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Adaptive metabolic response

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747907/membrane-phosphoproteomics-of-yeast-early-response-to-acetic-acid-role-of-hrk1-kinase-and-lipid-biosynthetic-pathways-in-particular-sphingolipids
#1
Joana F Guerreiro, Nuno P Mira, Aline X S Santos, Howard Riezman, Isabel Sá-Correia
Saccharomyces cerevisiae response and tolerance to acetic acid is critical in industrial biotechnology and in acidic food and beverages preservation. The HRK1 gene, encoding a protein kinase of unknown function belonging to the "Npr1-family" of kinases known to be involved in the regulation of plasma membrane transporters, is an important determinant of acetic acid tolerance. This study was performed to identify the alterations occurring in yeast membrane phosphoproteome profile during the adaptive early response to acetic acid stress (following 1 h of exposure to a sub-lethal inhibitory concentration; 50 mM at pH 4...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747887/nutrient-sensing-another-chemosensitivity-of-the-olfactory-system
#2
REVIEW
A-Karyn Julliard, Dolly Al Koborssy, Debra A Fadool, Brigitte Palouzier-Paulignan
Olfaction is a major sensory modality involved in real time perception of the chemical composition of the external environment. Olfaction favors anticipation and rapid adaptation of behavioral responses necessary for animal survival. Furthermore, recent studies have demonstrated that there is a direct action of metabolic peptides on the olfactory network. Orexigenic peptides such as ghrelin and orexin increase olfactory sensitivity, which in turn, is decreased by anorexigenic hormones such as insulin and leptin...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747486/modifying-the-dietary-carbohydrate-to-protein-ratio-alters-the-postprandial-macronutrient-oxidation-pattern-in-liver-of-ampk-deficient-mice
#3
Tristan Chalvon-Demersay, Patrick C Even, Catherine Chaumontet, Julien Piedcoq, Benoit Viollet, Claire Gaudichon, Daniel Tomé, Marc Foretz, Dalila Azzout-Marniche
Background: Hepatic AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) activity is sensitive to the dietary carbohydrate-to-protein ratio. However, the role of AMPK in metabolic adaptations to variations in dietary macronutrients remains poorly understood.Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the role of hepatic AMPK in the adaptation of energy metabolism in response to modulation of the dietary carbohydrate-to-protein ratio.Methods: Male 7-wk-old wild-type (WT) and liver AMPK-deficient (knockout) mice were fed either a normal-protein and normal-carbohydrate diet (NP-NC; 14% protein, 76% carbohydrate on an energy basis), a low-protein and high-carbohydrate diet (LP-HC; 5% protein, 85% carbohydrate), or a high-protein and low-carbohydrate diet (HP-LC; 55% protein, 35% carbohydrate) for 3 wk...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746735/early-transcriptional-response-pathways-in-daphnia-magna-are-coordinated-in-networks-of-crustacean-specific-genes
#4
Luisa Orsini, James B Brown, Omid Shams Solari, Dong Li, Shan He, Ram Podicheti, Marcus H Stoiber, Katina I Spanier, Donald Gilbert, Mieke Jansen, Douglas Rusch, Michael E Pfrender, John K Colbourne, Mikko J Frilander, Jouni Kvist, Ellen Decaestecker, Karel A C De Schamphelaere, Luc De Meester
Natural habitats are exposed to an increasing number of environmental stressors that cause important ecological consequences. However, the multifarious nature of environmental change, the strength and the relative timing of each stressor largely limit our understanding of biological responses to environmental change. In particular early response to unpredictable environmental change, critical to survival and fitness in later life stages, is largely uncharacterized. Here, we characterize the early transcriptional response of the keystone species Daphnia magna to twelve environmental perturbations, including biotic and abiotic stressors...
July 26, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743556/increased-sensitivity-of-thyroid-hormone-mediated-signaling-despite-prolonged-fasting
#5
Bridget Martinez, Michael Scheibner, José G Soñanez-Organis, John T Jaques, Daniel E Crocker, Rudy M Ortiz
Thyroid hormones (TH) can increase cellular metabolism. Food deprivation in mammals is typically associated with reduced thyroid gland responsiveness, in an effort to suppress cellular metabolism and abate starvation. However, in prolonged-fasted, elephant seal pups, cellular TH-mediated proteins are up-regulated and TH levels are maintained with fasting duration. The function and contribution of the thyroid gland to this apparent paradox is unknown and physiologically perplexing. Here we show that the thyroid gland remains responsive during prolonged food deprivation, and that its function and production of TH increase with fasting duration in elephant seals...
July 22, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742973/role-of-vitamin-a-oral-supplementation-on-oxidative-stress-and-inflammatory-response-in-the-liver-of-trained-rats
#6
Lyvia Lintzmaier Petiz, Alice Kunzler, Rafael Calixto Bortolin, Juciano Gasparotto, Cristiane Matté, José Claudio Fonseca Moreira, Daniel Pens Gelain
The use of dietary supplements to enhance the benefit of exercise training is a common practice. The liver is the organ where all substances are metabolized, and certain supplements have been associated with liver injury. Vitamin A (VA), a liposoluble vitamin stored in the liver, is commonly used as an antioxidant supplement. Here, we evaluated the effect of chronic VA supplementation on oxidative damage and stress parameters in trained rats. Animals were divided into the following groups: sedentary (SE), sedentary/VA (SE+VA), exercise training (ET), and exercise training/VA (ET+VA)...
July 25, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742108/fasting-metabolism-modulates-the-interleukin-12-interleukin-10-cytokine-axis
#7
Johannes J Kovarik, Elisabeth Kernbauer, Markus A Hölzl, Johannes Hofer, Guido A Gualdoni, Klaus G Schmetterer, Fitore Miftari, Yury Sobanov, Anastasia Meshcheryakova, Diana Mechtcheriakova, Nadine Witzeneder, Georg Greiner, Anna Ohradanova-Repic, Petra Waidhofer-Söllner, Marcus D Säemann, Thomas Decker, Gerhard J Zlabinger
A crucial role of cell metabolism in immune cell differentiation and function has been recently established. Growing evidence indicates that metabolic processes impact both, innate and adaptive immunity. Since a down-stream integrator of metabolic alterations, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), is responsible for controlling the balance between pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-12 and anti-inflammatory IL-10, we investigated the effect of upstream interference using metabolic modulators on the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741669/connecting-salt-stress-signalling-pathways-with-salinity-induced-changes-in-mitochondrial-metabolic-processes-in-c3-plants
#8
REVIEW
M Hafiz Che-Othman, A Harvey Millar, Nicolas L Taylor
Salinity exerts a severe detrimental effect on crop yields globally. Growth of plants in saline soils results in physiological stress, which disrupts the essential biochemical processes of respiration, photosynthesis and transpiration. Understanding the molecular responses of plants exposed to salinity stress can inform future strategies to reduce agricultural losses due to salinity however it is imperative that signalling and functional response processes are connected to tailor these strategies. Previous research has revealed the important role that plant mitochondria play in the salinity response of plants...
July 25, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741495/adaptive-stress-responses-during-tumor-metastasis-and-dormancy
#9
REVIEW
Daniela Senft, Ze'ev A Ronai
To survive inhospitable environments, tumor cells are forced to remodel their signaling pathways by altering transcription, translation, and post-translational modifications. This adaptation is regulated in a spatial and temporal manner and gives rise to individual tumor cells with distinct gene expression and metabolic signatures. Such phenotypic heterogeneity is the result of tumor cell plasticity, which-together with the genetic background of the tumor-determines whether cells resist environmental stress, enter dormancy, or metastasize...
August 2016: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741280/energy-expenditure-in-the-etiology-of-human-obesity-spendthrift-and-thrifty-metabolic-phenotypes-and-energy-sensing-mechanisms
#10
REVIEW
P Piaggi, K L Vinales, A Basolo, F Santini, J Krakoff
The pathogenesis of human obesity is the result of dysregulation of the reciprocal relationship between food intake and energy expenditure (EE), which influences daily energy balance and ultimately leads to weight gain. According to principles of energy homeostasis, a relatively lower EE in a setting of energy balance may lead to weight gain; however, results from different study groups are contradictory and indicate a complex interaction between EE and food intake which may differentially influence weight change in humans...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740200/physiologically-based-modelling-in-mice-suggests-an-aggravated-loss-of-clearance-capacity-after-toxic-liver-damage
#11
Arne Schenk, Ahmed Ghallab, Ute Hofmann, Reham Hassan, Michael Schwarz, Andreas Schuppert, Lars Ole Schwen, Albert Braeuning, Donato Teutonico, Jan G Hengstler, Lars Kuepfer
Diseases and toxins may lead to death of active liver tissue, resulting in a loss of total clearance capacity at the whole-body level. However, it remains difficult to study, whether the loss of metabolizing tissue is sufficient to explain loss of metabolic capacity of the liver or whether the surviving tissue undergoes an adaptive response to compensate the loss. To understand the cellular impact of toxic liver damage in an in vivo situation, we here used physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modelling to investigate pharmacokinetics of a specifically designed drug cocktail at three different sampling sites of the body in healthy mice and mice treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738836/metabolism-associated-danger-signal-induced-immune-response-and-reverse-immune-checkpoint-activated-cd40-monocyte-differentiation
#12
REVIEW
Jin Dai, Pu Fang, Jason Saredy, Hang Xi, Cueto Ramon, William Yang, Eric T Choi, Yong Ji, Wei Mao, Xiaofeng Yang, Hong Wang
Adaptive immunity is critical for disease progression and modulates T cell (TC) and antigen-presenting cell (APC) functions. Three signals were initially proposed for adaptive immune activation: signal 1 antigen recognition, signal 2 co-stimulation or co-inhibition, and signal 3 cytokine stimulation. In this article, we propose to term signal 2 as an immune checkpoint, which describes interactions of paired molecules leading to stimulation (stimulatory immune checkpoint) or inhibition (inhibitory immune checkpoint) of an immune response...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738195/proteomic-and-genetics-insights-on-the-response-of-the-bacteriocinogenic-lactobacillus-sakei-crl1862-during-biofilm-formation-on-stainless-steel-surface-at-10%C3%A2-c
#13
Mariana Pérez-Ibarreche, Lucía M Mendoza, Graciela Vignolo, Silvina Fadda
Some lactic acid bacteria have the ability to form biofilms on food-industry surfaces and this property could be used to control food pathogens colonization. Lactobacillus sakei CR1862 was selected considering its bacteriocinogenic nature and ability to adhere to abiotic surfaces at low temperatures. In this study, the proteome of L. sakei CRL1862 grown either under biofilm on stainless steel surface and planktonic modes of growth at 10°C, was investigated. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, 29 out of 43 statistically significant spots were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry...
July 4, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737742/systemic-transport-of-trans-zeatin-and-its-precursor-have-differing-roles-in-arabidopsis-shoots
#14
Asami Osugi, Mikiko Kojima, Yumiko Takebayashi, Nanae Ueda, Takatoshi Kiba, Hitoshi Sakakibara
Organ-to-organ signal transmission is essential for higher organisms to ensure coordinated biological reactions during metabolism and morphogenesis. Similar to organs in animals, plant organs communicate by various signalling molecules. Among them, cytokinins, a class of phytohormones, play a key role as root-to-shoot long-distance signals, regulating various growth and developmental processes in shoots(1,2). Previous studies have proposed that trans-zeatin-riboside, a type of cytokinin precursor, is a major long-distance signalling form in xylem vessels and its action depends on metabolic conversion via the LONELY GUY enzyme in proximity to the site of action(3-5)...
July 24, 2017: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734946/impaired-rhodopsin-generation-in-the-rat-model-of-diabetic-retinopathy
#15
Volha V Malechka, Gennadiy Moiseyev, Yusuke Takahashi, Younghwa Shin, Jian-Xing Ma
Diabetic retinopathy is a common complication of diabetes mellitus. Diabetic patients experience functional deficits in dark adaptation, contrast sensitivity, and color perception before microvascular pathologies become apparent. Here, we evaluated early changes in neural retinal function and in retinoid metabolism in the eye in diabetes. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats showed decreased a-wave and b-wave amplitudes of scotopic and photopic electroretinography responses four months after diabetes induction compared to nondiabetic controls...
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733763/predictive-value-of-18-f-fdg-pet-ct-in-adults-with-t-cell-lymphoblastic-lymphoma-post-hoc-analysis-of-results-from-the-graall-lysa-llo3-trial
#16
Stéphanie Becker, Thomas Vermeulin, Anne-Ségolène Cottereau, Nicolas Boissel, Pierre Vera, Stéphane Lepretre
PURPOSE: We examined whether FDG PET can be used to predict outcome in patients with lymphoblastic lymphoma (LL). METHODS: This was a retrospective post hoc analysis of data from the GRAAL-LYSA LL03 trial, in which the treatment of LL using an adapted paediatric-like acute lymphoblastic leukaemia protocol was evaluated. PET data acquired at baseline and after induction were analysed. Maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax), total metabolic tumour volume and total lesion glycolysis were measured at baseline...
July 21, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733104/comparative-shoot-proteome-analysis-of-two-potato-solanum-tuberosum-l-genotypes-contrasting-in-nitrogen-deficiency-responses-in-vitro
#17
Philipp Meise, Anna Maria Jozefowicz, Ralf Uptmoor, Hans-Peter Mock, Frank Ordon, Annegret Schum
Aiming at a better understanding of the physiological and biochemical background of nitrogen use efficiency, alterations in the shoot proteome under N-deficiency were investigated in two contrasting potato genotypes grown in vitro with 60 and 7.5mM N, respectively. A gel based proteomic approach was applied to identify candidate proteins associated with genotype specific responses to N-deficiency. 21% of the detected proteins differed in abundance between the two genotypes. Between control and N-deficiency conditions 19...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732263/proteomic-analysis-of-naturally-occurring-boron-tolerant-plant-gypsophila-sphaerocephala-l-in-response-to-high-boron-concentration
#18
Huseyin Tombuloglu, Guzin Tombuloglu, Mehmet Serdal Sakcali, Ali Turkan, Khalid Rehman Hakeem, Hesham F Alharby, Shah Fahd, Waseem Mohammed Abdul
Gypsophila sphaerocephala is a naturally Boron (B) tolerant species that can grow around the B mining areas in Turkey, where the B concentration in soil reaches a lethal dose for plants (up to ∼8900mgkg(-1) (∼140mM). While its interesting survival capacity in extremely B containing soils, any molecular research has been conducted to understand its high tolerance mechanism yet. In the present study, we have performed a proteomic analysis of this plant to understand its high tolerance towards B-stress. Seedlings of G...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732077/mutations-in-the-caenorhabditis-elegans-orthologs-of-human-genes-required-for-mitochondrial-trna-modification-cause-similar-electron-transport-chain-defects-but-different-nuclear-responses
#19
Carmen Navarro-González, Ismaïl Moukadiri, Magda Villarroya, Ernesto López-Pascual, Simon Tuck, M-Eugenia Armengod
Several oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) diseases are caused by defects in the post-transcriptional modification of mitochondrial tRNAs (mt-tRNAs). Mutations in MTO1 or GTPBP3 impair the modification of the wobble uridine at position 5 of the pyrimidine ring and cause heart failure. Mutations in TRMU affect modification at position 2 and cause liver disease. Presently, the molecular basis of the diseases and why mutations in the different genes lead to such different clinical symptoms is poorly understood...
July 21, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732027/serum-irisin-and-myostatin-levels-after-2-weeks-of-high-altitude-climbing
#20
Ewa Śliwicka, Tomasz Cisoń, Zbigniew Kasprzak, Alicja Nowak, Łucja Pilaczyńska-Szcześniak
Exposure to high-altitude hypoxia causes physiological and metabolic adaptive changes by disturbing homeostasis. Hypoxia-related changes in skeletal muscle affect the closely interconnected energy and regeneration processes. The balance between protein synthesis and degradation in the skeletal muscle is regulated by several molecules such as myostatin, cytokines, vitamin D, and irisin. This study investigates changes in irisin and myostatin levels in male climbers after a 2-week high-altitude expedition, and their association with 25(OH)D and indices of inflammatory processes...
2017: PloS One
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