Read by QxMD icon Read

Metabolic compensation

Noritoshi Fukushima, Makiko Kitabayashi, Hiroyuki Kikuchi, Hiroyuki Sasai, Koichiro Oka, Yoshio Nakata, Shigeho Tanaka, And Shigeru Inoue
OBJECTIVE: The times spent in sedentary behavior (SB) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) are independently associated with health outcomes; however, objective data on physical activity levels including SB among different occupations is limited. We compared accelerometer-measured times spent in SB, light-intensity physical activity (LPA), and MVPA, and the patterns associated with prolonged bouts of SB between white- and blue-collar workers. METHODS: The study population consisted of 102 full-time plant workers (54 white-collar and 48 blue-collar) who wore a triaxial accelerometer during waking hours for 5 working days...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Occupational Health
Teresa Małecka-Massalska, Aleksandra Majdan
Chronic inflammatory status in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) due to metabolic changes has an effect on body composition. Up to two thirds of patients may be affected by the loss of body cell mass and, thereby, malnutrition including its most severe form - cachexia. Among patients with RA and malnutrition, the total body weight is not reduced and the muscle loss is partially compensated by an increase in body fat. The excess of visceral and trunk adipose tissue is the main factor of increased prevalence of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome in RA patients...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Motohiro Tani, Kouichi Funato
Life is dependent on the protection of cellular functions from various stresses. Sphingolipids are essential biomembrane components in eukaryotic organisms, which are exposed to risks that may disrupt sphingolipid metabolism, threatening their lives. Defects of the sphingolipid biosynthesis pathway cause profound defects of various cellular functions and ultimately cell death. Therefore, cells are equipped with defense response mechanisms against aberrant metabolism of sphingolipids, the most characterized one being the target of rapamycin complex 2-mediated regulation of sphingolipid biosynthesis in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
March 19, 2018: Current Genetics
Yogi Umbarawan, Mas Rizky A A Syamsunarno, Norimichi Koitabashi, Aiko Yamaguchi, Hirofumi Hanaoka, Takako Hishiki, Yoshiko Nagahata-Naito, Hideru Obinata, Motoaki Sano, Hiroaki Sunaga, Hiroki Matsui, Yoshito Tsushima, Makoto Suematsu, Masahiko Kurabayashi, Tatsuya Iso
Aims: The metabolism of the failing heart is characterized by an increase in glucose uptake with reduced fatty acid (FA) oxidation. We previously found that the genetic deletion of fatty acid binding protein-4 and -5 (DKO) induces an increased myocardial reliance on glucose with decreased FA uptake in mice. However, whether this fuel switch confers functional benefit during the hypertrophic response remains open to debate. To address this question, we investigated the contractile function and metabolic profile of DKO hearts subjected to pressure overload...
March 15, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Álvaro Sebastián-Serrano, Laura de Diego-García, David C Henshall, Tobías Engel, Miguel Díaz-Hernández
Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is a rare heritable metabolic bone disease caused by hypomorphic mutations in the ALPL (in human) or Akp2 (in mouse) gene, encoding the tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) enzyme. In addition to skeletal and dental malformations, severe forms of HPP are also characterized by the presence of spontaneous seizures. Initially, these seizures were attributed to an impairment of GABAergic neurotransmission caused by altered vitamin B6 metabolism. However, recent work by our group using knockout mice null for TNAP (TNAP-/-), a well-described model of infantile HPP, has revealed a deregulation of purinergic signaling contributing to the seizure phenotype...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Connor M Pettem, Jennifer M Briens, David M Janz, Lynn P Weber
Selenium (Se) is considered an essential trace element, involved in important physiological and metabolic functions for all vertebrate species. Fish require dietary concentrations of 0.1-0.5 μg Se/g dry mass (d.m.) to maintain normal physiological and selenoprotein function, however concentrations exceeding 3 μg/g d.m. have been shown to cause toxicity. As Se is reported to have a narrow margin between essentiality and toxicity, there is growing concern surrounding the adverse effects of elevated Se exposure caused by anthropogenic activities...
March 8, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Dong Liu, Zhengjiao Yang, Ping Wang, Huanqing Niu, Wei Zhuang, Yong Chen, Jinglan Wu, Chenjie Zhu, Hanjie Ying, Pingkai Ouyang
Microbial production of butanol by solventogenic Clostridium has long been complicated with the formation of acetone as an unwanted product, which causes poor product yields and creates a most important problem concerning substrate transformation. Intensive attempts concentrate on carbon conversion pathways to eliminate acetone, but have actually achieved little so far. Here, we believe microbial product distribution can largely depend on how the cell plays its energetic cofactors in central metabolism, and demonstrate that by introducing a synthetic 2,3-butanediol synthesis pathway in Clostridium acetobutylicum as an NADH-compensating module to readjust the reducing power at a systems level, the production of acetone can be selectively and efficiently eliminated (<0...
March 14, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
Han He, Qiaosong Yang, Boran Shen, Sheng Zhang, Xinxiang Peng
BACKGROUND: Although decreased protein expressions have been observed in NOA1 (Nitric Oxide Associated protein 1) deficient plants, the molecular mechanisms of how NOA1 regulates protein metabolism remain poorly understood. In this study, we have used a global comparative proteomic approach for both OsNOA1 suppression and overexpression transgenic lines under two different temperatures, in combination with physiological and biochemical analyses to explore the regulatory mechanisms of OsNOA1 in rice...
March 16, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Qingdi Quentin Li, Huei-Fung Tsai, Ajeet Mandal, Bryan A Walker, Jason A Noble, Yuichi Fukuda, John E Bennett
Pathogenic fungi, including Candida glabrata, develop strategies to grow and survive both in vitro and in vivo under azole stress. However, the mechanisms by which yeast cells counteract the inhibitory effects of azoles are not completely understood. In the current study, it was demonstrated that the expression of the ergosterol biosynthetic genes ERG2, ERG3, ERG4, ERG10, and ERG11 was significantly upregulated in C. glabrata following fluconazole treatment. Inhibiting ergosterol biosynthesis using fluconazole also increased the expression of the sterol influx transporter AUS1 and the sterol metabolism regulators SUT1 and UPC2 in fungal cells...
March 9, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Alexandre Caron, Heather M Dungan Lemko, Carlos M Castorena, Teppei Fujikawa, Syann Lee, Caleb C Lord, Newaz Ahmed, Charlotte E Lee, William L Holland, Chen Liu, Joel K Elmquist
Leptin is critical for energy balance, glucose homeostasis, and for metabolic and neuroendocrine adaptations to starvation. A prevalent model predicts that leptin's actions are mediated through pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons that express leptin receptors (LEPRs). However, previous studies have used prenatal genetic manipulations, which may be subject to developmental compensation. Here, we tested the direct contribution of POMC neurons expressing LEPRs in regulating energy balance, glucose homeostasis and leptin secretion during fasting using a spatiotemporally controlled Lepr expression mouse model...
March 12, 2018: ELife
P Sedivy, M Dezortova, M Drobny, Z Vlasakova, V Herynek, M Hajek
Type I diabetes mellitus (DM1) is a complex disease with adverse effects on organs and tissues despite compensation by insulin treatment. The goal of our study was to study how kidney diseases change (31)P MR parameters of muscle metabolism in DM1 patients with respect to gender. 59 DM1 patients (19m/14f without and 13m/5f with nephropathy) and 26 (14m/12f) healthy volunteers were examined using (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3T tomograph at rest, and during and after a calf muscle exercise. The exercise consisted of a six-minute plantar flexion using a pedal ergometer followed by a six-minute recovery...
March 12, 2018: Physiological Research
Ugo Zanelli, Thomas Michna, Carl Petersson
1) A novel method utilizing an internal standard in hepatocytes incubations has been developed and demonstrated to decrease the variability in the determination of intrinsic clearance in this system. The reduced variability was shown to allow differentiation of lower elimination rate constants from noise. 2) The suggested method was able to compensate for a small but systematic error (0.5 µL/min/106 cells) caused by an evaporation of approximately 15% of the volume during the incubation time. 3) The approach was validated using six commercial drugs (ketoprofen, tolbutamide, phenacetin, etodolac and quinidine) which were metabolized by different pathways...
March 9, 2018: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
Ellen E Pflug, Nina Buchmann, Rolf T W Siegwolf, Marcus Schaub, Andreas Rigling, Matthias Arend
Drought is a major environmental constraint to trees, causing severe stress and thus adversely affecting their functional integrity. European beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.) is a key species in mesic forests that is commonly expected to suffer in a future climate with more intense and frequent droughts. Here, we assessed the seasonal response of leaf physiological characteristics of beech saplings to drought and drought release to investigate their potential to recover from the imposed stress and overcome previous limitations...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Johannes C van der Mijn, Mathijs J Kuiper, Carl E H Siegert, Annabeth E Wassenaar, Carel J M van Noesel, Aernout C Ogilvie
Lactic acidosis is a commonly observed clinical condition that is associated with a poor prognosis, especially in malignancies. We describe a case of an 81-year-old patient who presented with symptoms of tachypnea and general discomfort. Arterial blood gas analysis showed a high anion gap acidosis with a lactate level of 9.5 mmol/L with respiratory compensation. CT scanning showed no signs of pulmonary embolism or other causes of impaired tissue oxygenation. Despite treatment with sodium bicarbonate, the patient developed an adrenalin-resistant cardiac arrest, most likely caused by the acidosis...
September 2017: Case Reports in Oncology
P Jariyahatthakij, B Chomtee, T Poeikhampha, W Loongyai, C Bunchasak
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing methionine (Met) in a low-protein (Low-CP) diet during d 11 to 24 and subsequently feeding with a low-metabolizable energy diet (Low-ME; -75 kcal/kg) or a normal ME diet during d 25 to 42 on the productive performance, blood chemical profile, and lipid metabolism-related gene expression of broiler chickens. The 1,600 broiler chicks were divided into 5 groups as follows: 1) Normal CP, then Normal ME; 2) Low-CP, then Normal ME; 3) Low-CP, then Low-ME; 4) Low-CP+Met, then Normal ME; and 5) Low-CP+Met, then Low-ME...
March 5, 2018: Poultry Science
Ingrid Kratzer, Nathalie Strazielle, Elodie Saudrais, Kati Mönkkönen, Céline Maleval, Sandrine Blondel, Jean-François Ghersi-Egea
Exposure of the developing brain to toxins, drugs, or deleterious endogenous compounds during the perinatal period can trigger alterations in cell division, migration, differentiation, and synaptogenesis, leading to life-long neurological impairment. The brain is protected by cellular barriers acting through multiple mechanisms, some of which are still poorly explored. We used a combination of enzymatic assays, live tissue fluorescence microscopy, and an in vitro cellular model of the blood-CSF barrier to investigate an enzymatic detoxification pathway in the developing male and female rat brain...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Salvatore Petta, Luigi Elio Adinolfi, Anna Ludovica Fracanzani, Francesca Rini, Rosalia Caldarella, Vincenza Calvaruso, Calogero Cammà, Marcello Ciaccio, Vito Di Marco, Stefania Grimaudo, Anna Licata, Aldo Marrone, Riccardo Nevola, Rosaria Maria Pipitone, Antonio Pinto, Luca Rinaldi, Daniele Torres, Antonino Tuttolomondo, Luca Valenti, Silvia Fargion, Antonio Craxì
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Recent studies suggest an association between HCV infection and cardiovascular damage, including carotid atherosclerosis, with a possible effect of HCV clearance on cardiovascular outcomes. We aimed to examine whether HCV eradication by direct antiviral agents (DAA) improves carotid atherosclerosis in HCV-infected patients with advanced fibrosis/compensated cirrhosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred eighty-two consecutive HCV patients with advanced fibrosis or compensated cirrhosis were evaluated by virological, anthropometric and metabolic measurements...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
Atakan Comba, Fatma Demirbaş, Gönül Çaltepe, Esra Eren, Ayhan G Kalayci
BACKGROUND: α-1 Antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is the most frequently occurring genetic liver disorder. The association among classical α-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD), chronic liver disease, and cirrhosis is common in adult patients but rare in children. AIM: To assess the clinical characteristics of children with AATD and to compare symptoms between homozygous and heterozygous children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 20 children who were found to have mutant Pi alleles...
March 2, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Wei Guo, Sudhanshu Mishra, Jiangchao Zhao, Jingsi Tang, Bo Zeng, Fanli Kong, Ruihong Ning, Miao Li, Hengzhi Zhang, Yutian Zeng, Yuanliangzi Tian, Yihang Zhong, Hongdi Luo, Yunhan Liu, Jiandong Yang, Mingyao Yang, Mingwang Zhang, Yan Li, Qingyong Ni, Caiwu Li, Chengdong Wang, Desheng Li, Hemin Zhang, Zhili Zuo, Ying Li
Bamboo-eating giant panda ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca ) is an enigmatic species, which possesses a carnivore-like short and simple gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Despite the remarkable studies on giant panda, its diet adaptability status continues to be a matter of debate. To resolve this puzzle, we investigated the functional potential of the giant panda gut microbiome using shotgun metagenomic sequencing of fecal samples. We also compared our data with similar data from other animal species representing herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores from current and earlier studies...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Sarah Egert, Andrea Baxheinrich, Young Hee Lee-Barkey, Diethelm Tschoepe, Peter Stehle, Bernd Stratmann, Ursel Wahrburg
OBJECTIVES: Plant-derived α-linolenic acid (ALA) may exert cardioprotective effects. Dietary ALA can undergo desaturation and elongation to form long-chain ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, but the extent to which this occurs in humans is unclear. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of an energy-restricted diet enriched with ALA on fatty acid composition of serum phospholipids in patients with metabolic syndrome. METHODS: The present analysis compared the effects of a hypoenergetic diet high in ALA (3...
December 2, 2017: Nutrition
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"