it is not freely available even in best of care centers. We describe a case of severe poisoning with fixed drug combination of isoniazid and rifampicin successfully managed with oral pyridoxine at national hospital of Sri Lanka...
August 8, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781953/endoglucanase-activity-at-a-second-site-in-pyrococcus-furiosus-triosephosphate-isomerase-promiscuity-or-compensation-for-a-metabolic-handicap
#9
Prerna Sharma, Purnananda Guptasarma
The eight-stranded (β/α)8 barrel fold known as the Triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) barrel is the most commonly observed fold in enzymes, displaying an eightfold structural symmetry. The sequences and structures of different TIM barrel enzymes suggest that nature exploits the modularity inherent in the eightfold symmetry to generate enzymes with diverse enzymatic activities and, in certain cases, more than one catalytic activity per enzyme. Here, we report the discovery, verification, and characterization of such an additional activity, a novel endoglucanase/cellulase activity in what is otherwise a triosephosphate isomerase from the hyperthermophile archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus (PfuTIM)...
August 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781258/-metabolic-changes-in-pulmonary-mitochondria-of-rats-with-experimental-hyperhomocysteinemia
#10
D V Medvedev, V I Zvyagina, O M Uryasev, E S Belskikh, S V Bulatetskiy, A N Ryabkov
Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for many human diseases, including pulmonary pathologies. In this context much interest attracts secondary mitochondrial dysfunction, which is an important link in pathogenesis of diseases associated with hyperhomocysteinemia. The study was conducted using male Wistar rats. It was found that under conditions of severe hyperhomocysteinemia caused by administration of methionine, homocysteine was accumulated in lung mitochondria thus suggesting a direct toxic effect on these organelles...
May 2017: Biomedit︠s︡inskai︠a︡ Khimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776185/modulation-of-cellular-energetics-by-galactose-and-pioglitazone
#11
David Grimm, Leonardo Altamirano, Sudip Paudel, Leah Welker, Mary E Konkle, Nilay Chakraborty, Michael A Menze
The Warburg effect is ameliorated by culturing transformed cells in the presence of galactose instead of glucose as the primary carbon source. However, metabolic consequences may occur in addition to sensitizing the cells to mitochondrial toxins. The screening of pharmaceutical agents against transformed cells while using galactose must therefore be carefully evaluated. Pioglitazone is employed in clinical applications to treat type-2 diabetes but clearly has other off-target effects. Human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) were cultured in glucose or galactose-containing medium to investigate the role of pioglitazone on cellular bioenergetics by calorimetry and respirometry...
August 3, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776152/glucose-metabolism-parameters-and-post-prandial-glp-1-and-glp-2-release-largely-vary-in-several-distinct-situations-a-controlled-comparison-among-individuals-with-crohn-s-disease-and-individuals-with-obesity-before-and-after-bariatric-surgery
#12
Daniéla Oliveira Magro, Everton Cazzo, Paulo Gustavo Kotze, Ana Carolina Junqueira Vasques, Carlos Augusto Real Martinez, Elinton Adami Chaim, Bruno Geloneze, José Carlos Pareja, Cláudio Saddy Rodrigues Coy
BACKGROUND: This study aims to compare the post-prandial curves of glucose, insulin, GLP-1, and GLP-2 among individuals with Crohn's disease (CD), obese individuals before and after bariatric surgery, and healthy controls. METHODS: This an exploratory cross-sectional study that involved five groups of patients (two groups of individuals with CD-active and inactive), bariatric patients (pre- and post-surgery, who were their own controls), and a distinct separated control group of healthy volunteers...
August 3, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772110/leydig-cell-dysfunction-systemic-inflammation-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-long-term-testicular-cancer-survivors
#13
M Bandak, N Jørgensen, A Juul, J Lauritsen, P S Oturai, J Mortensen, P Hojman, J W Helge, G Daugaard
BACKGROUND: Twenty to thirty percent of testicular cancer (TC) survivors have elevated serum levels of luteinising hormone (LH) with or without corresponding low testosterone levels (Leydig cell dysfunction) during clinical follow-up for TC. However, it remains to be clarified if this subgroup of TC survivors has an increased long-term risk of systemic inflammation and metabolic syndrome (MetS) when compared with TC survivors with normal Leydig cell function during follow-up. PATIENTS AND METHODS: TC survivors with Leydig cell dysfunction and a control group of TC survivors with normal Leydig cell function during follow-up were eligible for participation in the study...
July 31, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763507/influence-of-muscle-fiber-type-composition-on-early-fat-accumulation-under-high-fat-diet-challenge
#14
Ning Hua, Hirokazu Takahashi, Grace M Yee, Yoichiro Kitajima, Sayaka Katagiri, Motoyasu Kojima, Keizo Anzai, Yuichiro Eguchi, James A Hamilton
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether differences in muscle fiber types affect early-stage fat accumulation, under high fat diet challenge in mice. METHODS: Twelve healthy male C57BL/6 mice experienced with short-term (6 weeks) diet treatment for the evaluation of early pattern changes in muscular fat. The mice were randomly divided into two groups: high fat diet (n = 8) and normal control diet (n = 4). Extra- and intra-myocellular lipid (EMCL and IMCL) in lumbar muscles (type I fiber predominant) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscle (type II fiber predominant) were determined using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760705/adaptation-to-metabolic-dysfunction-during-aging-making-the-best-of-a-bad-situation
#15
REVIEW
S Michal Jazwinski, James C Jiang, Sangkyu Kim
Mitochondria play a central role in energy metabolism in the process of oxidative phosphorylation. As importantly, they are key in several anabolic processes, including amino acid biosynthesis, nucleotide biosynthesis, heme biosynthesis, and the formation of iron‑sulfur clusters. Mitochondria are also engaged in waste removal in the urea cycle. Their activity can lead to the formation of reactive oxygen species which have damaging effects in the cell. These organelles are dynamic, undergoing cycles of fission and fusion which can be coupled to their removal by mitophagy...
July 29, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760361/do-performance-safety-tradeoffs-cause-hypometric-metabolic-scaling-in-animals
#16
REVIEW
Jon F Harrison
Hypometric scaling of aerobic metabolism in animals has been widely attributed to constraints on oxygen (O2) supply in larger animals, but recent findings demonstrate that O2 supply balances with need regardless of size. Larger animals also do not exhibit evidence of compensation for O2 supply limitation. Because declining metabolic rates (MRs) are tightly linked to fitness, this provides significant evidence against the hypothesis that constraints on supply drive hypometric scaling. As an alternative, ATP demand might decline in larger animals because of performance-safety tradeoffs...
July 28, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758835/kinematics-and-metabolic-cost-of-running-on-an-irregular-treadmill-surface
#17
Alyssa M Gantz, Timothy R Derrick
The purpose of this study was to investigate the kinematic and metabolic effects of running on an irregular surface. We also examined how altering the frontal plane foot angle (inversion/eversion) at contact using real-time visual feedback would affect these other variables. Sixteen participants completed three running bouts lasting 5-7 minutes each on an irregular surface (IS) treadmill, a traditional smooth surface (SS) treadmill, and on SS while receiving visual feedback of the frontal plane foot angle at contact (SSF) with a goal of matching IS foot angle on SS...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758412/onset-of-depressed-heart-work-is-correlated-with-the-increased-heart-rate-and-shorten-qt-interval-in-high-carbohydrate-fed-overweight-rats
#18
Aysegul Toy Durak, Yusuf Olgar, Erkan Tuncay, Irem Karaomerlioglu, Gizem Kayki Mutlu, Ebru Arioglu Inan, Vecdi Melih Altan, Belma Turan
Mechanical activity of the heart is adversely affected with metabolic syndrome (MetS) characterized with increased body-mass and marked insulin-resistance. Herein, we examined effects of high-carbohydrate intake on cardiac functional abnormalities via evaluating in situ heart-work, heart-rate and electrocardiograms (ECG) in rats. MetS is induced in Wistar male rats by adding 32% sucrose for 22-24 weeks and confirmed with insulin-resistance, increased body-weight, blood glucose and insulin, systolic and diastolic blood pressures besides significant left ventricular integrity-lost and increased connective-tissue around myofibrils...
July 30, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749940/upregulation-of-an-inward-rectifying-k-channel-can-rescue-slow-ca2-oscillations-in-k-atp-channel-deficient-pancreatic-islets
#19
Vehpi Yildirim, Suryakiran Vadrevu, Benjamin Thompson, Leslie S Satin, Richard Bertram
Plasma insulin oscillations are known to have physiological importance in the regulation of blood glucose. In insulin-secreting β-cells of pancreatic islets, K(ATP) channels play a key role in regulating glucose-dependent insulin secretion. In addition, they convey oscillations in cellular metabolism to the membrane by sensing adenine nucleotides, and are thus instrumental in mediating pulsatile insulin secretion. Blocking K(ATP) channels pharmacologically depolarizes the β-cell plasma membrane and terminates islet oscillations...
July 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749480/caffeine-decreases-intermittent-hypoxia-in-preterm-infants-nearing-term-equivalent-age
#20
N R Dobson, L M Rhein, R A Darnall, M J Corwin, T C Heeren, E Eichenwald, L P James, B L McEntire, C E Hunt
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether intermittent hypoxia (IH) persisting after 36 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) can be attenuated using caffeine doses sufficient to maintain caffeine concentrations >20 μg ml(-1). STUDY DESIGN: Twenty-seven infants born <32 weeks were started on caffeine citrate at 10 mg kg(-1) day(-1) when clinical caffeine was discontinued. At 36 weeks PMA, the dose was increased to 14 or 20 mg kg(-1) day(-1) divided twice a day (BID) to compensate for progressively increasing caffeine metabolism...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
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