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Adaptive metabolic response

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345060/genome-reduction-and-microbe-host-interactions-drive-adaptation-of-a-sulfur-oxidizing-bacterium-associated-with-a-cold-seep-sponge
#1
Ren-Mao Tian, Weipeng Zhang, Lin Cai, Yue-Him Wong, Wei Ding, Pei-Yuan Qian
As the most ancient metazoan, sponges have established close relationships with particular microbial symbionts. However, the characteristics and physiology of thioautotrophic symbionts in deep-sea sponges are largely unknown. Using a tailored "differential coverage binning" method on 22-Gb metagenomic sequences, we recovered the nearly complete genome of a sulfur-oxidizing bacterium (SOB) that dominates the microbiota of the cold seep sponge Suberites sp. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that this bacterium (an unclassified gammaproteobacterium termed "Gsub") may represent a new deep-sea SOB group...
March 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343581/proteomic-analysis-of-physiological-function-response-to-hot-summer-in-liver-from-lactating-dairy-cows
#2
Qiangjun Wang, Xiaowei Zhao, Zijun Zhang, Huiling Zhao, Dongwei Huang, Guanglong Cheng, Yongxin Yang
Lactation performance of dairy cattle is susceptible to heat stress. The liver is one of the most crucial organs affected by high temperature in dairy cows. However, the physiological adaption by the liver to hot summer conditions has not been well elucidated in lactating dairy cows. In the present study, proteomic analysis of the liver in dairy cows in spring and hot summer was performed using a label-free method. In total, 127 differentially expressed proteins were identified; most of the upregulated proteins were involved in protein metabolic processes and responses to stimuli, whereas most of the downregulated proteins were related to oxidation-reduction...
April 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342784/inositol-phosphate-multikinase-dependent-transcriptional-control
#3
Ace J Hatch, Audrey R Odom, John D York
Production of lipid-derived inositol phosphates including IP4 and IP5 is an evolutionarily conserved process essential for cellular adaptive responses that is dependent on both phospholipase C and the inositol phosphate multikinase Ipk2 (also known as Arg82 and IPMK). Studies of Ipk2, along with Arg82 prior to demonstrating its IP kinase activity, have provided an important link between control of gene expression and IP metabolism as both kinase dependent and independent functions are required for proper transcriptional complex function that enables cellular adaptation in response to extracellular queues such as nutrient availability...
March 21, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341849/quantitative-profiling-of-glycerophospholipids-during-mouse-and-human-macrophage-differentiation-using-targeted-mass-spectrometry
#4
Cuiping Zhang, Yi Wang, Fang Wang, Zhenxin Wang, Yu Lu, Ying Xu, Ke Wang, Huali Shen, Pengyuan Yang, Shan Li, Xue Qin, Hongxiu Yu
Macrophage lipid metabolism plays a pivotal role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Previous studies have shown that this process plays a role in infections and contributes to the pathogenesis of diabetes, atherosclerosis, and other immunometabolic diseases. M1 macrophages, or classically activated macrophages, are key players in the defense against bacterial infections. M2 macrophages, or alternatively activated macrophages, are involved in anti-inflammatory responses. Using the multiple reaction monitoring method, we identified changes in lipid composition during the differentiation of human and murine macrophages...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341572/cell-and-region-specificity-of-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-ahr-system-in-the-testis-and-the-epididymis
#5
A Wajda, J Łapczuk, M Grabowska, E Pius-Sadowska, M Słojewski, M Laszczynska, E Urasinska, B Machalinski, M Drozdzik
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) plays multiple important functions in adaptive responses. Exposure to AhR ligands may produce an altered metabolic activity controlled by the AhR pathways, and consequently affect drug/toxin responses, hormonal status and cellular homeostasis. This research revealed species-, cell- and region-specific pattern of the AhR system expression in the rat and human testis and epididymis, complementing the existing knowledge, especially within the epididymal segments. The study showed that AhR level in the rat and human epididymis is higher than in the testis...
March 21, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340292/combined-spiroergometry-and-31-p-mrs-of-human-calf-muscle-during-high-intensity-exercise
#6
K Moll, A Gussew, C Hein, N Stutzig, J R Reichenbach
Simultaneous measurements of pulmonary oxygen consumption (VO2 ), carbon dioxide exhalation (VCO2 ) and phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31) P-MRS) are valuable in physiological studies to evaluate muscle metabolism during specific loads. Therefore, the aim of this study was to adapt a commercially available spirometric device to enable measurements of VO2 and VCO2 whilst simultaneously performing (31) P-MRS at 3 T. Volunteers performed intense plantar flexion of their right calf muscle inside the MR scanner against a pneumatic MR-compatible pedal ergometer...
March 24, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337802/the-snf1-activating-kinase-sak1-is-a-key-regulator-of-metabolic-adaptation-and-in-vivo-fitness-of-candida-albicans
#7
Bernardo Ramírez-Zavala, Austin Mottola, Julia Haubenreißer, Sabrina Schneider, Stefanie Allert, Sascha Brunke, Knut Ohlsen, Bernhard Hube, Joachim Morschhäuser
The metabolic flexibility of the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans is important for colonisation and infection of different host niches. Complex regulatory networks, in which protein kinases play central roles, link metabolism and other virulence-associated traits, such as filamentous growth and stress resistance, and thereby control commensalism and pathogenicity. By screening a protein kinase deletion mutant library that was generated in the present work using an improved SAT1 flipper cassette, we found that the previously uncharacterised kinase Sak1 is a key upstream activator of the protein kinase Snf1, a highly conserved regulator of nutrient stress responses that is essential for viability in C...
March 23, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337215/root-adaptive-responses-to-aluminum-treatment-revealed-by-rna-seq-in-two-citrus-species-with-different-aluminum-tolerance
#8
Peng Guo, Yi-Ping Qi, Lin-Tong Yang, Ning-Wei Lai, Xin Ye, Yi Yang, Li-Song Chen
Seedlings of aluminum (Al)-tolerant Citrus sinensis and Al-intolerant Citrus grandis were fertigated daily with nutrient solution containing 0 and 1.0 mM AlCl3●6H2O for 18 weeks. The Al-induced decreases of biomass and root total soluble proteins only occurred in C. grandis, demonstrating that C. sinensis had higher Al-tolerance than C. grandis. Under Al-treatment, C. sinensis roots secreted more citrate and malate than C. grandis ones; less Al was accumulated in C. sinenis than in C. grandis leaves. The Al-induced reduction of phosphorus was lesser in C...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337182/new-insights-into-the-anti-pathogenic-potential-of-lactococcus-garvieae-against-staphylococcus-aureus-based-on-rna-sequencing-profiling
#9
Pierre Delpech, Etienne Rifa, Graham Ball, Sabine Nidelet, Emeric Dubois, Geneviève Gagne, Marie-Christine Montel, Céline Delbès, Stéphanie Bornes
The bio-preservation potential of Lactococcus garvieae lies in its capacity to inhibit the growth of staphylococci, especially Staphylococcus aureus, in dairy products and in vitro. In vitro, inhibition is modulated by the level of aeration, owing to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production by L. garvieae under aeration. The S. aureus response to this inhibition has already been studied. However, the molecular mechanisms of L. garvieae underlying the antagonism against S. aureus have never been explored. This study provides evidence of the presence of another extracellular inhibition effector in vitro...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337029/the-impact-of-protein-quantity-during-energy-restriction-on-genome-wide-gene-expression-analysis-in-adipose-tissue-of-obese-humans
#10
I P G Van Bussel, E M P Backx, C P G M De Groot, M Tieland, M Müller, L A Afman
BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity is a growing health problem worldwide. The most effective strategy to reduce weight is energy restriction (ER). ER has been shown to be beneficial in disease prevention and it reduces chronic inflammation. Recent studies suggest that reducing the protein quantity of a diet contributes to the beneficial effects by ER. The organ most extensively affected during ER is white adipose tissue (WAT). OBJECTIVE: The first objective was to assess changes in gene expression between a high protein diet and a normal protein diet during ER...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334407/organismal-and-spatial-partitioning-of-energy-and-macronutrient-transformations-within-a-hypersaline-mat
#11
Jennifer M Mobberley, Stephen R Lindemann, Hans C Bernstein, James J Moran, Ryan S Renslow, Jerome Babauta, Dehong Hu, Haluk Beyenal, William C Nelson
Phototrophic mat communities are model ecosystems for studying energy cycling and elemental transformations because complete biogeochemical cycles occur over millimeter-to-centimeter scales. Characterization of energy and nutrient capture within hypersaline phototrophic mats has focused on specific processes and organisms, however little is known about community-wide distribution of and linkages between these processes. To investigate energy and macronutrient capture and flow through a structured community, the spatial and organismal distribution of metabolic functions within a compact hypersaline mat community from Hot Lake have been broadly elucidated through species-resolved metagenomics and geochemical, microbial diversity, and metabolic gradient measurements...
March 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333717/effect-of-resistance-exercise-on-muscle-metabolism-and-autophagy-in-sibm
#12
Jae-Hoon Jeong, Dae-Seung Yang, Dong-Ju Hwang, Joon-Yong Cho, Eun-Bum Kang
PURPOSE: Sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM), a muscular degenerative disease in the elderly, is an inflammatory myopathy characterized by muscle weakness in the wrist flexor, quadriceps, and tibialis anterior muscles. We aimed to identify the therapeutic effect of resistance exercise (RE) in improving sIBM symptoms in an sIBM animal model. METHODS: Six-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into a sham group (sham, n = 12), chloroquine-control group (CQ-con, n = 12), and chloroquine-RE group (CQ-RE, n = 12)...
March 23, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333713/micrornas-and-lipid-metabolism
#13
Binod Aryal, Abhishek K Singh, Noemi Rotllan, Nathan Price, Carlos Fernández-Hernando
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Work over the past decade has identified the important role of microRNAs (miRNAS) in regulating lipoprotein metabolism and associated disorders including metabolic syndrome, obesity, and atherosclerosis. This review summarizes the most recent findings in the field, highlighting the contribution of miRNAs in controlling LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) metabolism. RECENT FINDINGS: A number of miRNAs have emerged as important regulators of lipid metabolism, including miR-122 and miR-33...
March 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333345/detection-of-pathways-affected-by-positive-selection-in-primate-lineages-ancestral-to-humans
#14
J T Daub, S Moretti, I I Davydov, L Excoffier, M Robinson-Rechavi
Gene set enrichment approaches have been increasingly successful in finding signals of recent polygenic selection in the human genome. In this study, we aim at detecting biological pathways affected by positive selection in more ancient human evolutionary history. Focusing on four branches of the primate tree that lead to modern humans, we tested all available protein coding gene trees of the Primates clade for signals of adaptation in these branches, using the likelihood-based branch site test of positive selection...
February 25, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331062/hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-activation-improves-renal-oxygenation-and-mitochondrial-function-in-early-chronic-kidney-disease
#15
Joanna L Thomas, Hai Pham, Ying Li, Elanore Hall, Guy A Perkins, Sameh S Ali, Hemal H Patel, Prabhleen Singh
Pathophysiology of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is driven by alterations in surviving nephrons to sustain renal function with ongoing nephron loss. Oxygen supply-demand mismatch, due to hemodynamic adaptations, with resultant hypoxia, plays an important role in the pathophysiology in early CKD. We sought to investigate the underlying mechanisms of this mismatch. We utilized the subtotal nephrectomy (STN) model of CKD to investigate the alterations in renal oxygenation linked to sodium (Na) transport and mitochondrial function in the surviving nephrons...
March 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331060/proximal-tubule-glutamine-synthetase-expression-is-necessary-for-the-normal-response-to-dietary-protein-restriction
#16
Hyun-Wook Lee, Gunars Osis, Mary E Handlogten, Jill W Verlander, I David Weiner
Dietary protein restriction has multiple benefits in kidney disease. Because protein intake is a major determinant of endogenous acid production, it is important that net acid excretion change in parallel during changes in dietary protein intake. Dietary protein restriction decreases endogenous acid production and ¬decreases urinary ammonia excretion, a major component of net acid excretion. Glutamine synthetase (GS) catalyzes the reaction of NH4+ and glutamate, which regenerates the essential amino acid glutamine and decreases net ammonia generation...
March 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330812/molecular-evidence-for-differential-long-term-outcomes-of-early-life-severe-acute-malnutrition
#17
Allan Sheppard, Sherry Ngo, Xiaoling Li, Michael Boyne, Debbie Thompson, Anthony Pleasants, Peter Gluckman, Terrence Forrester
BACKGROUND: Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in infants may present as one of two distinct syndromic forms: non-edematous (marasmus), with severe wasting and no nutritional edema; or edematous (kwashiorkor) with moderately severe wasting. These differences may be related to developmental changes prior to the exposure to SAM and phenotypic changes appear to persist into adulthood with differences between the two groups. We examined whether the different response to SAM and subsequent trajectories may be explained by developmentally-induced epigenetic differences...
March 8, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330456/genome-wide-expression-profiling-in-leaves-and-roots-of-date-palm-phoenix-dactylifera-l-exposed-to-salinity
#18
Mahmoud W Yaish, Himanshu V Patankar, Dekoum V M Assaha, Yun Zheng, Rashid Al-Yahyai, Ramanjulu Sunkar
BACKGROUND: Date palm, as one of the most important fruit crops in North African and West Asian countries including Oman, is facing serious growth problems due to salinity, arising from persistent use of saline water for irrigation. Although date palm is a relatively salt-tolerant plant species, its adaptive mechanisms to salt stress are largely unknown. RESULTS: In order to get an insight into molecular mechanisms of salt tolerance, RNA was profiled in leaves and roots of date palm seedlings subjected to NaCl for 10 days...
March 22, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327797/bacterial-immunostat-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-lipids-and-their-role-in-the-host-immune-response
#19
Adriano Queiroz, Lee W Riley
The lipid-rich cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a dynamic structure that is involved in the regulation of the transport of nutrients, toxic host-cell effector molecules, and anti-tuberculosis drugs. It is therefore postulated to contribute to the long-term bacterial survival in an infected human host. Accumulating evidence suggests that M. tuberculosis remodels the lipid composition of the cell wall as an adaptive mechanism against host-imposed stress. Some of these lipid species (trehalose dimycolate, diacylated sulphoglycolipid, and mannan-based lipoglycans) trigger an immunopathologic response, whereas others (phthiocerol dimycocerosate, mycolic acids, sulpholipid-1, and di-and polyacyltrehalose) appear to dampen the immune responses...
January 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326315/genomewide-expression-and-functional-interactions-of-genes-under-drought-stress-in-maize
#20
Nepolean Thirunavukkarasu, Rinku Sharma, Nidhi Singh, Kaliyugam Shiriga, Sweta Mohan, Swati Mittal, Shikha Mittal, Mallana Gowdra Mallikarjuna, Atmakuri Ramakrishna Rao, Prasanta Kumar Dash, Firoz Hossain, Hari Shanker Gupta
A genomewide transcriptome assay of two subtropical genotypes of maize was used to observe the expression of genes at seedling stage of drought stress. The number of genes expressed differentially was greater in HKI1532 (a drought tolerant genotype) than in PC3 (a drought sensitive genotype), indicating primary differences at the transcriptional level in stress tolerance. The global coexpression networks of the two genotypes differed significantly with respect to the number of modules and the coexpression pattern within the modules...
2017: International Journal of Genomics
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