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Adaptive metabolic response

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138211/transcriptome-sequencing-of-the-naked-mole-rat-heterocephalus-glaber-and-identification-of-hypoxia-tolerance-genes
#1
Bang Xiao, Li Li, Chang Xu, Shanmin Zhao, Lifang Lin, Jishuai Cheng, Wenjing Yang, Wei Cong, Guanghan Kan, Shufang Cui
The naked mole rat (NMR; Heterocephalus glaber) is a small rodent species found in regions of Kenya, Ethiopia and Somalia. It has a high tolerance for hypoxia and is thus, considered one of the most important natural models for studying hypoxia tolerance mechanisms. The various mechanisms underlying the NMR's hypoxia tolerance are beginning to be understood at different levels of organization, and next-generation sequencing methods promise to expand this understanding to the level of gene expression. In this study, we examined the sequence and transcript abundance data of the muscle transcriptome of NMRs exposed to hypoxia using the Illumina HiSeq 2500 system to clarify the possible genomic adaptive responses to the hypoxic underground surroundings...
November 14, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137892/role-of-pyrophosphate-in-vascular-calcification-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#2
Daniel Azpiazu, Sergio Gonzalo, Emilio González-Parra, Jesús Egido, Ricardo Villa-Bellosta
Vascular calcification is a pathology characterized by the deposition of calcium-phosphate in cardiovascular structures, mainly in the form of hydroxyapatite crystals, resulting in ectopic calcification. It is correlated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and myocardial infarction in diabetic patients and in those with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Vascular smooth muscle cells are sensitive to changes in inorganic phosphate (Pi) levels. They are able to adapt and modify some of their functions and promote changes which trigger calcification...
November 11, 2017: Nefrología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134775/changes-in-sensitivity-to-the-effects-of-atrazine-on-the-luteinizing-hormone-surge-in-female-sprague-dawley-rats-after-repeated-daily-doses-correlation-with-liver-enzyme-expression
#3
Charles B Breckenridge, Chad D Foradori, Pragati Sawhney Coder, James W Simpkins, Robert L Sielken, Robert J Handa
BACKGROUND: Atrazine suppression of the LH surge slowly develops over time and peaks after 4 days; sensitivity to atrazine decreases after 8 or 14 days of dosing. Adaptation of the LH response was correlated with increased phase I and phase II liver enzyme activity/expression. METHODS: The effect of atrazine on the LH surge was evaluated in female Sprague-Dawley rats administered 100 mg/kg/day atrazine by gavage for 1, 2, 3, or 4 consecutive days or 6.5, 50, or 100 mg/kg/day atrazine for 4, 8, or 14 days...
November 14, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134152/the-role-of-mef2-transcription-factors-in-dehydration-and-anoxia-survival-in-rana-sylvatica-skeletal-muscle
#4
Myriam P Hoyeck, Hanane Hadj-Moussa, Kenneth B Storey
The wood frog (Rana sylvatica) can endure freezing of up to 65% of total body water during winter. When frozen, wood frogs enter a dormant state characterized by a cessation of vital functions (i.e., no heartbeat, blood circulation, breathing, brain activity, or movement). Wood frogs utilize various behavioural and biochemical adaptations to survive extreme freezing and component anoxia and dehydration stresses, including a global suppression of metabolic functions and gene expression. The stress-responsive myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) transcription factor family regulates the selective expression of genes involved in glucose transport, protein quality control, and phosphagen homeostasis...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133782/mtor-intersects-antibody-inducing-signals-from-taci-in-marginal-zone-b-cells
#5
Jordi Sintes, Maurizio Gentile, Shuling Zhang, Yolanda Garcia-Carmona, Giuliana Magri, Linda Cassis, Daniel Segura-Garzón, Alessandra Ciociola, Emilie K Grasset, Sabrina Bascones, Laura Comerma, Marc Pybus, David Lligé, Irene Puga, Cindy Gutzeit, Bing He, Wendy DuBois, Marta Crespo, Julio Pascual, Anna Mensa, Juan Ignacio Aróstegui, Manel Juan, Jordi Yagüe, Sergi Serrano, Josep Lloreta, Eric Meffre, Michael Hahne, Charlotte Cunningham-Rundles, Beverly A Mock, Andrea Cerutti
Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) enhances immunity in addition to orchestrating metabolism. Here we show that mTOR coordinates immunometabolic reconfiguration of marginal zone (MZ) B cells, a pre-activated lymphocyte subset that mounts antibody responses to T-cell-independent antigens through a Toll-like receptor (TLR)-amplified pathway involving transmembrane activator and CAML interactor (TACI). This receptor interacts with mTOR via the TLR adapter MyD88. The resulting mTOR activation instigates MZ B-cell proliferation, immunoglobulin G (IgG) class switching, and plasmablast differentiation through a rapamycin-sensitive pathway that integrates metabolic and antibody-inducing transcription programs, including NF-κB...
November 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133150/structure-and-function-of-per-arnt-sim-domains-and-their-possible-role-in-the-life-cycle-biology-of-trypanosoma-cruzi
#6
REVIEW
Maura Rojas-Pirela, Daniel J Rigden, Paul A Michels, Ana J Cáceres, Juan Luis Concepción, Wilfredo Quiñones
Per-ARNT-Sim (PAS) domains of proteins play important roles as modules for signalling and cellular regulation processes in widely diverse organisms such as Archaea, Bacteria, protists, plants, yeasts, insects and vertebrates. These domains are present in many proteins where they are used as sensors of stimuli and modules for protein interactions. Characteristically, they can bind a broad spectrum of molecules. Such binding causes the domain to trigger a specific cellular response or to make the protein containing the domain susceptible to responding to additional physical or chemical signals...
November 10, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132306/rna-seq-analysis-of-resistant-and-susceptible-sub-tropical-maize-lines-reveals-a-role-for-kauralexins-in-resistance-to-grey-leaf-spot-disease-caused-by-cercospora-zeina
#7
Jacqueline Meyer, Dave K Berger, Shawn A Christensen, Shane L Murray
BACKGROUND: Cercospora zeina is a foliar pathogen responsible for maize grey leaf spot in southern Africa that negatively impacts maize production. Plants use a variety of chemical and structural mechanisms to defend themselves against invading pathogens such as C. zeina, including the production of secondary metabolites with antimicrobial properties. In maize, a variety of biotic and abiotic stressors induce the accumulation of the terpenoid phytoalexins, zealexins and kauralexins. RESULTS: C...
November 13, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132127/a-functional-connection-between-dyskerin-and-energy-metabolism
#8
Alberto Angrisani, Nunzia Matrone, Valentina Belli, Rosario Vicidomini, Nunzia Di Maio, Mimmo Turano, Filippo Scialò, Paolo Antonio Netti, Antonio Porcellini, Maria Furia
The human DKC1 gene encodes dyskerin, an evolutionarily conserved nuclear protein whose overexpression represents a common trait of many types of aggressive sporadic cancers. As a crucial component of the nuclear H/ACA snoRNP complexes, dyskerin is involved in a variety of essential processes, including telomere maintenance, splicing efficiency, ribosome biogenesis, snoRNAs stabilization and stress response. Although multiple minor dyskerin splicing isoforms have been identified, their functions remain to be defined...
November 6, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131712/how-rice-glycogen-synthase-kinase-like-5-osgsk5-integrates-salinity-stress-response-to-source-sink-adaptation-a-proposed-model
#9
Maysaya Thitisaksakul, Shaoyun Dong, Diane M Beckles
We have previously shown that overexpression of GSK3-like kinase 5 in rice (OsGSK5) was associated with higher starch accumulation and better growth under severe salinity stress. Short-term (14)CO2 feeding experiments suggested that OsGSK5 promoted higher flux to starch accumulation in the roots under this condition and that this mechanism may help to underscore the better growth characteristics observed. Here, we expand upon this hypothesis and consider (i) how OsGSK5 action could fit into a signaling model that integrates salinity stress to changes in starch metabolism, and (ii) how this would facilitate whole plant physiological adaptions in source-to-sink partitioning...
November 13, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130885/animal-thermoregulation-a-review-of-insulation-physiology-and-behaviour-relevant-to-temperature-control-in-buildings
#10
Dominic McCafferty, Guillaume Pandraud, Jérôme Gilles, Maria Fabra-Puchol, Pierre-Yves Henry
Birds and mammals have evolved many thermal adaptations that are relevant for bioinspired design of temperature control systems and energy management in buildings. Similar to many buildings, endothermic animals generate internal metabolic heat, are well insulated, regulate their temperature within set limits, modify microclimate and adjust thermal exchange with their environment. Here, we review the major components of animal thermoregulation in endothermic birds and mammals that are pertinent for building engineering, in a world where climate is changing and reduction in energy use is needed...
November 13, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129785/advances-in-hypoxia-inducible-factor-biology
#11
REVIEW
Hani Choudhry, Adrian L Harris
Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), a central regulator for detecting and adapting to cellular oxygen levels, transcriptionally activates genes modulating oxygen homeostasis and metabolic activation. Beyond this, HIF influences many other processes. Hypoxia, in part through HIF-dependent mechanisms, influences epigenetic factors, including DNA methylation and histone acetylation, which modulate hypoxia-responsive gene expression in cells. Hypoxia profoundly affects expression of many noncoding RNAs classes that have clinicopathological implications in cancer...
November 8, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128771/the-acute-thermal-respiratory-response-is-unique-among-species-in-a-guild-of-larval-anuran-amphibians-implications-for-energy-economy-in-a-warmer-future
#12
Christopher L Rowe, Erin A Crandall
Climate change is bringing about increased temperatures of amphibian habitats throughout the world, where ectothermic larvae will experience elevated respiratory (metabolic) energy demands. We compared the acute, thermal respiratory response ("TRR") of four species of sympatric larval amphibians (Lithobates sphenocephalus, L. catesbeianus, Scaphiopus holbrookii, and Hyla chrysoscelis) to determine species-specific differences in the rate at which metabolic energy requirements increase with temperature. The TRR, the slope of the relationship between respiration rate and temperature within critical thermal limits, varied significantly among species such that the absolute, per capita change in metabolic energy requirement as temperature increased was greater for L...
November 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128343/post-stroke-depression-mechanisms-and-pharmacological-treatment
#13
REVIEW
Roberto Federico Villa, Federica Ferrari, Antonio Moretti
Depression, the most frequent psychiatric disorder following ischaemic stroke, negatively affects survivals' functional outcome, response to rehabilitation and quality of life. Approximately, one-third of them are affected by post-stroke depression (PSD), making it a serious social and public health problem and anti-depressant preventive and curative therapies worth investigating. However, a two-way association between depression and stroke has been also established: stroke increases the risk of PSD, but depression is an independent risk factor for stroke...
November 8, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127759/is-irisin-the-new-player-in-exercise-induced-adaptations-or-not-a-2017-update
#14
REVIEW
Ioannis G Fatouros
Irisin is produced by a proteolytic cleavage of fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) and has emerged as a potential mediator of exercise-induced energy metabolism. The purpose of this study was to review the results of studies that investigated irisin responses to acute and chronic exercise and provide an update. A comprehensive search in the databases of MEDLINE was performed (74 exercise studies). The focus of the analysis was on data concerning FNDC5 mRNA expression in skeletal muscle and circulating irisin concentration relatively to exercise mode, intensity, frequency and duration and the characteristics of the sample used...
November 11, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127156/myc-and-tumor-metabolism-chicken-and-egg
#15
REVIEW
Francesca R Dejure, Martin Eilers
Transcription factors of the MYC family are deregulated in the majority of all human cancers. Oncogenic levels of MYC reprogram cellular metabolism, a hallmark of cancer development, to sustain the high rate of proliferation of cancer cells. Conversely, cells need to modulate MYC function according to the availability of nutrients, in order to avoid a metabolic collapse. Here, we review recent evidence that the multiple interactions of MYC with cell metabolism are mutual and review mechanisms that control MYC levels and function in response to metabolic stress situations...
November 10, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126631/antioxidant-response-to-heat-stress-in-seagrasses-a-gene-expression-study
#16
O Tutar, L Marín-Guirao, J M Ruiz, G Procaccini
Seawater warming associated to the ongoing climate change threatens functioning and survival of keystone coastal benthic species such as seagrasses. Under elevated temperatures, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is increased and plants must activate their antioxidant defense mechanisms to protect themselves from oxidative damage. Here we explore from a molecular perspective the ability of Mediterranean seagrasses to activate heat stress response mechanisms, with particular focus on antioxidants...
October 27, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124849/metaproteomics-reveals-major-microbial-players-and-their-metabolic-activities-during-the-blooming-period-of-a-marine-dinoflagellate-prorocentrum-donghaiense
#17
Dong-Xu Li, Hao Zhang, Xiao-Huang Chen, Zhang-Xian Xie, Yong Zhang, Shu-Feng Zhang, Lin Lin, Feng Chen, Da-Zhi Wang
Interactions between bacteria and phytoplankton during bloom events are essential for both partners, which impacts their physiology, alters ambient chemistry and shapes ecosystem diversity. Here, we investigated the community structure and metabolic activities of free-living bacterioplankton in different blooming phases of a dinoflagellate Prorocentrum donghaiense using a metaproteomic approach. The Fibrobacteres-Chlorobi-Bacteroidetes group, Rhodobacteraceae, SAR11 and SAR86 clades contributed largely to the bacterial community in the middle-blooming phase while the Pseudoalteromonadaceae exclusively dominated in the late-blooming phase...
November 10, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123532/food-legumes-and-rising-temperatures-effects-adaptive-functional-mechanisms-specific-to-reproductive-growth-stage-and-strategies-to-improve-heat-tolerance
#18
REVIEW
Kumari Sita, Akanksha Sehgal, Bindumadhava HanumanthaRao, Ramakrishnan M Nair, P V Vara Prasad, Shiv Kumar, Pooran M Gaur, Muhammad Farooq, Kadambot H M Siddique, Rajeev K Varshney, Harsh Nayyar
Ambient temperatures are predicted to rise in the future owing to several reasons associated with global climate changes. These temperature increases can result in heat stress- a severe threat to crop production in most countries. Legumes are well-known for their impact on agricultural sustainability as well as their nutritional and health benefits. Heat stress imposes challenges for legume crops and has deleterious effects on the morphology, physiology, and reproductive growth of plants. High-temperature stress at the time of the reproductive stage is becoming a severe limitation for production of grain legumes as their cultivation expands to warmer environments and temperature variability increases due to climate change...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123172/transcriptomic-and-epigenetic-responses-to-short-term-nutrient-exercise-stress-in-humans
#19
R C Laker, C Garde, D M Camera, W J Smiles, J R Zierath, J A Hawley, R Barrès
High fat feeding impairs skeletal muscle metabolic flexibility and induces insulin resistance, whereas exercise training exerts positive effects on substrate handling and improves insulin sensitivity. To identify the genomic mechanisms by which exercise ameliorates some of the deleterious effects of high fat feeding, we investigated the transcriptional and epigenetic response of human skeletal muscle to 9 days of a high-fat diet (HFD) alone (Sed-HFD) or in combination with resistance exercise (Ex-HFD), using genome-wide profiling of gene expression and DNA methylation...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121454/the-innate-and-adaptive-immune-response-are-both-involved-in-drug-induced-autoimmunity
#20
EDITORIAL
Amr H Sawalha
Drug-induced autoimmunity is an intriguing phenomenon that has been described in the medical literature at least since 1945, with a report from the Medical Corps of the Army of the United States describing a case of systemic lupus erythematosus induced by sulfadiazine (1). While an autoantibody response in drug-induced autoimmunity is more universal, the spectrum of clinical autoimmunity is variable and likely influenced by host genetics including genetic variants predisposing to autoimmunity and genetic variants affecting drug metabolism...
November 9, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
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