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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915984/structure-function-and-evolution-of-clostridium-botulinum-c2-and-c3-toxins-insight-to-poultry-and-veterinary-vaccines
#1
P Chellapandi, A Prisilla
Clostridium botulinum group III strains are able to produce cytotoxins, C2 toxin and C3 exotoxin, along with botulinum neurotoxin types C and D. C2 toxin and C3 exotoxin produced from this organism are the most important members of bacterial ADP-ribosyltransferase superfamily. Both toxins have distinct pathophysiological functions in the avian and mammalian hosts. The members of this superfamily transfer an ADP-ribose moiety of NAD+ to specific eukaryotic target proteins. The present review describes the structure, function and evolution aspects of these toxins with a special emphasis to the development of veterinary vaccines...
December 1, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879630/recombinant-alpha-beta-and-epsilon-toxins-of-clostridium-perfringens-production-strategies-and-applications-as-veterinary-vaccines
#2
REVIEW
Marcos Roberto A Ferreira, Gustavo Marçal S G Moreira, Carlos Eduardo P da Cunha, Marcelo Mendonça, Felipe M Salvarani, Ângela N Moreira, Fabricio R Conceição
Clostridium perfringens is a spore-forming, commensal, ubiquitous bacterium that is present in the gastrointestinal tract of healthy humans and animals. This bacterium produces up to 18 toxins. The species is classified into five toxinotypes (A-E) according to the toxins that the bacterium produces: alpha, beta, epsilon, or iota. Each of these toxinotypes is associated with myriad different, frequently fatal, illnesses that affect a range of farm animals and humans. Alpha, beta, and epsilon toxins are the main causes of disease...
November 21, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817176/receptor-binding-and-uptake-of-binary-actin-adp-ribosylating-toxins
#3
Panagiotis Papatheodorou, Klaus Aktories
Binary actin-ADP-ribosylating toxins (e.g., Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin or Clostridium perfringens iota toxin ) consist of two separate proteins: An ADP-ribosyltransferase, which modifies actin thereby inhibiting actin polymerization, and a binding component that forms heptamers after proteolytic activation. While C2 toxin interacts with carbohydrate structures on host cells, the group of iota-like toxins binds to lipolysis-stimulated lipoprotein receptor (LSR). Here, we review LSR and discuss the role and function of LSR in interaction of iota-like toxins with host cells...
November 6, 2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797247/comparison-of-effectiveness-in-differentiating-benign-from-malignant-ovarian-masses-between-iota-simple-rules-and-subjective-sonographic-assessment
#4
Theera Tongsong, Dangcheewan Tinnangwattana, Linlada Vichak-Ururote, Paponrad Tontivuthikul, Cholaros Charoenratana, Thitikarn Lerthiranwong
BACKGROUND: To compare diagnostic performance in differentiating benign from malignant ovarian masses between IOTA (the International Ovarian Tumor Analysis) simple rules and subjective sonographic assessment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Women scheduled for elective surgery because of ovarian masses were recruited into the study and underwent ultrasound examination within 24 hours of surgery to apply the IOTA simple rules by general gynecologists and to record video clips for subjective assessment by an experienced sonographer...
2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789246/detection-of-toxigenic-clostridium-perfringens-and-clostridium-botulinum-from-food-sold-in-lagos-nigeria
#5
Emelda E Chukwu, Francisca O Nwaokorie, AkitoyeO Coker, Mario J Avila-Campos, Rosa L Solis, Luis A Llanco, Folasade T Ogunsola
Food-borne diseases contribute to the huge burden of sickness and death globally and in the last decade, have become more frequently reported in Africa. In line with this, food safety is becoming a significant and growing public health problem in Nigeria. Diarrhoea is a common problem in Nigeria and has been reported but there has been little data on the possibility of clostridia as aetiological agents. Clostridium species are ubiquitous in the environment and in the gastrointestinal tract of man and animals and can serve as a marker for faecal contamination...
October 24, 2016: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729638/semicarbazone-ega-inhibits-uptake-of-diphtheria-toxin-into-human-cells-and-protects-cells-from-intoxication
#6
Leonie Schnell, Ann-Katrin Mittler, Andrea Mattarei, Domenico Azarnia Tehran, Cesare Montecucco, Holger Barth
Diphtheria toxin is a single-chain protein toxin that invades human cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis. In acidic endosomes, its translocation domain inserts into endosomal membranes and facilitates the transport of the catalytic domain (DTA) from endosomal lumen into the host cell cytosol. Here, DTA ADP-ribosylates elongation factor 2 inhibits protein synthesis and leads to cell death. The compound 4-bromobenzaldehyde N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)semicarbazone (EGA) has been previously shown to protect cells from various bacterial protein toxins which deliver their enzymatic subunits from acidic endosomes to the cytosol, including Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin and the binary clostridial actin ADP-ribosylating toxins C2, iota and Clostridium difficile binary toxin (CDT)...
July 15, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647726/ep26-03-use-of-iota-terms-definitions-and-models-to-describe-ovarian-mass-with-elevated-%C3%AE-hcg-in-35-years-old-patient-case-report
#7
N Abdalla, R Piorkowski, M Pazura, K Cendrowski, W Sawicki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638730/pharyngostrongylus-thylogale-n-sp-nematoda-strongylida-from-the-stomachs-of-macropodid-marsupials-defined-by-morphological-and-molecular-criteria
#8
Neil B Chilton, Florence Huby-Chilton, Robin B Gasser, Anson V Koehler, Ian Beveridge
Pharyngostrongylus thylogale n. sp. (Nematoda: Strongylida) is described from the stomach of the red-legged pademelon, Thylogale stigmatica (Gould) (Marsupialia: Macropodidae) from north-eastern Queensland and Papua New Guinea, having formerly been confused with P. iota Johnston & Mawson, 1939. Pharyngostrongylus thylogale n. sp. differs from all congeners in having 12 labial crown elements rather than eight or 16. Pharyngostrongylus iota was found in T. stigmatica, but only in southern Queensland and northern New South Wales, in the subspecies T...
October 2016: Systematic Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27561499/development-of-highly-biocompatible-gelatin-i-carrageenan-based-composite-hydrogels-in-depth-physiochemical-analysis-for-biomedical-applications
#9
Jyostna Rani Padhi, Debasis Nayak, Arpita Nanda, Pradipta Ranjan Rauta, Sarbani Ashe, Bismita Nayak
In present investigation, gelatin and iota-carrageenan (CG) were used for the fabrication of composite hydrogels in different formulations (G1-G6). The hydrogels were characterized through optical, scanning electron and confocal microscopy to visualize their internal morphology. X-ray diffraction and ATR- FTIR spectroscopy were used for analyzing the chemical interaction between gelatin and CG. The hydrogels were found to be hemocompatible with high mucoadhesive and swelling properties. The standard drug ciprofloxacin was incorporated within the hydrogels and its interaction with the polymers was monitored through XRD and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy...
November 20, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27517960/chloroquine-analog-interaction-with-c2-and-iota-toxin-in-vitro-and-in-living-cells
#10
Angelika Kronhardt, Christoph Beitzinger, Holger Barth, Roland Benz
C2-toxin from Clostridium botulinum and Iota-toxin from Clostridium perfringens belong both to the binary A-B-type of toxins consisting of two separately secreted components, an enzymatic subunit A and a binding component B that facilitates the entry of the corresponding enzymatic subunit into the target cells. The enzymatic subunits are in both cases actin ADP-ribosyltransferases that modify R177 of globular actin finally leading to cell death. Following their binding to host cells' receptors and internalization, the two binding components form heptameric channels in endosomal membranes which mediate the translocation of the enzymatic components Iota a and C2I from endosomes into the cytosol of the target cells...
2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27516258/sulfated-polysaccharide-fraction-from-marine-algae-solieria-filiformis-structural-characterization-gastroprotective-and-antioxidant-effects
#11
Willer M Sousa, Renan O Silva, Francisco F Bezerra, Rudy D Bingana, Francisco Clark N Barros, Luís E C Costa, Venicios G Sombra, Pedro M G Soares, Judith P A Feitosa, Regina C M de Paula, Marcellus H L P Souza, André Luiz R Barbosa, Ana Lúcia P Freitas
A sulfated polysaccharide (SFP) fraction from the marine alga Solieria filiformis was extracted and submitted to microanalysis, molar mass estimation and spectroscopic analysis. We evaluated its gastroprotective potential in vivo in an ethanol-induced gastric damage model and its in vitro antioxidant properties (DPPH, chelating ferrous ability and total antioxidant capacity). Its chemical composition revealed to be essentially an iota-carrageenan with a molar mass of 210.9kDa and high degree of substitution for sulfate groups (1...
November 5, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27507231/refining-ovarian-cancer-test-accuracy-scores-rockets-protocol-for-a-prospective-longitudinal-test-accuracy-study-to-validate-new-risk-scores-in-women-with-symptoms-of-suspected-ovarian-cancer
#12
Sudha Sundar, Caroline Rick, Francis Dowling, Pui Au, Kym Snell, Nirmala Rai, Rita Champaneria, Hilary Stobart, Richard Neal, Clare Davenport, Susan Mallett, Andrew Sutton, Sean Kehoe, Dirk Timmerman, Tom Bourne, Ben Van Calster, Aleksandra Gentry-Maharaj, Usha Menon, Jon Deeks
INTRODUCTION: Ovarian cancer (OC) is associated with non-specific symptoms such as bloating, making accurate diagnosis challenging: only 1 in 3 women with OC presents through primary care referral. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines recommends sequential testing with CA125 and routine ultrasound in primary care. However, these diagnostic tests have limited sensitivity or specificity. Improving accurate triage in women with vague symptoms is likely to improve mortality by streamlining referral and care pathways...
2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27506445/ultrasound-based-iota-simple-rules-allow-accurate-malignancy-risk-estimation-for-adnexal-masses
#13
Juan Luis Alcázar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Evidence-based Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27498875/distinct-roles-of-pkc%C3%AE-%C3%AE-and-pkm%C3%AE-in-the-initiation-and-maintenance-of-hippocampal-long-term-potentiation-and-memory
#14
Shaoli Wang, Tao Sheng, Siqiang Ren, Tian Tian, Wei Lu
PKMζ has been proposed to be essential for maintenance of long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term memory (LTM). However, recent data from PKMζ-knockout mice has called this role into question. Instead, the other atypical isoform, protein kinase C iota/lambda (PKCι/λ), has emerged as a potential alternative player. Therefore, the nature of the "memory molecule" maintaining learned information remains uncertain. Here, we report knockdown (KD) of PKCι/λ and PKMζ in the dorsal hippocampus and find deficits in early expression and late maintenance, respectively, during both LTP and hippocampus-dependent LTM...
August 16, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27489270/inhibition-of-human-metapneumovirus-binding-to-heparan-sulfate-blocks-infection-in-human-lung-cells-and-airway-tissues
#15
Edita M Klimyte, Stacy E Smith, Pasqua Oreste, David Lembo, Rebecca Ellis Dutch
UNLABELLED: Human metapneumovirus (HMPV), a recently discovered paramyxovirus, infects nearly 100% of the world population and causes severe respiratory disease in infants, the elderly, and immunocompromised patients. We previously showed that HMPV binds heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) and that HMPV binding requires only the viral fusion (F) protein. To characterize the features of this interaction critical for HMPV binding and the role of this interaction in infection in relevant models, we utilized sulfated polysaccharides, heparan sulfate mimetics, and occluding compounds...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27484484/ovarian-masses-with-papillary-projections-diagnosed-and-removed-during-pregnancy-ultrasound-features-and-histological-diagnoses
#16
F Mascilini, L Savelli, M C Scifo, C Exacoustos, I Timor-Tritsch, I De Blasis, M C Moruzzi, T Pasciuto, G Scambia, L Valentin, A C Testa
OBJECTIVES: To elucidate if there are any ultrasound features that can be used to discriminate between benign and malignant cysts with papillary projections but no other solid components in pregnant women. METHODS: Thirty-four women with an ultrasound diagnosis of an ovarian cyst with papillary projections but no other solid components that had been surgically removed during pregnancy were identified from the databases of four ultrasound units. Some clinical and ultrasound information had been collected prospectively...
August 3, 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27474596/structural-analysis-and-cytokine-induced-activity-of-gelling-sulfated-polysaccharide-from-the-cystocarpic-plants-of-ahnfeltiopsis-flabelliformis
#17
Anna O Kravchenko, Stanislav D Anastyuk, Ekaterina V Sokolova, Vladimir V Isakov, Valery P Glazunov, William Helbert, Irina M Yermak
Gelling sulfated polysaccharide from the cystocarpic plants of Ahnfeltiopsis flabelliformis was studied. According to FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy data, the polysaccharide was found to be iota/kappa-carrageenan with iota- and kappa-type units in a 2:1 ratio containing beta-carrageenan units and minor amounts of nu- and mu-carrageenans. The HPLC and ESI MS/MS data of enzymatic hydrolysis products revealed that the main components of the polymer chain are iota-carrabiose, iota-carratetraose and hybrid tetra- and hexasaccharides consisting of kappa- and iota-units...
October 20, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27428999/semicarbazone-ega-inhibits-uptake-of-diphtheria-toxin-into-human-cells-and-protects-cells-from-intoxication
#18
Leonie Schnell, Ann-Katrin Mittler, Andrea Mattarei, Domenico Azarnia Tehran, Cesare Montecucco, Holger Barth
Diphtheria toxin is a single-chain protein toxin that invades human cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis. In acidic endosomes, its translocation domain inserts into endosomal membranes and facilitates the transport of the catalytic domain (DTA) from endosomal lumen into the host cell cytosol. Here, DTA ADP-ribosylates elongation factor 2 inhibits protein synthesis and leads to cell death. The compound 4-bromobenzaldehyde N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)semicarbazone (EGA) has been previously shown to protect cells from various bacterial protein toxins which deliver their enzymatic subunits from acidic endosomes to the cytosol, including Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin and the binary clostridial actin ADP-ribosylating toxins C2, iota and Clostridium difficile binary toxin (CDT)...
July 15, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27391068/loss-of-lsr-affects-epithelial-barrier-integrity-and-tumor-xenograft-growth-of-caco-2-cells
#19
Bernd A Czulkies, Justin Mastroianni, Lisa Lutz, Sarah Lang, Carsten Schwan, Gudula Schmidt, Silke Lassmann, Robert Zeiser, Klaus Aktories, Panagiotis Papatheodorou
The lipolysis-stimulated lipoprotein receptor (LSR) is a lipoprotein receptor, serves as host receptor for clostridial iota-like toxins and is involved in the formation of tricellular contacts. Of particular interest is the role of LSR in progression of various cancers. Here we aimed to study the tumor growth of LSR-deficient colon carcinoma-derived cell lines HCT116 and CaCo-2 in a mouse xenograft model. Whereas knockout of LSR had no effect on tumor growth of HCT116 cells, we observed that CaCo-2 LSR knockout tumors grew to a smaller size than their wild-type counterparts...
July 6, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27374142/external-validation-of-the-iota-adnex-model-performed-by-two-independent-gynecologic-centers
#20
Sebastian Szubert, Andrzej Wojtowicz, Rafal Moszynski, Patryk Zywica, Krzysztof Dyczkowski, Anna Stachowiak, Stefan Sajdak, Dariusz Szpurek, Juan Luis Alcazar
OBJECTIVES: The external, two-center validation of the IOTA ADNEX model for differential diagnosis of adnexal tumors. METHODS: A total of 204 patients with adnexal masses (134 benign and 70 malignant) treated at the Division of Gynecologic Surgery, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poland (Center I), and 123 patients (89 benign and 34 malignant) from the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Clinica Universidad de Navarra, University of Navarra School of Medicine, Pamplona, Spain (Center II), were enrolled into the study...
September 2016: Gynecologic Oncology
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