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Metabolic compensation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922151/dickkopf-3-dkk3-improves-amyloid-%C3%AE-pathology-cognitive-dysfunction-and-cerebral-glucose-metabolism-in-a-transgenic-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Li Zhang, Caixian Sun, Yaxi Jin, Kai Gao, Xudong Shi, Wenying Qiu, Chao Ma, Lianfeng Zhang
Dysfunctional Wnt signaling is associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and activation of the Wnt signaling pathway inhibits AD development. Dickkopf 3 (Dkk3) is a modulator of the Wnt signaling pathway and is physiologically expressed in the brain. The role of Dkk3 in the pathogenesis of AD has not been evaluated. In the present study, we determined that Dkk3 expression was significantly decreased in brain tissue from AD patients and the AD transgenic mouse model APPswe/PS1dE9 (AD mice). Transgenic mice with brain tissue-specific Dkk3 expression were generated or crossed with AD mice to study the effects of Dkk3 on AD...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919559/adipokinetic-hormone-receptor-gene-identification-and-its-role-in-triacylglycerol-mobilization-and-sexual-behavior-in-the-oriental-fruit-fly-bactrocera-dorsalis
#2
Qiu-Li Hou, Er-Hu Chen, Hong-Bo Jiang, Dan-Dan Wei, Shun-Hua Gui, Jin-Jun Wang, Guy Smagghe
Energy homeostasis requires continuous compensation for fluctuations in energy expenditure and availability of food resources. In insects, energy mobilization is under control of the adipokinetic hormone (AKH) where it is regulating the nutritional status by supporting the mobilization of lipids. In this study, we characterized the gene coding for the AKH receptor (AKHR) and investigated its function in the oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) that is economically one of the most important pest insects of tropical and subtropical fruit...
September 15, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918418/new-aspects-in-the-pathomechanism-of-diseases-of-civilization-particularly-psychosomatic-disorders-part-1-theoretical-background-of-a-hypothesis
#3
Andras Sikter, Zoltan Rihmer, Roberto de Guevara
The stress defence-cascade is mostly not biphasic as Cannon thought, the sympathicotonic stress response is preceded by a vagotonic phase called freeze response. Alteration of the carbon dioxide level plays an important role during defence-cascade as its changes interfere with stress hormones, e.g. with catecholamines, thus affecting the degree of arousal. In case of humans, learned behaviour dominates instead of instinctive, so the fight-or-flight often lags; the consequence can be persistent hypocapnia or hypercapnia...
June 2017: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917077/pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-and-type-2-diabetes-development
#4
Miranda-Perez Maria Elizabeth, Alarcon-Aguilar, Francisco J, Ortega-Camarillo Clara, Escobar-Villanueva, Maria Del Carmen
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia. In particular, type 2 diabetes (T2D) represents one of the main causes of death in the world, and those suffering from it have a lower quality of life. Although there are multiple hypotheses about the pathophysiological mechanisms that lead to the development of T2D, the effects of this pathology on pancreatic β-cells are often ignored. We now know that in addition to genetic defects, β-cell organellar dysfunction participates in the earliest stages of the disease; other factors also contribute to this dysfunction, such as excessive production of reactive oxygen species and a decrease in cellular volume and mass...
2017: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901851/gestational-diabetes-mellitus-post-partum-risk-and-follow-up
#5
Silpa Poola-Kella, Rachel A Steinman, Bayan Mesmar, Rana Malek
BACKGROUND: Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at an increased risk for developing metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and cardiovascular disease. In this review, we will discuss postpartum cardiovascular and diabetes risk in women with a history of GDM and different ways to improve postpartum screening. METHODS: This review involves a comprehensive literature review on gestational diabetes and post-partum risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus as well as post-partum screening methods...
September 11, 2017: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891383/a-hypothesis-moderate-consumption-of-alcoholic-beverages-contributes-to-lower-prevalence-of-type-2-diabetes-t2dm-due-to-scavenging-of-%C3%AE-dicarbonyls-by-several-classes-of-dietary-phytochemicals
#6
Benjamin S Szwergold
The world is experiencing an epidemic of Type-2-Diabetes (T2DM). This has led to increased morbidity and mortality, explosive growth in heath-care budgets and has an even greater, if indirect, impact on societies and economies of the affected countries. While genetic susceptibility to T2DM is a major determinant of its prevalence, changes in life-styles also play a role. One such change has been a transition from traditional diets characterized by low caloric and high nutrient density to calorie-rich but nutrient-poor Western diets...
September 11, 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887204/structural-determinants-in-apoa-i-amyloidogenic-variants-explain-improved-cholesterol-metabolism-despite-low-hdl-levels
#7
Rita Del Giudice, Joan Domingo-Espín, Ilaria Iacobucci, Oktawia Nilsson, Maria Monti, Daria Maria Monti, Jens O Lagerstedt
Twenty Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) variants are responsible for a systemic hereditary amyloidosis in which protein fibrils can accumulate in different organs, leading to their failure. Several ApoA-I amyloidogenic mutations are also associated with hypoalphalipoproteinemia, low ApoA-I and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol plasma levels; however, subjects affected by ApoA-I-related amyloidosis do not show a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The structural features, the lipid binding properties and the functionality of four ApoA-I amyloidogenic variants were therefore inspected in order to clarify the paradox observed in the clinical phenotype of the affected subjects...
September 5, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883002/genetic-dissociation-of-glycolysis-and-the-tca-cycle-affects-neither-normal-nor-neoplastic-proliferation
#8
Laura E Jackson, Sucheta Kulkarni, Huabo Wang, Jie Lu, James M Dolezal, Sivakama S Bharathi, Sarangarajan Ranganathan, Mulchand S Patel, Rahul Deshpande, Frances Alencastro, Stacy G Wendell, Eric S Goetzman, Andrew W Duncan, Edward V Prochownik
Rapidly proliferating cells increase glycolysis at the expense of oxidative phosphorylation (oxphos) to generate sufficient levels of glycolytic intermediates for use as anabolic substrates. The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) is a critical mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes pyruvate's conversion to acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA), thereby connecting these two pathways in response to complex energetic, enzymatic and metabolic cues. Here we utilized a mouse model of hepatocyte-specific PDC inactivation to determine the need for this metabolic link during normal hepatocyte regeneration and malignant transformation...
September 7, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873424/dual-specificity-phosphatase-6-deficiency-is-associated-with-impaired-systemic-glucose-tolerance-and-reversible-weight-retardation-in-mice
#9
Katrin Pfuhlmann, Paul T Pfluger, Sonja C Schriever, Timo D Müller, Matthias H Tschöp, Kerstin Stemmer
Here, we aimed to investigate the potential role of DUSP6, a dual specificity phosphatase, that specifically inactivates extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), for the regulation of body weight and glucose homeostasis. We further assessed whether metabolic challenges affect Dusp6 expression in selected brain areas or white adipose tissue. Hypothalamic Dusp6 mRNA levels remained unchanged in chow-fed lean vs. high fat diet (HFD) fed obese C57Bl/6J mice, and in C57Bl/6J mice undergoing prolonged fasting or refeeding with fat free diet (FFD) or HFD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871459/facultative-cam-photosynthesis-crassulacean-acid-metabolism-in-four-species-of-calandrinia-ephemeral-succulents-of-arid-australia
#10
Joseph A M Holtum, Lillian P Hancock, Erika J Edwards, Klaus Winter
Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) was demonstrated in four small endemic Australian terrestrial succulents from the genus Calandrinia (Montiaceae) viz. C. creethiae, C. pentavalvis, C. quadrivalvis and C. reticulata. CAM was substantiated by measurements of CO2 gas-exchange and nocturnal acidification. In all species, the expression of CAM was overwhelmingly facultative in that nocturnal H(+) accumulation was greatest in droughted plants and zero, or close to zero, in plants that were well-watered, including plants that had been droughted and were subsequently rewatered, i...
September 4, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870707/interventions-to-improve-%C3%AE-cell-mass-and-function
#11
Prosenjit Mondal, Amit Prasad, Khyati Girdhar
Diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has become an epidemiologically important disease worldwide and is also becoming a great matter of concern due to the effects associated with it like: high morbidity, elevated health care cost and shortened life span. T2DM is a chronic metabolic disease characterized by insulin resistance as well as β-cell dysfunction. It is widely accepted that in the face of insulin resistance, euglycemia can be maintained by increase in pancreatic β-cell mass and insulin secretion. This compensation is largely due to enhanced secretion of insulin by the β-cell mass, which is present initially, and thereby subsequent increases in β-cell mass provide additional insulin secretion...
September 1, 2017: Annales D'endocrinologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866368/overlapping-functions-of-bone-sialoprotein-and-pyrophosphate-regulators-in-directing-cementogenesis
#12
M Ao, M B Chavez, E Y Chu, K C Hemstreet, Y Yin, M C Yadav, J L Millán, L W Fisher, H A Goldberg, M J Somerman, B L Foster
Although acellular cementum is essential for tooth attachment, factors directing its development and regeneration remain poorly understood. Inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), a mineralization inhibitor, is a key regulator of cementum formation: tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (Alpl/TNAP) null mice (increased PPi) feature deficient cementum, while progressive ankylosis protein (Ank/ANK) null mice (decreased PPi) feature increased cementum. Bone sialoprotein (Bsp/BSP) and osteopontin (Spp1/OPN) are multifunctional extracellular matrix components of cementum proposed to have direct and indirect effects on cell activities and mineralization...
September 1, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864987/the-long-term-effect-of-the-periconception-period-on-the-embryo-s-epigenetic-profile-and-phenotype-the-role-of-maternal-disease-such-as-diabetes-and-how-the-effect-is-mediated-example-from-a-rabbit-model
#13
Bernd Fischer, Maria Schindler, S Mareike Pendzialek, Jacqueline Gürke, Elisa Haucke, Katarzyna Joanna Grybel, René Thieme, Anne Navarrete Santos
Maternal metabolic diseases such as diabetes mellitus with diabetogenic hypoinsulinemia and hyperglycemia change periconceptional developmental conditions in utero. In preimplantation rabbit embryos, all major metabolic pathways are affected. Alterations in protein, lipid and glucose metabolism, adipokines, advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are described in this review. The embryonic metabolism is characterized by a high plasticity which enables survival of most preimplantation embryos under the non-physiological developmental conditions in diabetic mothers...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864766/distinct-intracellular-sac-camp-domains-regulate-er-calcium-signaling-and-oxphos-function
#14
Federica Valsecchi, Csaba Konrad, Marilena D'Aurelio, Lavoisier S Ramos-Espiritu, Anna Stepanova, Suzanne R Burstein, Alexander Galkin, Jordi Magranè, Anatoly Starkov, Jochen Buck, Lonny R Levin, Giovanni Manfredi
cAMP regulates a wide variety of physiological functions in mammals. This single second messenger can regulate multiple, seemingly disparate functions within independently regulated cell compartments. We previously identified one such compartment inside the matrix of the mitochondria, where soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) regulates oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). We now show that sAC KO fibroblasts have a defect in OXPHOS activity and attempt to compensate for this defect by increasing OXPHOS proteins. Importantly, sAC KO cells also exhibit decreased probability of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) release associated with diminished phosphorylation of the inositol 3-phosphate receptor...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864081/hypoxic-acclimation-leads-to-metabolic-compensation-after-reoxygenation-in-atlantic-salmon-yolk-sac-alevins
#15
Elias T Polymeropoulos, Nicholas G Elliott, Peter B Frappell
Hypoxia is common in aquatic environments and has substantial effects on development, metabolism and survival of aquatic organisms. To understand the physiological effects of hypoxia and its dependence on temperature, metabolic rate (Ṁo2) and cardiorespiratory function were studied in response to acute hypoxia (21 ➔ 5kPa) at different measurement temperatures (Ta; 4, 8 and 12°C) in Salmo salar alevins that were incubated under normoxic conditions (PO2=21kPa) or following hypoxic acclimation (PO2=10kPa) as well as two different temperatures (4°C or 8°C)...
August 29, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863020/validating-the-physiologic-model-hummod-as-a-substitute-for-clinical-trials-involving-acute-normovolemic-hemodilution
#16
Charles R Sims, Luis R Delima, Arthur Calimaran, Robert Hester, W Andrew Pruett
BACKGROUND: Blood conservation strategies and transfusion guidelines remain a heavily debated clinical topic. Previous investigational trials have shown that acute isovolemic hemodilution does not limit adequate oxygen delivery; however, a true critical hemoglobin level has never been investigated or defined due to safety concerns for human volunteers. Validated physiologic modeling may be useful to investigate hemodilution at critical hemoglobin levels without the ethical or safety hazards of clinical trials...
August 31, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860998/human-biomechanical-and-cardiopulmonary-responses-to-partial-gravity-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Charlotte Richter, Bjoern Braunstein, Andrew Winnard, Mona Nasser, Tobias Weber
The European Space Agency has recently announced to progress from low Earth orbit missions on the International Space Station to other mission scenarios such as exploration of the Moon or Mars. Therefore, the Moon is considered to be the next likely target for European human space explorations. Compared to microgravity (μg), only very little is known about the physiological effects of exposure to partial gravity (μg < partial gravity <1 g). However, previous research studies and experiences made during the Apollo missions comprise a valuable source of information that should be taken into account when planning human space explorations to reduced gravity environments...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860532/revealing-the-mystery-of-metabolic-adaptations-using-a-genome-scale-model-of-leishmania-infantum
#18
Abhishek Subramanian, Ram Rup Sarkar
Human macrophage phagolysosome and sandfly midgut provide antagonistic ecological niches for Leishmania parasites to survive and proliferate. Parasites optimize their metabolism to utilize the available inadequate resources by adapting to those environments. Lately, a number of metabolomics studies have revived the interest to understand metabolic strategies utilized by the Leishmania parasite for optimal survival within its hosts. For the first time, we propose a reconstructed genome-scale metabolic model for Leishmania infantum JPCM5, the analyses of which not only captures observations reported by metabolomics studies in other Leishmania species but also divulges novel features of the L...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852515/the-effects-of-elevated-temperature-and-ocean-acidification-on-the-metabolic-pathways-of-notothenioid-fish
#19
Laura A Enzor, Evan M Hunter, Sean P Place
The adaptations used by notothenioid fish to combat extreme cold may have left these fish poorly poised to deal with a changing environment. As such, the expected environmental perturbations brought on by global climate change have the potential to significantly affect the energetic demands and subsequent cellular processes necessary for survival. Despite recent lines of evidence demonstrating that notothenioid fish retain the ability to acclimate to elevated temperatures, the underlying mechanisms responsible for temperature acclimation in these fish remain largely unknown...
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847139/swimming-three-ice-miles-within-fifteen-hours
#20
Mirko Stjepanovic, Pantelis T. Nikolaidis, Beat Knechtle
Ice Mile swimming (1608 m in water of below 5 °Celsius) is becoming increasingly popular. This case study aimed to identify body core temperature and selected haematological and biochemical parameters before and after repeated Ice Miles. An experienced ice swimmer completed three consecutive Ice Miles within 15 h. Swim times, body core temperatures, and selected urinary and haematological parameters were recorded. Body core temperature reached its maximum between 5, 8 and 15 min after immersion (37.7°C, 38...
August 31, 2017: Chinese Journal of Physiology
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