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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088556/regulation-of-docetaxel-sensitivity-in-prostate-cancer-cells-by-hsa-mir-125a-3p-via-modulation-of-mta1-signaling
#1
Jian-Zhou Liu, Feng-Yan Yin, Chang-You Yan, Hui Wang, Xiao-Hui Luo
OBJECTIVE: To identify the potential down-stream targets of hsa-miR-125a-3p, a mature form of miR-125a, during the pathogenesis of chemoresistance in prostate cancer (PCa). METHODS: Expression levels of hsa-miR-125a-3p was assessed in chemoresistant PCa tissues and experimentally-established chemoresistant cells using quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). The effect of hsa-miR-125a-3p knockdown or hsa-miR-125a-3p overexpression on the Dox-induced cell death was evaluated using apoptosis ELISA in chemosensitive PC-3 cells or in chemoresistant PC-3 cells (PC-3R)...
January 11, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081352/removing-the-specimen-with-traction-during-robotic-radical-prostatectomy-does-not-cause-a-positive-surgical-margin
#2
Serkan Altınova, Abidin Egemen İşgören, Ziya Akbulut, Muhammet Fuat Özcan, Abdullah Erdem Canda, Ali Fuat Atmaca, Mevlana Derya Balbay
BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of this study was to gauge whether removal of a specimen with traction during robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy causes a positive surgical margin or not. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and sixty-nine patients with localized prostate cancer who underwent robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy from 2009 to 2011 were included in the study. After dividing the patients into two groups, we recorded their characteristics and pre-op/post-op evaluations...
December 20, 2016: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081010/biological-dose-representation-for-carbon-ion-radiotherapy-of-unconventional-fractionation
#3
Nobuyuki Kanematsu, Taku Inaniwa
In carbon-ion radiotherapy, single-beam delivery each day in alternate directions has been common practice for efficient operation, taking advantage of the Bragg peak and the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for uniform dose conformation to a tumor. Treatments are usually fractionated and treatment plans are evaluated with the total RBE-weighted dose; however, this is of limited relevance to the biological effect. In this study, we reformulate the biologically effective dose (BED) to normalize the dose-fractionation and cell-repopulation effects as well as the RBE of treating radiation, based on inactivation of a reference cell line by a reference carbon-ion radiation...
January 12, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079260/an-experimentally-validated-couch-and-mlc-tracking-simulator-used-to-investigate-hybrid-couch-mlc-tracking
#4
Jakob Toftegaard, Rune Hansen, Thomas Ravkilde, Kristijan Macek, Per Rugaard Poulsen
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE: Couch and MLC tracking are two novel techniques to mitigate intrafractional tumor motion on a conventional linear accelerator, but both techniques still have residual dosimetric errors. Here, we first propose and experimentally validate a software tool to simulate couch and MLC tracking, and then use the simulator to study hybrid couch-MLC tracking for improved tracking performance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The tracking simulator requires a treatment plan and a motion trajectory as input and simulates the delivered monitor units and motion of all accelerator parts as function of time...
January 12, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077788/androgen-receptor-splice-variants-and-prostate-cancer-from-bench-to-bedside
#5
REVIEW
Kristine M Wadosky, Shahriar Koochekpour
Therapeutic interventions for advanced prostate cancer (PCa) center on inhibiting androgen receptor (AR) and downstream signaling pathways. Resistance to androgen deprivation therapy and/or AR antagonists is inevitable and molecular mechanisms driving castration-resistant PCa (CR-PCa) primarily involve alterations in AR expression and activity. Detailed molecular biology work over the past decade, discussed at length in this review article, has revealed several AR transcripts that result from alternative splicing...
January 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077171/prostate-specific-il-6-transgene-autonomously-induce-prostate-neoplasm-through-amplifying-inflammation-in-the-prostate-and-peri-prostatic-adipose-tissue
#6
Gang Liu, Jinyu Zhang, Lewis Frey, Xiao Gang, Kongming Wu, Qian Liu, Michael Lilly, Jennifer Wu
BACKGROUND: The causative role of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 in prostate cancer progression has been well established at molecular level. However, whether and how IL-6 may play a role in prostate cancer risk and development is not well defined. One limitation factor to acquiring this knowledge is the lack of appropriate animal models. METHODS: We generated a novel line of prostate-specific IL-6 transgenic mouse model. We compared the prostate pathology, tumorigenic signaling components, and prostate tumor microenvironment of the IL-6 transgenic mice with wild type littermates...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075651/imaging-characteristics-of-prostate-cancer-patients-who-discontinued-active-surveillance-on-3-t-multiparametric-prostate-mri
#7
David J Habibian, Corinne C Liu, Alex Dao, Kaitlin E Kosinski, Aaron E Katz
OBJECTIVE: Early-stage prostate cancer may be followed with active surveillance to avoid overtreatment. Our institution's active surveillance regimen uses annual MRI in place of serial biopsies, and biopsies are performed only when clinically necessary. The objective of our study was to report the multiparametric MRI characteristics of prostate cancer patients who discontinued active surveillance at our institution after repeat imaging revealed possible evidence of tumor upgrading. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Department of Urology at Winthrop University Hospital prospectively maintains a database of prostate cancer patients who are monitored with active surveillance...
January 11, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075470/combined-effects-of-atorvastatin-and-aspirin-on-growth-and-apoptosis-in-human-prostate-cancer-cells
#8
Yan He, Huarong Huang, Chelsea Farischon, Dongli Li, Zhiyun Du, Kun Zhang, Xi Zheng, Susan Goodin
Epidemiologic studies indicate the use of either statins or aspirin have beneficial effects in prostate cancer patients. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects and mechanisms of atorvastatin and aspirin alone or in combination in human prostate cancer cells cultured in vitro and grown as xenograft tumors in severe combined immune-deficient (SCID) mice. The growth and apoptosis in prostate cancer cells were determined by the trypan blue exclusion and propidium iodide staining assays. Activation of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) was measured by luciferase reporter assay, and the levels of phospho-signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat)3 and phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk)1/2 were determined by western blot analysis...
January 4, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074864/a-novel-monoclonal-antibody-targeting-coxsackie-virus-and-adenovirus-receptor-inhibits-tumor-growth-in-vivo
#9
Manabu Kawada, Hiroyuki Inoue, Masunori Kajikawa, Masahito Sugiura, Shuichi Sakamoto, Sakiko Urano, Chigusa Karasawa, Ihomi Usami, Mitsuru Futakuchi, Tohru Masuda
To create a new anti-tumor antibody, we conducted signal sequence trap by retrovirus-meditated expression method and identified coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor (CXADR) as an appropriate target. We developed monoclonal antibodies against human CXADR and found that one antibody (6G10A) significantly inhibited the growth of subcutaneous as well as orthotopic xenografts of human prostate cancer cells in vivo. Furthermore, 6G10A also inhibited other cancer xenografts expressing CXADR, such as pancreatic and colorectal cancer cells...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074780/mri-directed-cognitive-fusion-guided-biopsy-of-the-anterior-prostate-tumors
#10
Ian G Murphy, Elaine NiMhurchu, Robert G Gibney, Colm J McMahon
PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-directed cognitive fusion transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided anterior prostate biopsy for diagnosis of anterior prostate tumors and to illustrate this technique. METHODS: A total of 39 patients with previous negative TRUS biopsy, but high clinical suspicion of occult prostate cancer, prospectively underwent prostate MRI including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). Patients with a suspicious anterior lesion on MRI underwent targeted anterior gland TRUS guided biopsy with cognitive fusion technique using sagittal probe orientation...
January 11, 2017: Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology: Official Journal of the Turkish Society of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073842/expression-of-cd14-il-10-and-tolerogenic-signature-in-dendritic-cells-inversely-correlate-with-response-to-tarp-vaccination-in-prostate-cancer-patients
#11
Luciano Castiello, Marianna Sabatino, Jiaqiang Ren, Masaki Terabe, Hanh Khuu, Lauren V Wood, Jay A Berzofsky, David F Stroncek
PURPOSE: Despite the vast number of clinical trials conducted so far, Dendritic cell (DC)-based cancer vaccines have mostly shown unsatisfactory results. Factors and manufacturing procedures essential for these therapeutics to induce effective anti-tumor immune responses have yet to be fully characterized. We here aimed to identify DC markers correlating with clinical and immunological response in a prostate carcinoma vaccination regimen. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We performed an extensive characterization of DCs used to vaccinate 18 prostate carcinoma patients enrolled in a pilot trial of TCR gamma alternate reading frame protein (TARP) peptide vaccination (NCT00908258)...
January 10, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073195/cognitive-zonal-fusion-biopsy-of-the-prostate-original-technique-between-target-and-saturation
#12
Andrea B Galosi, Guevar Maselli, Giulia Sbrollini, Gaetano Donatelli, Lorenzo Montesi, Matteo Tallè, Rodolfo Montironi
: We describe our experience in prostate biopsy using a new standardized cognitive fusion techniques, that we call "cognitive zonal fusion biopsy". This new technique is based on two operative options: the first based on target biopsies, the Cognitive Target Biopsy (CTB) if the same target was detected with transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) and multiparametric magnetic resonance (mpMRI); the second based on saturation biopsies, the Zonal Saturation Biopsy (ZSB) on anatomical zone/s containing the region of interest if the same target was not evident with TRUS and MRI...
December 30, 2016: Archivio Italiano di Urologia, Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072616/gastrointestinal-stromal-tumor-showing-intense-tracer-uptake-on-psma-pet-ct
#13
Benjamin Noto, Matthias Weckesser, Boris Buerke, Michaela Pixberg, Nemanja Avramovic
A 70-year-old man with suspected prostate cancer was referred for Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC PET/CT (short PSMA PET/CT) for staging of tumor extent. Apart from vivid tracer uptake in the prostate gland and osseous metastasis, PSMA PET/CT revealed a large soft tissue mass with calcifications in the left upper abdomen showing intense tracer uptake. Histologic examination revealed the mass to be a gastrointestinal stromal tumor.
January 9, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069876/targeting-plk1-to-enhance-efficacy-of-olaparib-in-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#14
Xiaoqi Liu, Jie Li, Ruixin Wang, Yifan Kong, Meaghan M Broman, Colin Carlock, Long Chen, Zhiguo Li, Elia Farah, Timothy L Ratliff
Olaparib is a FDA-approved PARP inhibitor (PARPi) that has shown promise as a synthetic lethal treatment approach for BRCA-mutant castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) in clinical use. However, emerging data has also shown that even BRCA-mutant cells may be resistant to PARPi. The mechanistic basis for these drug resistances is poorly understood. Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1), a critical regulator of many cell cycle events, is significantly elevated upon castration of mice carrying xenograft prostate tumors...
January 9, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068602/synthesis-of-2-3-6-7-tetramethoxyphenanthren-9-amine-an-efficient-precursor-to-access-new-4-aza-2-3-dihydropyridophenanthrenes-as-apoptosis-inducing-agents
#15
Niggula Praveen Kumar, Pankaj Sharma, T Srinivasa Reddy, Shalini Nekkanti, Nagula Shankaraiah, Guntuku Lalita, S Sujanakumari, Suresh K Bhargava, V G M Naidu, Ahmed Kamal
A new route for the synthesis of novel 2,3,6,7-tetramethoxy phenanthrene amine precursor has been successfully accomplished. Subsequently, this amine precursor has been directly utilized for the synthesis of a new series of 4-aza-2,3-dihydropyridophenanthrene derivatives via a three component reaction with tetronic acid and substituted aldehydes. These compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic potential against human lung (A549), prostate (PC-3 and DU145), breast (MDA-MB-231 and 4T1), gastric (HGC-27), colon (Caco-2) and cervical (HeLa) cancer cell lines...
January 3, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068321/analysis-of-dna-methylation-in-single-circulating-tumor-cells
#16
C F Pixberg, K Raba, F Müller, B Behrens, E Honisch, D Niederacher, H Neubauer, T Fehm, W Goering, W A Schulz, P Flohr, G Boysen, M Lambros, J S De Bono, W T Knoefel, C Sproll, N H Stoecklein, R P L Neves
Direct analysis of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) can inform on molecular mechanisms underlying systemic spread. Here we investigated promoter methylation of three genes regulating epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a key mechanism enabling epithelial tumor cells to disseminate and metastasize. For this, we developed a single-cell protocol based on agarose-embedded bisulfite treatment, which allows investigating DNA methylation of multiple loci via a multiplex PCR (multiplexed-scAEBS). We established our assay for the simultaneous analysis of three EMT-associated genes miR-200c/141, miR-200b/a/429 and CDH1 in single cells...
January 9, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068231/establishing-evidence-based-indications-for-proton-therapy-an-overview-of-current-clinical-trials
#17
Mark V Mishra, Sameer Aggarwal, Soren M Bentzen, Nancy Knight, Minesh P Mehta, William F Regine
PURPOSE: To review and assess ongoing proton beam therapy (PBT) clinical trials and to identify major gaps. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Active PBT clinical trials were identified from clinicaltrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Platform Registry. Data on clinical trial disease site, age group, projected patient enrollment, expected start and end dates, study type, and funding source were extracted. RESULTS: A total of 122 active PBT clinical trials were identified, with target enrollment of >42,000 patients worldwide...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068151/prognostic-impact-of-pretreatment-neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-in-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-patients-treated-with-first-line-docetaxel
#18
Consuelo Buttigliero, Chiara Pisano, Marcello Tucci, Francesca Vignani, Valentina Bertaglia, Davide Iaconis, Pamela Guglielmini, Gianmauro Numico, Giorgio V Scagliotti, Massimo Di Maio
BACKGROUND: The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), a measure of systemic inflammatory response, has been associated with poor outcome in several solid tumors, including prostate cancer. We retrospectively investigated the prognostic role of pretreatment NLR in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients treated with first-line docetaxel. METHODS: All CRPC patients treated with first-line docetaxel at two Italian institutions, with available data about baseline neutrophil and lymphocyte values, were included in this retrospective analysis...
January 9, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064545/androgen-receptor-activation-a-prospective-therapeutic-target-for-bladder-cancer
#19
Taichi Mizushima, Kathleen A Tirador, Hiroshi Miyamoto
Patients with non-muscle-invasive or muscle-invasive bladder cancer undergoing surgery and currently available conventional therapy remain having a high risk of tumor recurrence or progression, respectively. Novel targeted molecular therapy is therefore expected to improve patient outcomes. Meanwhile, substantially higher incidence of bladder cancer in men has prompted research on androgen-mediated androgen receptor (AR) signaling in this malignancy. Indeed, preclinical evidence has suggested that AR signaling plays an important role in urothelial carcinogenesis and tumor outgrowth as well as resistance to some of the currently available conventional non-surgical therapies...
January 9, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064442/tumor-derived-spheroids-relevance-to-cancer-stem-cells-and-clinical-applications
#20
REVIEW
Tatsuya Ishiguro, Hirokazu Ohata, Ai Sato, Kaoru Yamawaki, Takayuki Enomoto, Koji Okamoto
Recently, many types of in vitro three-dimensional (3D) culture systems have been developed to recapitulate the in vivo growth conditions of cancer. The cancer 3D culture methods aim to preserve the biological characteristics of original tumors better than conventional two-dimensional (2D) monolayer cultures, and include tumor-derived organoids, tumor-derived spheroids, organotypic multicellular spheroids, and multicellular tumor spheroids. The 3D culture methods differ in terms of cancer cell sources, protocols for cell handling, and the required time intervals...
January 8, 2017: Cancer Science
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