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Adaptive metabolic response

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640972/understanding-adaptogenic-activity-specificity-of-the-pharmacological-action-of-adaptogens-and-other-phytochemicals
#1
REVIEW
Alexander Panossian
Adaptogens are stress-response modifiers that increase an organism's nonspecific resistance to stress by increasing its ability to adapt and survive. The classical reductionist model is insufficiently complex to explain the mechanistic aspects of the physiological notion of "adaptability" and the adaptogenic activity of adaptogens. Here, I demonstrate that (1) the mechanisms of action of adaptogens are impossible to rationally describe using the reductionist concept of pharmacology, whereas the network pharmacology approach is the most suitable method; and (2) the principles of systems biology and pharmacological networks appear to be more suitable for conceptualizing adaptogen function and are applicable to any phytochemical...
June 22, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637217/experimental-support-that-natural-selection-has-shaped-the-latitudinal-distribution-of-mitochondrial-haplotypes-in-australian-drosophila-melanogaster
#2
M Florencia Camus, Jonci N Wolff, Carla M Sgrò, Damian K Dowling
Cellular metabolism is regulated by enzyme complexes within the mitochondrion, the function of which are sensitive to the prevailing temperature. Such thermal sensitivity, coupled with the observation that population frequencies of mitochondrial haplotypes tend to associate with latitude, altitude or climatic regions across species distributions, led to the hypothesis that thermal selection has played a role in shaping standing variation in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence. This hypothesis, however, remains controversial, and requires evidence that the distribution of haplotypes observed in nature corresponds with the capacity of these haplotypes to confer differences in thermal tolerance...
June 20, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633002/the-trpm2-channel-a-thermo-sensitive-metabolic-sensor
#3
Makiko Kashio, Makoto Tominaga
Living organisms continually experience changes in ambient temperature. In order to detect such temperature changes for adaptive behavioral responses, we evolved the ability to sense temperature. Thermosensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, so-called thermo-TRPs, are involved in many physiological functions in diverse organisms and constitute important temperature sensors. One of the important roles of thermo-TRPs is detecting ambient temperature in sensory neurons. Importantly, the functional expression of thermo-TRPs is observed not only in sensory neurons but also in tissues and cells that are not exposed to drastic temperature changes, indicating that thermo-TRPs are involved in many physiological functions within the body's normal temperature range...
June 20, 2017: Channels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631015/ask-yeast-how-to-burn-your-fats-lessons-learned-from-the-metabolic-adaptation-to-salt-stress
#4
REVIEW
Amparo Pascual-Ahuir, Sara Manzanares-Estreder, Alba Timón-Gómez, Markus Proft
Here, we review and update the recent advances in the metabolic control during the adaptive response of budding yeast to hyperosmotic and salt stress, which is one of the best understood signaling events at the molecular level. This environmental stress can be easily applied and hence has been exploited in the past to generate an impressively detailed and comprehensive model of cellular adaptation. It is clear now that this stress modulates a great number of different physiological functions of the cell, which altogether contribute to cellular survival and adaptation...
June 19, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629173/autophagic-mechanism-in-anti-cancer-immunity-its-pros-and-cons-for-cancer-therapy
#5
REVIEW
Ying-Ying Li, Lynn G Feun, Angkana Thongkum, Chiao-Hui Tu, Shu-Mei Chen, Medhi Wangpaichitr, Chunjing Wu, Macus T Kuo, Niramol Savaraj
Autophagy, a self-eating machinery, has been reported as an adaptive response to maintain metabolic homeostasis when cancer cells encounter stress. It has been appreciated that autophagy acts as a double-edge sword to decide the fate of cancer cells upon stress factors, molecular subtypes, and microenvironmental conditions. Currently, the majority of evidence support that autophagy in cancer cells is a vital mechanism bringing on resistance to current and prospective treatments, yet whether autophagy affects the anticancer immune response remains unclear and controversial...
June 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629077/effects-of-the-surface-modification-of-polyurethane-substrates-on-genotoxicity-and-blood-activation-processes
#6
Roman Major, Hanna Plutecka, Anna Gruszczynska, Juergen M Lackner, Boguslaw Major
The aim of this study was to determine the mutagenic and thrombogenic potential of a material composed of a thin coating deposited on a polymeric substrate. In this work, a surface was modified in a manner that would mimic the function of cellular niches. Finally, the surfaces should actively capture and differentiate progenitor cells from the blood stream. Thin films with 10 to 500nm thicknesses were deposited by unbalanced, pulsed DC magnetron sputtering on smooth polyurethane. Such high energy conditions led to a stiffening of the polymer surface layers by pseudodiffusion during the initial stages of film growth...
October 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628040/lipogenic-transcription-factor-chrebp-mediates-fructose-induced-metabolic-adaptations-to-prevent-hepatotoxicity
#7
Deqiang Q Zhang, Xin Tong, Kyle VanDommelen, Neil Gupta, Kenneth Stamper, Graham F Brady, Zhuoxian Meng, Jiandie D Lin, Liangyou Y Rui, M Bishr Omary, Lei Yin
Epidemiologic and animal studies implicate overconsumption of fructose in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, but the molecular mechanisms underlying fructose-induced chronic liver diseases remain largely unknown. Here, we have presented evidence supporting the essential function of the lipogenic transcription factor carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP) in mediating adaptive responses to fructose and protecting against fructose-induced hepatotoxicity. In WT mice, a high-fructose diet (HFrD) activated hepatic lipogenesis in a ChREBP-dependent manner; however, in Chrebp-KO mice, a HFrD induced steatohepatitis...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627435/establishing-the-lipid-droplet-proteome-mechanisms-of-lipid-droplet-protein-targeting-and-degradation
#8
REVIEW
Kirill Bersuker, James A Olzmann
Lipid droplets (LDs) are ubiquitous, endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-derived organelles that mediate the sequestration of neutral lipids (e.g. triacylglycerol and sterol esters), providing a dynamic cellular storage depot for rapid lipid mobilization in response to increased cellular demands. LDs have a unique ultrastructure, consisting of a core of neutral lipids encircled by a phospholipid monolayer that is decorated with integral and peripheral proteins. The LD proteome contains numerous lipid metabolic enzymes, regulatory scaffold proteins, proteins involved in LD clustering and fusion, and other proteins of unknown function...
June 13, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626467/mutation-in-hvcbp20-cap-binding-protein-20-adapts-barley-to-drought-stress-at-phenotypic-and-transcriptomic-levels
#9
Agata Daszkowska-Golec, Anna Skubacz, Marek Marzec, Michal Slota, Marzena Kurowska, Monika Gajecka, Patrycja Gajewska, Tomasz Płociniczak, Krzysztof Sitko, Andrzej Pacak, Zofia Szweykowska-Kulinska, Iwona Szarejko
CBP20 (Cap-Binding Protein 20) encodes a small subunit of the cap-binding complex (CBC), which is involved in the conserved cell processes related to RNA metabolism in plants and, simultaneously, engaged in the signaling network of drought response, which is dependent on ABA. Here, we report the enhanced tolerance to drought stress of barley mutant in the HvCBP20 gene manifested at the morphological, physiological, and transcriptomic levels. Physiological analyses revealed differences between the hvcbp20.ab mutant and its WT in response to a water deficiency...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626464/toward-unveiling-the-mechanisms-for-transcriptional-regulation-of-proline-biosynthesis-in-the-plant-cell-response-to-biotic-and-abiotic-stress-conditions
#10
REVIEW
Marco Zarattini, Giuseppe Forlani
Proline accumulation occurs in plants following the exposure to a wide array of stress conditions, as well as during numerous physiological and adaptive processes. Increasing evidence also supports the involvement of proline metabolism in the plant response to pathogen attack. This requires that the biosynthetic pathway is triggered by components of numerous and different signal transduction chains. Indeed, several reports recently described activation of genes coding for enzymes of the glutamate pathway by transcription factors (TFs) belonging to various families...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625541/plant-derived-antifungal-compounds-trigger-a-common-transcriptional-response
#11
Zhe Wang
Understanding the mechanism of action of antifungal drugs is vital for better control of mycosis, which kills >1.3 million lives every year thus remains a major health problem worldwide. In this study, we investigate the activities of three different categories of plant-derived antifungal compounds (resveratrol, honokiol and osthole) via transcriptomics and bioinformatics analysis, with the goal of discovering the common Mode-of-Action (MoA) at molecular level. The result shows that a common transcriptional response (72 gene are up-regulated while 10 genes are down-regulated, commonly) are triggered by above representative antifungal compounds in Schizosaccharomyces pombe (S...
June 15, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625488/a-central-catecholaminergic-circuit-controls-blood-glucose-levels-during-stress
#12
Zhe Zhao, Liang Wang, Wenling Gao, Fei Hu, Juen Zhang, Yuqi Ren, Rui Lin, Qiru Feng, Mingxiu Cheng, Dapeng Ju, Qingsheng Chi, Dehua Wang, Sen Song, Minmin Luo, Cheng Zhan
Stress-induced hyperglycemia is a fundamental adaptive response that mobilizes energy stores in response to threats. Here, our examination of the contributions of the central catecholaminergic (CA) neuronal system to this adaptive response revealed that CA neurons in the ventrolateral medulla (VLM) control stress-induced hyperglycemia. Ablation of VLM CA neurons abolished the hyperglycemic response to both physical and psychological stress, whereas chemogenetic activation of these neurons was sufficient to induce hyperglycemia...
June 8, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624879/lc-ms-ms-proteomic-analysis-of-starved-bacillus-subtilis-cells-overexpressing-ribonucleotide-reductase-nrdef-implications-in-stress-associated-mutagenesis
#13
Karla Viridiana Castro-Cerritos, Adolfo Lopez-Torres, Armando Obregón-Herrera, Katarzyna Wrobel, Kazimierz Wrobel, Mario Pedraza-Reyes
The non-appropriate conditions faced by nutritionally stressed bacteria propitiate error-prone repair events underlying stationary-phase- or stress-associated mutagenesis (SPM). The genetic and molecular mechanisms involved in SPM have been deeply studied but the biochemical aspects of this process have so far been less explored. Previous evidence showed that under conditions of nutritional stress, non-dividing cells of strain B. subtilis YB955 overexpressing ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) exhibited a strong propensity to generate true reversions in the hisC952 (amber), metB5 (ochre) and leuC425 (missense) mutant alleles...
June 17, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623938/transcriptome-modulation-by-hydrocortisone-in-severe-burn-shock-ancillary-analysis-of-a-prospective-randomized-trial
#14
Jonathan Plassais, Fabienne Venet, Marie-Angélique Cazalis, Diane Le Quang, Alexandre Pachot, Guillaume Monneret, Sylvie Tissot, Julien Textoris
BACKGROUND: Despite shortening vasopressor use in shock, hydrocortisone administration remains controversial, with potential harm to the immune system. Few studies have assessed the impact of hydrocortisone on the transcriptional response in shock, and we are lacking data on burn shock. Our objective was to assess the hydrocortisone-induced transcriptional modulation in severe burn shock, particularly modulation of the immune response. METHODS: We collected whole blood samples during a randomized controlled trial assessing the efficacy of hydrocortisone administration in burn shock...
June 16, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623287/heritability-and-responses-to-high-fat-diet-of-plasma-lipidomics-in-a-twin-study
#15
Turid Frahnow, Martin A Osterhoff, Silke Hornemann, Michael Kruse, Michal A Surma, Christian Klose, Kai Simons, Andreas F H Pfeiffer
Lipidomics have a great potential as clinical tool for monitoring metabolic changes in health and disease. Nevertheless hardly anything is known about the heritability of lipids. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify how and how much we can affect these progresses in individuals. In our interventional twin study (46 healthy, non-obese twin pairs) we investigated the lipid profile in plasma samples after switching from a low fat diet to an isocaloric high fat diet (HFD) to characterize the metabolic adaptation...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622511/metabolic-adaptation-establishes-disease-tolerance-to-sepsis
#16
Sebastian Weis, Ana Rita Carlos, Maria Raquel Moita, Sumnima Singh, Birte Blankenhaus, Silvia Cardoso, Rasmus Larsen, Sofia Rebelo, Sascha Schäuble, Laura Del Barrio, Gilles Mithieux, Fabienne Rajas, Sandro Lindig, Michael Bauer, Miguel P Soares
Sepsis is an often lethal syndrome resulting from maladaptive immune and metabolic responses to infection, compromising host homeostasis. Disease tolerance is a defense strategy against infection that preserves host homeostasis without exerting a direct negative impact on pathogens. Here, we demonstrate that induction of the iron-sequestering ferritin H chain (FTH) in response to polymicrobial infections is critical to establish disease tolerance to sepsis. The protective effect of FTH is exerted via a mechanism that counters iron-driven oxidative inhibition of the liver glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), and in doing so, sustains endogenous glucose production via liver gluconeogenesis...
June 15, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620222/nitric-oxide-mediated-transcriptional-modulation-enhances-plant-adaptive-responses-to-arsenic-stress
#17
Pradyumna Kumar Singh, Yuvraj Indoliya, Abhisekh Singh Chauhan, Surendra Pratap Singh, Amit Pal Singh, Sanjay Dwivedi, Rudra Deo Tripathi, Debasis Chakrabarty
Arsenic (As) contamination in rice leads to yield decline and causes carcinogenic risk to human health. Although the role of nitric oxide (NO) in reducing As toxicity is known, NO-mediated genetic modulation in the plant during arsenic toxicity has not yet been established. We analyzed the key components of NO metabolism and the correlations between NO interaction and arsenic stress using rice as a relevant model plant. Illumina sequencing was used to investigate the NO-mediated genome-wide temporal transcriptomic modulation in rice root upon AsIII exposure during 12 days (d) of the growth period...
June 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619945/transcriptional-activation-of-ragd-gtpase-controls-mtorc1-and-promotes-cancer-growth
#18
Chiara Di Malta, Diletta Siciliano, Alessia Calcagni, Jlenia Monfregola, Simona Punzi, Nunzia Pastore, Andrea N Eastes, Oliver Davis, Rossella De Cegli, Angela Zampelli, Luca G Di Giovannantonio, Edoardo Nusco, Nick Platt, Alessandro Guida, Margret Helga Ogmundsdottir, Luisa Lanfrancone, Rushika M Perera, Roberto Zoncu, Pier Giuseppe Pelicci, Carmine Settembre, Andrea Ballabio
The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is recruited to the lysosome by Rag guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) and regulates anabolic pathways in response to nutrients. We found that MiT/TFE transcription factors-master regulators of lysosomal and melanosomal biogenesis and autophagy-control mTORC1 lysosomal recruitment and activity by directly regulating the expression of RagD. In mice, this mechanism mediated adaptation to food availability after starvation and physical exercise and played an important role in cancer growth...
June 16, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618258/differential-physiological-and-genetic-responses-of-five-european-scots-pine-provenances-to-induced-water-stress
#19
Ana Carvalho, Ivo Pavia, Cláudia Fernandes, Jani Pires, Carlos Correia, Eunice Bacelar, José Moutinho-Pereira, Maria João Gaspar, João Bento, Maria Emília Silva, José Luís Lousada, José Lima-Brito
Pinus sylvestris L. (Scots pine) is the conifer with widest natural distribution area. Portugal constitutes its westernmost limit of distribution. Most of the Portuguese populations were planted but two autochthonous populations were recently ascribed to 'Serra do Gerês' (NW Portugal), and seem to be well adapted to the temperate climate. However, the ongoing climate changes may compromise their survival. With this study we intend to evaluate the anatomic-physiological and genetic responses of Scots pine from five European provenances ('Gerês', 'Puebla de Lillo', 'Montes Universales', Germany and Sweden) to three water availability regimes, in order to determine which one(s) present higher resistance to drought...
June 3, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616679/manganese-superoxide-dismutase-sod2-is-there-a-center-in-the-universe-of-mitochondrial-redox-signaling
#20
REVIEW
Xianghui Zou, Bianca A Ratti, Joseph Gerald O'Brien, Sueli O Lautenschlager, David R Gius, Marcelo G Bonini, Yueming Zhu
It is becoming increasingly clear that mitochondria drive cellular functions and in vivo phenotypes by directing the production rate and abundance of metabolites that are proposed to function as signaling molecules (Chandel 2015; Selak et al. 2005; Etchegaray and Mostoslavsky 2016). Many of these metabolites are intermediates that make up cellular metabolism, part of which occur in mitochondria (i.e. the TCA and urea cycles), while others are produced "on demand" mainly in response to alterations in the microenvironment in order to participate in the activation of acute adaptive responses (Mills et al...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
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