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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210460/cloning-and-expression-of-clostridium-perfringens-type-d-vaccine-strain-epsilon-toxin-gene-in-e-coli-as-a-recombinant-vaccine-candidate
#1
Parastoo Aziminia, Reza Pilehchian-Langroudi, Kasra Esmaeilnia
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Clostridium perfringens, a Gram-positive obligate anaerobic bacterium, is able to form resistant spores which are widely distributed in the environment. C. perfringens is subdivided into five types A to E based on its four major alpha, beta, epsilon and iota toxins. The aim of the present study was cloning and expression of C. perfringens type D vaccine strain epsilon toxin gene. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genomic DNA was extracted and the epsilon toxin gene was amplified using Pfu DNA polymerase...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199340/crystal-structure-and-structure-based-mutagenesis-of-actin-specific-adp-ribosylating-toxin-cpile-a-as-novel-enterotoxin
#2
Waraphan Toniti, Toru Yoshida, Toshiharu Tsurumura, Daisuke Irikura, Chie Monma, Yoichi Kamata, Hideaki Tsuge
Unusual outbreaks of food poisoning in Japan were reported in which Clostridium perfringens was strongly suspected to be the cause based on epidemiological information and fingerprinting of isolates. The isolated strains lack the typical C. perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) but secrete a new enterotoxin consisting of two components: C. perfringens iota-like enterotoxin-a (CPILE-a), which acts as an enzymatic ADP-ribosyltransferase, and CPILE-b, a membrane binding component. Here we present the crystal structures of apo-CPILE-a, NAD+-CPILE-a and NADH-CPILE-a...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095404/entropy-transfer-between-residue-pairs-and-allostery-in-proteins-quantifying-allosteric-communication-in-ubiquitin
#3
Aysima Hacisuleyman, Burak Erman
It has recently been proposed by Gunasakaran et al. that allostery may be an intrinsic property of all proteins. Here, we develop a computational method that can determine and quantify allosteric activity in any given protein. Based on Schreiber's transfer entropy formulation, our approach leads to an information transfer landscape for the protein that shows the presence of entropy sinks and sources and explains how pairs of residues communicate with each other using entropy transfer. The model can identify the residues that drive the fluctuations of others...
January 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077248/alternative-splicing-at-exon-2-results-in-the-loss-of-the-catalytic-activity-of-mouse-dna-polymerase-iota-in-vitro
#4
Konstantin Y Kazachenko, Nataliya A Miropolskaya, Leonid V Gening, Vyacheslav Z Tarantul, Alena V Makarova
Y-family DNA polymerase iota (Pol ι) possesses both DNA polymerase and dRP lyase activities and was suggested to be involved in DNA translesion synthesis and base excision repair in mammals. The 129 strain of mice and its derivatives have a natural nonsense codon mutation in the second exon of the Pol ι gene resulting in truncation of the Pol ι protein. These mice were widely used as a Pol ι-null model for in vivo studies of the Pol ι function. However whether 129-derived strains of mice are fully deficient in the Pol ι functions was a subject of discussion since Pol ι mRNA undergoes alternative splicing at exon 2...
February 2017: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070856/mir-29c-prkci-regulates-axonal-growth-of-dorsal-root-ganglia-neurons-under-hyperglycemia
#5
Longfei Jia, Lei Wang, Michael Chopp, Chao Li, Yi Zhang, Alexandra Szalad, Zheng Gang Zhang
Diabetes initially induces distal axonal damage of peripheral nerves, but molecular mechanisms that mediate axonal injury are not fully understood. MircoRNAs (miRNAs) regulate axonal growth. We found that diabetic db/db mice exhibited substantial upregulation of miR-29c in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons, sciatic nerve, and foot pad tissues. Bioinformatic analysis revealed PRKCI, a gene that encodes a member of the protein kinase C (PKC) iota, as a putative target for miR-29c. Western blot analysis showed that diabetic mice exhibited a considerable reduction of PRKCI protein levels in sciatic nerve tissues and DRG neurons...
January 9, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004457/clinical-and-ultrasound-characteristics-of-surgically-removed-adnexal-lesions-with-a-largest-diameter-%C3%A2-2-5-cm-a-pictorial-essay
#6
A Di Legge, P Pollastri, R Mancari, M Ludovisi, F Mascilini, D Franchi, D Jurkovic, M E Coccia, D Timmerman, G Scambia, A Testa, L Valentin
OBJECTIVES: The aim was to describe the ultrasound characteristics, the indications for surgery and the histological diagnoses of surgically removed adnexal masses with largest diameter <2.5 cm ("very small tumors"), to estimate sensitivity and specificity with regard to malignancy of subjective assessment of ultrasound images of very small tumors, and to present a gallery of ultrasound images of surgically removed very small tumors especially those causing diagnostic difficulties...
December 22, 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995173/response-to-letter-to-the-editor-concerning-validation-of-iota-adnex-model
#7
Sebastian Szubert, Andrzej Wojtowicz, Patryk Zywica
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Gynecologic Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936952/reliability-of-the-ninds-common-data-elements-cranial-tomography-ct-rating-variables-for-traumatic-brain-injury-tbi
#8
Leah Harburg, Erin McCormack, Kimbra Kenney, Carol Moore, Kelly Yang, Pieter Vos, Bram Jacobs, Christopher J Madden, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Tanya Bogoslovsky
BACKGROUND: Non-contrast head computer tomography (CT) is widely used to evaluate eligibility of patients after acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) for clinical trials. The NINDS Common Data Elements (CDEs) TBI were developed to standardize collection of CT variables. The objectives of this study were to train research assistants (RAs) to rate CDEs and then to evaluate their performance. The aim was to assess inter-rater reliability (IRR) of CDEs between trained RAs and a neurologist and to evaluate applicability of CDEs in acute and sub-acute TBI to test the feasibility of using CDE CT ratings in future trials and ultimately in clinical practice...
2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915984/structure-function-and-evolution-of-clostridium-botulinum-c2-and-c3-toxins-insight-to-poultry-and-veterinary-vaccines
#9
P Chellapandi, A Prisilla
Clostridium botulinum group III strains are able to produce cytotoxins, C2 toxin and C3 exotoxin, along with botulinum neurotoxin types C and D. C2 toxin and C3 exotoxin produced from this organism are the most important members of bacterial ADP-ribosyltransferase superfamily. Both toxins have distinct pathophysiological functions in the avian and mammalian hosts. The members of this superfamily transfer an ADP-ribose moiety of NAD+ to specific eukaryotic target proteins. The present review describes the structure, function and evolution aspects of these toxins with a special emphasis to the development of veterinary vaccines...
December 1, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879630/recombinant-alpha-beta-and-epsilon-toxins-of-clostridium-perfringens-production-strategies-and-applications-as-veterinary-vaccines
#10
REVIEW
Marcos Roberto A Ferreira, Gustavo Marçal S G Moreira, Carlos Eduardo P da Cunha, Marcelo Mendonça, Felipe M Salvarani, Ângela N Moreira, Fabricio R Conceição
Clostridium perfringens is a spore-forming, commensal, ubiquitous bacterium that is present in the gastrointestinal tract of healthy humans and animals. This bacterium produces up to 18 toxins. The species is classified into five toxinotypes (A-E) according to the toxins that the bacterium produces: alpha, beta, epsilon, or iota. Each of these toxinotypes is associated with myriad different, frequently fatal, illnesses that affect a range of farm animals and humans. Alpha, beta, and epsilon toxins are the main causes of disease...
November 21, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817176/receptor-binding-and-uptake-of-binary-actin-adp-ribosylating-toxins
#11
Panagiotis Papatheodorou, Klaus Aktories
Binary actin-ADP-ribosylating toxins (e.g., Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin or Clostridium perfringens iota toxin ) consist of two separate proteins: An ADP-ribosyltransferase, which modifies actin thereby inhibiting actin polymerization, and a binding component that forms heptamers after proteolytic activation. While C2 toxin interacts with carbohydrate structures on host cells, the group of iota-like toxins binds to lipolysis-stimulated lipoprotein receptor (LSR). Here, we review LSR and discuss the role and function of LSR in interaction of iota-like toxins with host cells...
November 6, 2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797247/comparison-of-effectiveness-in-differentiating-benign-from-malignant-ovarian-masses-between-iota-simple-rules-and-subjective-sonographic-assessment
#12
Theera Tongsong, Dangcheewan Tinnangwattana, Linlada Vichak-Ururote, Paponrad Tontivuthikul, Cholaros Charoenratana, Thitikarn Lerthiranwong
BACKGROUND: To compare diagnostic performance in differentiating benign from malignant ovarian masses between IOTA (the International Ovarian Tumor Analysis) simple rules and subjective sonographic assessment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Women scheduled for elective surgery because of ovarian masses were recruited into the study and underwent ultrasound examination within 24 hours of surgery to apply the IOTA simple rules by general gynecologists and to record video clips for subjective assessment by an experienced sonographer...
2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789246/detection-of-toxigenic-clostridium-perfringens-and-clostridium-botulinum-from-food-sold-in-lagos-nigeria
#13
Emelda E Chukwu, Francisca O Nwaokorie, Akitoye O Coker, Mario J Avila-Campos, Rosa L Solis, Luis A Llanco, Folasade T Ogunsola
Food-borne diseases contribute to the huge burden of sickness and death globally and in the last decade, have become more frequently reported in Africa. In line with this, food safety is becoming a significant and growing public health problem in Nigeria. Diarrhoea is a common problem in Nigeria and has been reported but there has been little data on the possibility of clostridia as aetiological agents. Clostridium species are ubiquitous in the environment and in the gastrointestinal tract of man and animals and can serve as a marker for faecal contamination...
December 2016: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729638/semicarbazone-ega-inhibits-uptake-of-diphtheria-toxin-into-human-cells-and-protects-cells-from-intoxication
#14
Leonie Schnell, Ann-Katrin Mittler, Andrea Mattarei, Domenico Azarnia Tehran, Cesare Montecucco, Holger Barth
Diphtheria toxin is a single-chain protein toxin that invades human cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis. In acidic endosomes, its translocation domain inserts into endosomal membranes and facilitates the transport of the catalytic domain (DTA) from endosomal lumen into the host cell cytosol. Here, DTA ADP-ribosylates elongation factor 2 inhibits protein synthesis and leads to cell death. The compound 4-bromobenzaldehyde N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)semicarbazone (EGA) has been previously shown to protect cells from various bacterial protein toxins which deliver their enzymatic subunits from acidic endosomes to the cytosol, including Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin and the binary clostridial actin ADP-ribosylating toxins C2, iota and Clostridium difficile binary toxin (CDT)...
15, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647726/ep26-03-use-of-iota-terms-definitions-and-models-to-describe-ovarian-mass-with-elevated-%C3%AE-hcg-in-35-years-old-patient-case-report
#15
N Abdalla, R Piorkowski, M Pazura, K Cendrowski, W Sawicki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638730/pharyngostrongylus-thylogale-n-sp-nematoda-strongylida-from-the-stomachs-of-macropodid-marsupials-defined-by-morphological-and-molecular-criteria
#16
Neil B Chilton, Florence Huby-Chilton, Robin B Gasser, Anson V Koehler, Ian Beveridge
Pharyngostrongylus thylogale n. sp. (Nematoda: Strongylida) is described from the stomach of the red-legged pademelon, Thylogale stigmatica (Gould) (Marsupialia: Macropodidae) from north-eastern Queensland and Papua New Guinea, having formerly been confused with P. iota Johnston & Mawson, 1939. Pharyngostrongylus thylogale n. sp. differs from all congeners in having 12 labial crown elements rather than eight or 16. Pharyngostrongylus iota was found in T. stigmatica, but only in southern Queensland and northern New South Wales, in the subspecies T...
October 2016: Systematic Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27561499/development-of-highly-biocompatible-gelatin-i-carrageenan-based-composite-hydrogels-in-depth-physiochemical-analysis-for-biomedical-applications
#17
Jyostna Rani Padhi, Debasis Nayak, Arpita Nanda, Pradipta Ranjan Rauta, Sarbani Ashe, Bismita Nayak
In present investigation, gelatin and iota-carrageenan (CG) were used for the fabrication of composite hydrogels in different formulations (G1-G6). The hydrogels were characterized through optical, scanning electron and confocal microscopy to visualize their internal morphology. X-ray diffraction and ATR- FTIR spectroscopy were used for analyzing the chemical interaction between gelatin and CG. The hydrogels were found to be hemocompatible with high mucoadhesive and swelling properties. The standard drug ciprofloxacin was incorporated within the hydrogels and its interaction with the polymers was monitored through XRD and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy...
November 20, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27517960/chloroquine-analog-interaction-with-c2-and-iota-toxin-in-vitro-and-in-living-cells
#18
Angelika Kronhardt, Christoph Beitzinger, Holger Barth, Roland Benz
C2-toxin from Clostridium botulinum and Iota-toxin from Clostridium perfringens belong both to the binary A-B-type of toxins consisting of two separately secreted components, an enzymatic subunit A and a binding component B that facilitates the entry of the corresponding enzymatic subunit into the target cells. The enzymatic subunits are in both cases actin ADP-ribosyltransferases that modify R177 of globular actin finally leading to cell death. Following their binding to host cells' receptors and internalization, the two binding components form heptameric channels in endosomal membranes which mediate the translocation of the enzymatic components Iota a and C2I from endosomes into the cytosol of the target cells...
2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27516258/sulfated-polysaccharide-fraction-from-marine-algae-solieria-filiformis-structural-characterization-gastroprotective-and-antioxidant-effects
#19
Willer M Sousa, Renan O Silva, Francisco F Bezerra, Rudy D Bingana, Francisco Clark N Barros, Luís E C Costa, Venicios G Sombra, Pedro M G Soares, Judith P A Feitosa, Regina C M de Paula, Marcellus H L P Souza, André Luiz R Barbosa, Ana Lúcia P Freitas
A sulfated polysaccharide (SFP) fraction from the marine alga Solieria filiformis was extracted and submitted to microanalysis, molar mass estimation and spectroscopic analysis. We evaluated its gastroprotective potential in vivo in an ethanol-induced gastric damage model and its in vitro antioxidant properties (DPPH, chelating ferrous ability and total antioxidant capacity). Its chemical composition revealed to be essentially an iota-carrageenan with a molar mass of 210.9kDa and high degree of substitution for sulfate groups (1...
November 5, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27507231/refining-ovarian-cancer-test-accuracy-scores-rockets-protocol-for-a-prospective-longitudinal-test-accuracy-study-to-validate-new-risk-scores-in-women-with-symptoms-of-suspected-ovarian-cancer
#20
Sudha Sundar, Caroline Rick, Francis Dowling, Pui Au, Kym Snell, Nirmala Rai, Rita Champaneria, Hilary Stobart, Richard Neal, Clare Davenport, Susan Mallett, Andrew Sutton, Sean Kehoe, Dirk Timmerman, Tom Bourne, Ben Van Calster, Aleksandra Gentry-Maharaj, Usha Menon, Jon Deeks
INTRODUCTION: Ovarian cancer (OC) is associated with non-specific symptoms such as bloating, making accurate diagnosis challenging: only 1 in 3 women with OC presents through primary care referral. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines recommends sequential testing with CA125 and routine ultrasound in primary care. However, these diagnostic tests have limited sensitivity or specificity. Improving accurate triage in women with vague symptoms is likely to improve mortality by streamlining referral and care pathways...
2016: BMJ Open
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