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Metabolic compensation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903888/sirna-carrying-an-e-vinylphosphonate-moiety-at-the-5-end-of-the-guide-strand-augments-gene-silencing-by-enhanced-binding-to-human-argonaute-2
#1
Elad Elkayam, Rubina Parmar, Christopher R Brown, Jennifer L Willoughby, Christopher S Theile, Muthiah Manoharan, Leemor Joshua-Tor
Efficient gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) in vivo requires the recognition and binding of the 5'- phosphate of the guide strand of an siRNA by the Argonaute protein. However, for exogenous siRNAs it is limited by the rapid removal of the 5'- phosphate of the guide strand by metabolic enzymes. Here, we have determined the crystal structure of human Argonaute-2 in complex with the metabolically stable 5'-(E)-vinylphosphonate (5'-E-VP) guide RNA at 2.5-Å resolution. The structure demonstrates how the 5' binding site in the Mid domain of human Argonaute-2 is able to adjust the key residues in the 5'-nucleotide binding pocket to compensate for the change introduced by the modified nucleotide...
November 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897253/hyperglycaemia-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-acidify-cystic-fibrosis-airway-surface-liquid-by-elevating-epithelial-monocarboxylate-transporter-2-dependent-lactate-h-secretion
#2
James Peter Garnett, Kameljit K Kalsi, Mirko Sobotta, Jade Bearham, Georgina Carr, Jason Powell, Malcolm Brodlie, Christopher Ward, Robert Tarran, Deborah L Baines
The cystic fibrosis (CF) airway surface liquid (ASL) provides a nutrient rich environment for bacterial growth including elevated glucose, which together with defective bacterial killing due to aberrant HCO3(-) transport and acidic ASL, make the CF airways susceptible to colonisation by respiratory pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Approximately half of adults with CF have CF related diabetes (CFRD) and this is associated with increased respiratory decline. CF ASL contains elevated lactate concentrations and hyperglycaemia can also increase ASL lactate...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891602/cannabimimetic-phytochemicals-in-the-diet-an-evolutionary-link-to-food-selection-and-metabolic-stress-adaptation
#3
REVIEW
Jürg Gertsch
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a major lipid signaling network that plays important pro-homeostatic (allostatic) roles not only in the nervous system but in peripheral organs. Increasing evidence points towards a dietary component in the modulation of the ECS. Cannabinoid receptors in hominids co-evolved with diet and the ECS constitutes a feedback loop for food selection and energy metabolism. Here it is postulated that the mismatch of ancient lipid genes of hunter-gatheres and pastoralists with the high carbohydrate diet introduced by agriculture could be compensated via dietary modulation of the ECS...
November 27, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887989/quantitative-pet-image-reconstruction-employing-nested-expectation-maximization-deconvolution-for-motion-compensation
#4
Nicolas A Karakatsanis, Charalampos Tsoumpas, Habib Zaidi
Bulk body motion may randomly occur during PET acquisitions introducing blurring, attenuation-emission mismatches and, in dynamic PET, discontinuities in the measured time activity curves between consecutive frames. Meanwhile, dynamic PET scans are longer, thus increasing the probability of bulk motion. In this study, we propose a streamlined 3D PET motion-compensated image reconstruction (3D-MCIR) framework, capable of robustly deconvolving intra-frame motion from a static or dynamic 3D sinogram. The presented 3D-MCIR methods need not partition the data into multiple gates, such as 4D MCIR algorithms, or access list-mode (LM) data, such as LM MCIR methods, both associated with increased computation or memory resources...
November 16, 2016: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887776/critical-role-of-superoxide-anions-and-hydroxyl-radicals-in-hema-induced-apoptosis
#5
H Schweikl, M Godula, C Petzel, C Bolay, K A Hiller, W Buchalla
OBJECTIVE: Resin monomers such as 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) induce apoptosis because of the excess formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The portion of ROS including superoxide anions, hydrogen peroxide or hydroxyl radicals in monomer-induced apoptosis is unknown. Here, the effectiveness of superoxide anions or hydroxyl radicals was analyzed using tempol or sodium formate as radical scavengers. METHODS: RAW264.7 mouse macrophages were exposed to HEMA (0-6-8mM) in the presence of tempol (0-0...
November 22, 2016: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881386/ppar%C3%AE-augments-heart-function-and-cardiac-fatty-acid-oxidation-in-early-experimental-polymicrobial-sepsis
#6
Stephen Wade Standage, Brock G Bennion, Taft Olpin Knowles, Dolena R Ledee, Michael A Portman, John K McGuire, W Conrad Liles, Aaron K Olson
Children with sepsis and multisystem organ failure have downregulated leukocyte gene expression of PPARα, a nuclear hormone receptor transcription factor that regulates inflammation and lipid metabolism. Mouse models of sepsis have likewise demonstrated that the absence of PPARα is associated with decreased survival and organ injury, specifically of the heart. Using a clinically relevant mouse model of early sepsis, we found that heart function increases in wild type (WT) mice over the first 24 hours of sepsis, but that mice lacking PPARα (Ppara(-/-)) cannot sustain the elevated heart function necessary to compensate for sepsis pathophysiology...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876136/worse-or-better-cirrhosis-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#7
Ran Xue, Qinghua Meng, Juan Li, Jiliang Feng, Hanping Shi
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for about 90% of all malignant tumors of liver, ranking fifth in the worldwide incidence of malignant tumors and the third in fatality. More and more evidences suggest that cancer is a metabolic-related disease. From the analysis of recent clinical research data, we found that as the severity of the cirrhosis aggravated, patients with HCC and end-stage liver cirrhosis had a flat energy metabolism which was better than it in patients with simple end-stage liver cirrhosis...
December 2016: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871472/an-immunohistochemical-study-of-placental-syncytiotrophoblasts-in-neonatal-hemochromatosis
#8
Aiko Shimono, Yuko Imoto, Haruhiko Sakamoto, Yoichi Chiba, Koichi Matsumoto, Machi Kawauchi, Takashi Kusaka, Hirokazu Tanaka, Toshiyuki Hata, Yoshio Kushida, Masaki Ueno
INTRODUCTION: Neonatal hemochromatosis (NH) is a rare neonatal disorder that results in liver cirrhosis with hemosiderin deposition in the liver and other organs, similarly to hereditary hemochromatosis. Excess iron is transferred from the mother to fetus through the placenta in NH. We examined the expression of iron metabolism-related substances in placental syncytiotrophoblasts (STB) by immunostaining to clarify how the transfer of iron through STB increases in NH. METHODS: Immunostaining was performed using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of placentae from three NH cases, four gestational age-matched controls, and, depending on the antibody examined, five to seven full-term controls...
December 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853988/antenatal-manifestations-of-inborn-errors-of-metabolism-prenatal-imaging-findings
#9
Laurent Guibaud, Sophie Collardeau-Frachon, Audrey Lacalm, Mona Massoud, Massimiliano Rossi, Marie Pierre Cordier, Christine Vianey-Saban
Prenatal manifestations of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) are related to severe disorders involving metabolic pathways active in the fetal period and not compensated by maternal or placental metabolism. Some prenatal imaging findings can be suggestive of such conditions-especially in cases of consanguinity and/or recurrence of symptoms-after exclusion of the most frequent nonmetabolic etiologies. Most of these prenatal imaging findings are nonspecific. They include mainly ascites and hydrops fetalis, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), central nervous system (CNS) anomalies, echogenic kidneys, epiphyseal stippling, craniosynostosis, and a wide spectrum of dysostoses...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851769/immune-challenged-fish-up-regulate-their-metabolic-scope-to-support-locomotion
#10
Camille Bonneaud, Robbie S Wilson, Frank Seebacher
Energy-based trade-offs occur when investment in one fitness-related trait diverts energy away from other traits. The extent to which such trade-offs are shaped by limits on the rate of conversion of energy ingested in food (e.g. carbohydrates) into chemical energy (ATP) by oxidative metabolism rather than by the amount of food ingested in the first place is, however, unclear. Here we tested whether the ATP required for mounting an immune response will lead to a trade-off with ATP available for physical activity in mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845667/walking-with-a-backpack-using-load-distribution-and-dynamic-load-compensation-reduces-metabolic-cost-and-adaptations-to-loads
#11
Joon-Hyuk Park, Paul Stegall, Haohan Zhang, Sunil Agrawal
In this study, we showed a way of reducing the metabolic cost of walking with a backpack using load distribution and dynamic load compensation, provided by a wearable upper body device. This device distributes the backpack load between the shoulders and the pelvis, senses the vertical motion of the pelvis, and provides gait synchronized compensatory forces to reduce the dynamic loads from a backpack. It was hypothesized that by reducing dynamic loads from a backpack during load carriage, the users gait and postural adaptation, muscular effort and metabolic cost would be reduced...
November 9, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834741/impaired-collateral-flow-compensation-during-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-in-the-type-2-diabetic-mice
#12
Yasuo Nishijima, Yosuke Akamatsu, Shih Yen Yang, Chih Cheng Lee, Utku Baran, Shaozhen Song, Ruikang K Wang, Teiji Tominaga, Jialing Liu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The presence of collaterals is associated with a reduced risk of stroke and transient ischemic attack in patients with steno-occlusive carotid artery disease. Although metabolic syndrome negatively impacts collateral status, it is unclear whether and to what extent type 2 diabetes mellitus affects cerebral collateral flow regulation during hypoperfusion. METHODS: We examined the spatial and temporal changes of the leptomeningeal collateral flow and the flow dynamics of the penetrating arterioles in the distal middle cerebral artery and anterior cerebral artery branches over 2 weeks after unilateral common carotid artery occlusion (CCAO) using optical coherent tomography in db/+ and db/db mice...
November 10, 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830062/saccharomyces-cerevisiae-single-copy-plasmids-for-auxotrophy-compensation-multiple-marker-selection-and-for-designing-metabolically-cooperating-communities
#13
Michael Mülleder, Kate Campbell, Olga Matsarskaia, Florian Eckerstorfer, Markus Ralser
Auxotrophic markers are useful tools in cloning and genome editing, enable a large spectrum of genetic techniques, as well as facilitate the study of metabolite exchange interactions in microbial communities. If unused background auxotrophies are left uncomplemented however, yeast cells need to be grown in nutrient supplemented or rich growth media compositions, which precludes the analysis of biosynthetic metabolism, and which leads to a profound impact on physiology and gene expression. Here we present a series of 23 centromeric plasmids designed to restore prototrophy in typical Saccharomyces cerevisiae laboratory strains...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828689/tgf-%C3%AE-1-bone-metabolism-osteoprotegerin-and-soluble-receptor-activator-of-nuclear-factor-kb-ligand-in-girls-with-anorexia-nervosa
#14
Zofia Ostrowska, Katarzyna Ziora, Joanna Oświęcimska, Elżbieta Świętochowska, Bogdan Marek, Dariusz Kajdaniuk, Joanna Strzelczyk, Karolina Gołąbek, Kinga Wołkowska-Pokrywa, Beata Kos-Kudła
INTRODUCTION: Numerous investigations, and especially in vitro studies, indicate that TGF-β1 may act as an important regulator of bone remodelling. Thus, it could be expected that disturbances of this cytokine production observed by several researchers might play a role in the mechanism leading to the development of osteoporosis in girls with anorexia nervosa (AN). The aim of the study was to determine whether 1) girls with AN exhibited a relationship between TGF-β1 and bone metabolism (as assessed based on serum OC and CTx concentrations) and 2) whether OPG and sRANKL might modify the possible relationship between TGF-β1 and bone metabolism...
2016: Endokrynologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827456/2-aminobutyric-acid-modulates-glutathione-homeostasis-in-the-myocardium
#15
Yasuhiro Irino, Ryuji Toh, Manabu Nagao, Takeshige Mori, Tomoyuki Honjo, Masakazu Shinohara, Shigeyasu Tsuda, Hideto Nakajima, Seimi Satomi-Kobayashi, Toshiro Shinke, Hidekazu Tanaka, Tatsuro Ishida, Okiko Miyata, Ken-Ichi Hirata
A previous report showed that the consumption of glutathione through oxidative stress activates the glutathione synthetic pathway, which is accompanied by production of ophthalmic acid from 2-aminobutyric acid (2-AB). We conducted a comprehensive quantification of serum metabolites using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in patients with atrial septal defect to find clues for understanding myocardial metabolic regulation, and demonstrated that circulating 2-AB levels reflect hemodynamic changes. However, the metabolism and pathophysiological role of 2-AB remains unclear...
November 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826747/serum-compounds-of-energy-metabolism-impairment-are-related-to-disability-disease-course-and-neuroimaging-in-multiple-sclerosis
#16
Giacomo Lazzarino, Angela M Amorini, Axel Petzold, Claudio Gasperini, Serena Ruggieri, Maria Esmeralda Quartuccio, Giuseppe Lazzarino, Enrico Di Stasio, Barbara Tavazzi
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by primary inflammation, demyelination, and progressive neurodegeneration. A biochemical MS feature is neuronal mitochondrial dysfunction, compensated by anaerobic metabolism increase, likely aggravating progression of neurodegeneration. Here, we characterized a pragmatic serum profile of compounds related to mitochondrial energy metabolism of potential clinical use. Blood samples of 518 well characterized (disability, disease course) MS patients and 167 healthy controls were analyzed for serum purines, pyrimidines, creatinine, and lactate...
November 8, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826644/novel-faces-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-23-fgf23-iron-deficiency-inflammation-insulin-resistance-left-ventricular-hypertrophy-proteinuria-and-acute-kidney-injury
#17
Mehmet Kanbay, Marc Vervloet, Mario Cozzolino, Dimitrie Siriopol, Adrian Covic, David Goldsmith, Yalcin Solak
FGF23 is a hormone that appears as the core regulator of phosphate metabolism. Great deal of data has accumulated to demonstrate increased FGF23 secretion from the bone to compensate for even subtle increases in serum phosphorus long before intact PTH. However, recent evidence points to the fact that actions and interactions of FGF23 are not limited solely to phosphate metabolism. FGF23 may be implicated in iron metabolism and erythropoiesis, inflammation, insulin resistance, proteinuria, acute kidney injury and left ventricular hypertrophy...
November 9, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824897/functional-plasticity-after-unilateral-vestibular-midbrain-infarction-in-human-positron-emission-tomography
#18
Sandra Becker-Bense, Hans-Georg Buchholz, Bernhard Baier, Mathias Schreckenberger, Peter Bartenstein, Andreas Zwergal, Thomas Brandt, Marianne Dieterich
The aim of the study was to uncover mechanisms of central compensation of vestibular function at brainstem, cerebellar, and cortical levels in patients with acute unilateral midbrain infarctions presenting with an acute vestibular tone imbalance. Eight out of 17 patients with unilateral midbrain infarctions were selected on the basis of signs of a vestibular tone imbalance, e.g., graviceptive (tilts of perceived verticality) and oculomotor dysfunction (skew deviation, ocular torsion) in F18-fluordeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET at two time points: A) in the acute stage, and B) after recovery 6 months later...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817870/biological-features-of-placental-programming
#19
Kent L Thornburg, Kevin Kolahi, Melinda Pierce, Amy Valent, Rachel Drake, Samantha Louey
The placenta is a key organ in programming the fetus for later disease. This review outlines nine of many structural and physiological features of the placenta which are associated with adult onset chronic disease. 1) Placental efficiency relates the placental mass to the fetal mass. Ratios at the extremes are related to cardiovascular disease risk later in life. 2) Placental shape predicts a large number of disease outcomes in adults but the regulators of placental shape are not known. 3) Non-human primate studies suggest that at about mid-gestation, the placenta becomes less plastic and less able to compensate for pathological stresses...
October 20, 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816133/anesthesia-for-patients-with-concomitant-sepsis-and-cardiac-dysfunction
#20
REVIEW
Abed Abubaih, Charles Weissman
Anesthesiologists faced with a patient with sepsis and concurrent cardiac dysfunction must be cognizant of the patient's cardiac status and cause of the cardiac problem to appropriately adapt physiologic and metabolic monitoring and anesthetic management. Anesthesia in such patients is challenging because the interaction of sepsis and cardiac dysfunction greatly complicates management. Intraoperative anesthesia management requires careful induction and maintenance of anesthesia; optimizing intravascular volume status; avoiding lung injury during mechanical ventilation; and close monitoring of arterial blood gases, serum lactate concentrations, and hematology renal and electrolyte parameters...
December 2016: Anesthesiology Clinics
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