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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786795/protocols-for-studies-on-stromal-cells-in-prostate-cancer
#1
Damien A Leach, Grant Buchanan
Interactions between tumor cells and fibroblasts play a pivotal role in cancer development and progression. Indeed, the paracrine communication between these two cell types is known to have physiological effects that alter carcinogenic and metastatic potential. An often overlooked player in these interactions is the involvement of the extracellular matrix (ECM). The network of ECM proteins secreted from fibroblasts is reportedly altered with cancer initiation and progression, and in several cases has been associated with patient outcome...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786794/protocols-for-studies-on-genetically-engineered-mouse-models-in-prostate-cancer
#2
Chris W D Armstrong, Oksana Lyubomska, Melissa J LaBonte, David J J Waugh
Cancer studies have entered an era that is heavily focused on the contribution of the tumor microenvironment. For this reason, in vivo experimentation in an immunodeficient model system is no longer fit for purpose. As a consequence, numerous genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) which self-develop tumors have been developed to allow experiments to be performed in a fully immunocompetent setting. One of the most commonly used technologies is Cre-loxP recombination due to its unique ability to control target gene expression in a specified tissue type...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786793/a-method-for-prostate-and-breast-cancer-cell-spheroid-cultures-using-gelatin-methacryloyl-based-hydrogels
#3
Christoph Meinert, Christina Theodoropoulos, Travis J Klein, Dietmar W Hutmacher, Daniela Loessner
Modern tissue engineering technologies have delivered tools to recreate a cell's naturally occurring niche in vitro and to investigate normal and pathological cell-cell and cell-niche interactions. Hydrogel biomaterials mimic crucial properties of native extracellular matrices, including mechanical support, cell adhesion sites and proteolytic degradability. As such, they are applied as 3D cell culture platforms to replicate tissue-like architectures observed in vivo, allowing physiologically relevant cell behaviors...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786791/protocols-for-studies-on-tmprss2-erg-in-prostate-cancer
#4
Hubert Pakula, Douglas E Linn, Daniel R Schmidt, Marit Van Gorsel, Matthew G Vander Heiden, Zhe Li
TMPRSS2/ERG is the most common type of gene fusions found in human prostate cancer. There are two important features of TMPRSS2/ERG fusions. One is that these gene fusions lead to ectopic expression of ERG, an ETS family transcription factor, in prostate epithelial cells from the 5' control region of an androgen/estrogen dual-responsive gene, TMPRSS2; the other is that ~60% of these fusions are generated via intrachromosomal deletion of the interstitial region between TMPRSS2 and ERG. To recapitulate these important aspects of TMPRSS2/ERG fusions, we generated several TMPRSS2/ERG knockin mouse models based on the endogenous Tmprss2 locus...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786789/protocols-for-tissue-microarrays-in-prostate-cancer-studies
#5
Tatjana Vlajnic, Serenella Eppenberger-Castori, Lukas Bubendorf
Tissue microarray (TMA) technology is a method for high-throughput analysis of tissue biomarkers, commonly used in translational cancer research. TMAs allow performing a variety of in situ applications on hundreds of tissue samples simultaneously using the same protocols as for conventional slides. Thereby, precious material from patient samples remains largely preserved while costs in resources and time in laboratory processing decrease. Therefore, a TMA is a powerful tool to identify and study biomarkers that may have a potential diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive value...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786788/transplantable-animal-studies-and-whole-body-optical-imaging-in-prostate-carcinoma
#6
Geertje van der Horst, Maaike van der Mark, Henry Cheung, Gabri van der Pluijm
Current treatments of advanced prostate cancer only marginally increase overall survival and can be regarded as predominantly palliative. Hence, there is an urgent need for novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of primary tumors and, more importantly perhaps, for the prevention of tumor progression and metastasis formation. Clinically relevant preclinical models are therefore urgently needed. An ideal, clinically relevant preclinical model would mimic the genetic and phenotypic changes that occur at the different stages of human prostate cancer progression and subsequent metastasis...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786785/methods-to-study-angiogenesis-in-a-mouse-model-of-prostate-cancer
#7
Ana-Rita Pedrosa, Alexandre Trindade, António Duarte
Angiogenesis is one important hallmark of cancer progression which explains the relevance of developing methods to efficiently analyze the neo-angiogenic process. In this report we make use of the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the murine prostate (TRAMP) model, considered a good model for studying clinical prostate cancer progression, to describe in detail the methods used to study angiogenesis in this type of solid tumor development. In this report we provide step-by-step procedures on the basis of previous work in our laboratory for: the mouse urogenital sinus (UGS) collection; microdissection of the prostate; preparation of the prostatic samples for immunofluorescence (to analyze vascular density, morphology, maturation, functionality, hypoxia, and others); preparation of prostatic samples to histopathological analysis and/or immunohistochemistry; and endothelial and vascular mural cell sorting and isolation by fluorescent associated cell sorting (FACS) to further analysis (mRNA, protein, or other) or to maintain in culture...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786784/generation-of-prostate-cancer-patient-derived-xenografts-to-investigate-mechanisms-of-novel-treatments-and-treatment-resistance
#8
Hung-Ming Lam, Holly M Nguyen, Eva Corey
Treatment advances lead to survival benefits of patients with advanced prostate cancer. These treatments are highly efficacious in a subset of patients; however, similarly to other cancers, after initial responses the tumors develop resistance (acquired resistance) and the patients succumb to the disease. Furthermore, there is a subset of patients who do not respond to the treatment at all (de novo resistance). Preclinical testing using patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) has led to successful drug development, and PDXs will continue to provide valuable resources to generate clinically relevant data with translational potential...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786490/gallium-68-psma-11-pet-mr-imaging-in-patients-with-intermediate-or-high-risk-prostate-cancer
#9
Sonya Youngju Park, Claudia Zacharias, Caitlyn Harrison, Richard E Fan, Christian Kunder, Negin Hatami, Frederik Giesel, Pejman Ghanouni, Bruce Daniel, Andreas M Loening, Geoffrey A Sonn, Andrei Iagaru
Purpose To report the results of dual-time-point gallium 68 (68 Ga) prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-11 positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance (MR) imaging prior to prostatectomy in patients with intermediate- or high-risk cancer. Materials and Methods Thirty-three men who underwent conventional imaging as clinically indicated and who were scheduled for radical prostatectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection were recruited for this study. A mean dose of 4.1 mCi ± 0.7 (151.7 MBq ± 25...
May 16, 2018: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786467/bombesin-functionalized-64-cu-copper-sulfide-nanoparticles-for-targeted-imaging-of-orthotopic-prostate-cancer
#10
Huawei Cai, Fang Xie, Aditi Mulgaonkar, Lihong Chen, Xiankai Sun, Jer-Tsong Hsieh, Fangyu Peng, Rong Tian, Lin Li, Changqiang Wu, Hua Ai
AIM: To synthesize and evaluate the imaging potential of Bom-PEG-[64 Cu]CuS nanoparticles (NPs) in orothotopic prostate tumor. MATERIALS & METHODS: [64 Cu]CuS NPs were synthesized in aqueous solution by 64 CuCl2 and Na2 S reaction. Then PEG linker with or without bombesin peptide were conjugated to the surface of [64 Cu]CuS NPs to produce Bom-PEG-[64 Cu]CuS and PEG-[64 Cu]CuS NPs. These two kinds of NPs were used for testing specific uptake in prostate cancer cells in vitro and imaging of orthotopic prostate tumor in vivo...
May 22, 2018: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785515/prostate-specific-antigen-flare-induced-by-223-racl-2-in-patients-with-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#11
Angelo Castello, H A Macapinlac, E Lopci, E B Santos
PURPOSE: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) flare is a well-known phenomenon in patients with prostate cancer, but its impact during radium-223 dichloride (223 RaCl2 ) therapy is still unclear. This radioisotope has shown to improve overall survival in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). We sought to evaluate the impact of PSA flare on survival and its relation with metabolic parameters on 18 F-labeled sodium fluoride PET/CT. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of 168 patients with mCRPC (median age 69; median PSA 29...
May 21, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785140/do-additional-cores-from-cancer-suspicious-lesions-on-transrectal-ultrasound-improve-prostate-cancer-detection-including-index-tumors-over-12-core-systematic-biopsy
#12
Jung Ki Jo, Sung Kyu Hong, Seok-Soo Byun, Sang Eun Lee, Seong Jin Jeong
Objective: The efficacy of additional cores from cancer-suspicious lesions by transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) for the detection of prostate cancer (PCa) was assessed. Materials and methods: Data were collected from 4144 men who underwent systematic 12-core biopsy with no cancer-suspicious lesions (Group A: 3256 cases) or 13- or more-core (systematic 12 core + additional cores) biopsy with cancer-suspicious lesions (Group B: 888 cases) on TRUS-guided biopsy. The effect of additional biopsy cores on the cancer detection rate was investigated...
2018: Cancer Management and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785122/aloperine-executes-antitumor-effects-through-the-induction-of-apoptosis-and-cell-cycle-arrest-in-prostate-cancer-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#13
Zhixin Ling, Han Guan, Zonghao You, Can Wang, Ling Hu, Lei Zhang, Yiduo Wang, Shuqiu Chen, Bin Xu, Ming Chen
Background: Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common malignant diseases among male patients. Although androgen deprivation therapy remains the main treatment for PCa, most patients would inevitably progress to castration-resistant PCa, which is the main cause of cancer-related deaths. Thus, novel antitumor agents are urgently needed. Recent studies demonstrated that aloperine (ALO) as a natural alkaloid showed antitumor effects in other cancer types. However, the biological function and underlying mechanisms of ALO in PCa have not been investigated...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784665/srebf1-activity-is-regulated-by-an-ar-mtor-nuclear-axis-in-prostate-cancer
#14
Etienne Audet-Walsh, Mathieu Vernier, Tracey Yee, Chloe E Laflamme, Susan Li, Yonghong Chen, Vincent Giguere
Reprogramming of cellular metabolism is an important feature of prostate cancer (PCa), including altered lipid metabolism. Recently, it was observed that the nuclear fraction of mTOR is essential for the androgen-mediated metabolic reprogramming of PCa cells. Herein, it is demonstrated that the androgen receptor (AR) and mTOR bind to regulatory regions of sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 (SREBF1) to control its expression, while dual activation of these signaling pathways also promotes SREBF1 cleavage and its translocation to the nucleus...
May 21, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784633/confocal-laser-endomicroscopy-and-optical-coherence-tomography-for-the-diagnosis-of-prostate-cancer-a-needle-based-in-vivo-feasibility-study-protocol-ideal-phase-2a
#15
Abel Swaan, Christophe K Mannaerts, Matthijs Jv Scheltema, Jakko A Nieuwenhuijzen, C Dilara Savci-Heijink, Jean Jmch de la Rosette, R Jeroen A van Moorselaar, Ton G van Leeuwen, Theo M de Reijke, Daniel Martijn de Bruin
BACKGROUND: Focal therapy for prostate cancer has been proposed as an alternative treatment to whole-gland therapies in selected men to diminish side effects in localized prostate cancer. As nowadays imaging cannot offer complete prostate cancer disease characterization, multicore systematic biopsies are recommended (transrectal or transperineal). Optical imaging techniques such as confocal laser endomicroscopy and optical coherence tomography allow in vivo, high-resolution imaging. Moreover, they can provide real-time visualization and analysis of tissue and have the potential to offer additive diagnostic information...
May 21, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784192/differential-gene-expression-in-prostate-tissue-according-to-ejaculation-frequency
#16
Jennifer A Sinnott, Katherine Brumberg, Kathryn M Wilson, Ericka M Ebot, Edward L Giovannucci, Lorelei A Mucci, Jennifer R Rider
In a prospective study of 31 925 men with 18 yr of follow-up, higher ejaculation frequency (EF) throughout adulthood was associated with lower rates of prostate cancer. To further explore this association, we evaluated whole transcriptome gene expression in the prostate tissue from study participants who developed prostate cancer between 1992 and 2004 (n=157 tumor tissue, n=85 adjacent normal). We tested for trends in gene expression according to the level of EF as self-reported in 1992 for ages 20-29 yr, 40-49 yr, and the year prior to the questionnaire, 1991...
May 18, 2018: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784056/biomarker-micrornas-for-prostate-cancer-metastasis-screened-with-a-network-vulnerability-analysis-model
#17
Yuxin Lin, Feifei Chen, Li Shen, Xiaoyu Tang, Cui Du, Zhandong Sun, Huijie Ding, Jiajia Chen, Bairong Shen
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa) is a fatal malignant tumor among males in the world and the metastasis is a leading cause for PCa death. Biomarkers are therefore urgently needed to detect PCa metastatic signature at the early time. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs with the potential to be biomarkers for disease prediction. In addition, computer-aided biomarker discovery is now becoming an attractive paradigm for precision diagnosis and prognosis of complex diseases. METHODS: In this study, we identified key microRNAs as biomarkers for predicting PCa metastasis based on network vulnerability analysis...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783631/melatonin-analogue-antiproliferative-and-cytotoxic-effects-on-human-prostate-cancer-cells
#18
Angela Calastretti, Giuliana Gatti, Valeria Lucini, Silvana Dugnani, Gianfranco Canti, Francesco Scaglione, Annamaria Bevilacqua
Melatonin has been indicated as a possible oncostatic agent in different types of cancer, its antiproliferative role being demonstrated in several in vitro and in vivo experimental models of tumors. Specifically, melatonin was proven to inhibit cell growth of both androgen-dependent and independent prostate cancer cells, through various mechanisms. A number of melatonin derivatives have been developed and tested for their role in the prevention and treatment of neoplastic diseases. We recently proved the in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity of UCM 1037, a newly-synthetized melatonin analogue, on melanoma and breast cancer cells...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783591/re-concordance-of-circulating-tumor-dna-and-matched-metastatic-tissue-biopsy-in-prostate-cancer
#19
Samir S Taneja
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782605/trends-in-oncologic-hybrid-imaging
#20
REVIEW
Andreas G Wibmer, Hedvig Hricak, Gary A Ulaner, Wolfgang Weber
Hybrid imaging plays a central role in the diagnosis and management of a wide range of malignancies at all stages. In this article, we review the most pertinent historical developments, emerging clinical applications of novel radiotracers and imaging technologies, and potential implications for training and practice. This includes an overview of novel tracers for prostate, breast, and neuroendocrine tumors, assessment of tumor heterogeneity, the concept of image-guided 'biologically relevant dosing', and theranostic applications...
2018: European journal of hybrid imaging
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