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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332196/bioelectronic-modulation-of-carotid-sinus-nerve-activity-in-the-rat-a-potential-therapeutic-approach-for-type-2-diabetes
#1
Joana F Sacramento, Daniel J Chew, Bernardete F Melo, Matteo Donegá, Wesley Dopson, Maria P Guarino, Alison Robinson, Jesus Prieto-Lloret, Sonal Patel, Bradley J Holinski, Nishan Ramnarain, Victor Pikov, Kristoffer Famm, Silvia V Conde
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: A new class of treatments termed bioelectronic medicines are now emerging that aim to target individual nerve fibres or specific brain circuits in pathological conditions to repair lost function and reinstate a healthy balance. Carotid sinus nerve (CSN) denervation has been shown to improve glucose homeostasis in insulin-resistant and glucose-intolerant rats; however, these positive effects from surgery appear to diminish over time and are heavily caveated by the severe adverse effects associated with permanent loss of chemosensory function...
January 14, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331928/being-in-control-a-thematic-content-analysis-of-14-in-depth-interviews-with-2-4-dinitrophenol-users
#2
Neha Prasad Ainsworth, Elisabeth Julie Vargo, Andrea Petróczi
BACKGROUND: 2,4-Dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP) is a compound with multiple industrial purposes. Currently unlicensed for human consumption, it is used by the gym-going population for drastic, short-term body fat loss. Nonetheless, physiological mechanisms can lead to potentially fatal hyperthermia. Reported fatal incidents have caused concern and highlighted the need for intervention. Understanding decision-making leading to 2,4-DNP use alongside the perceived outgroup attitudes is vital to forming effective harm minimisation policies targeting current and potential users...
January 11, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331464/somatic-cell-count-based-selection-reduces-susceptibility-to-energy-shortage-during-early-lactation-in-a-sheep-model
#3
J Bouvier-Muller, C Allain, F Enjalbert, Y Farizon, D Portes, G Foucras, R Rupp
During the transition from late gestation to early lactation ruminants experience a negative energy balance (NEB), which is considered to increase susceptibility to mammary infections. Our previous study in 2 divergent lines of sheep selected for high and low somatic cell score (SCS) suggested an association between the response to NEB and genetic susceptibility to mastitis. Forty-eight early-lactation primiparous dairy ewes from the 2 SCS genetic lines were allocated to 2 homogeneous subgroups-an NEB group, which was energy restricted and received 60% of the energy requirements for 15 d, and a control-fed group-to obtain 4 balanced groups of 12 ewes: high-SCS positive energy balance, low-SCS positive energy balance, high-SCS NEB, and low-SCS NEB...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331301/marrow-adipose-tissue-imaging-in-humans
#4
Vibha Singhal, Miriam A Bredella
Bone strength is affected not only by bone mineral density (BMD) and bone microarchitecture but also its microenvironment. Recent studies have focused on the role of marrow adipose tissue (MAT) in the pathogenesis of bone loss. Osteoblasts and adipocytes arise from a common mesenchymal stem cell within bone marrow and many osteoporotic states, including aging, medication use, immobility, over - and undernutrition are associated with increased marrow adiposity. Advancements in imaging technology allow the non-invasive quantification of MAT...
January 10, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331050/exercise-counteracts-lipotoxicity-by-improving-lipid-turnover-and-lipid-droplet-quality
#5
Evelyn Zacharewicz, Matthijs K C Hesselink, Patrick Schrauwen
The incidence of obesity and metabolic disease, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), are rising globally. Dietary lipid over-supply leads to lipid accumulation at ectopic sites, such as skeletal muscle. Ectopic lipid storage is highly correlated with insulin resistance and T2D, likely due to a loss of metabolic flexibility - the capacity to switch between fat and glucose oxidation upon insulin stimulation - and cellular dysfunction because of lipotoxicity. However, muscle lipid levels are also elevated in endurance trained athletes, presenting a paradoxical phenotype of increased intramuscular lipids along with high insulin sensitivity - the "athletes' paradox"...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329923/different-protein-composition-of-low-calorie-diet-differently-impacts-adipokine-profile-irrespective-of-weight-loss-in-overweight-and-obese-women
#6
R Mateo-Gallego, I Lamiquiz-Moneo, S Perez-Calahorra, V Marco-Benedí, A M Bea, L Baila-Rueda, M Laclaustra, J L Peñalvo, F Civeira, A Cenarro
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: High-protein (HP) diets have shown benefits in cardiometabolic markers such as insulin or triglycerides but the responsible mechanisms are not known. We aimed to assess the effect of three energy-restricted diets with different protein contents (20%, 27%, and 35%; ∼80% coming from animal source) on plasma adipokine concentration and its association with changes in cardiometabolic markers. METHODS: Seventy-six women (BMI 32.8 ± 2.93) were randomized to one of three calorie-reduced diets, with protein, 20%, 27%, or 35%; carbohydrates, 50%, 43%, or 35%; and fat, 30%, for 3 months...
November 4, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327267/antimicrobial-peptide-gene-bdpho-responds-to-peptidoglycan-infection-and-mating-stimulation-in-oriental-fruit-fly-bactrocera-dorsalis-hendel
#7
Shi-Huo Liu, Hong-Fei Li, Yang Yang, Dong Wei, Hong-Bo Jiang, Wei Dou, Guo-Rui Yuan, Jin-Jun Wang
Phormicins belong to defensin family, which are important antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in insects. These AMPs are inducible upon challenging by immune triggers. In the present study, we identified the cDNA of a phormicin gene (BdPho) in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), a ruinous agricultural pest causing great economic losses to fruits and vegetables. The cDNA of BdPho contains a 282 bp open reading frame encoding 93 amino acid residues, and the predicted molecular weight and isoelectric point of BdPho peptide were 9...
January 11, 2018: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326031/depressive-symptoms-and-poorer-performance-on-the-stroop-task-are-associated-with-weight-gain
#8
Emma J Stinson, Jonathan Krakoff, Marci E Gluck
OBJECTIVE: Executive function impairments and depression are associated with obesity but whether they predict weight gain is unclear. METHODS: Forty-six individuals (35m, 37±10y) completed the Stroop Task, Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST), Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (IDS-SR), Physical Anhedonia Scale (PAS), and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Body composition (DXA) and fasting glucose were also measured. Data from return visits were used to assess changes in weight...
January 8, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326022/the-effects-of-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-on-eating-behaviors-and-body-weight-in-obesity-a-randomized-controlled-study
#9
Se-Hong Kim, Ju-Hye Chung, Tae-Hong Kim, Seong Hoon Lim, Youngkook Kim, Yun-Ah Lee, Sang-Wook Song
BACKGROUND: Although some studies have reported significant reductions in food cravings following repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), none have examined changes in body weight. OBJECTIVE: We conducted 2-week randomized, sham-controlled, single-blind, parallel-group trial to examine the effect of rTMS on body weight in obese patients. METHODS: Sixty obese patients (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m2) aged between 18 and 65 years were recruited...
December 1, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325772/the-association-of-snp276g-t-at-adiponectin-gene-with-insulin-resistance-and-circulating-adiponectin-in-response-to-two-different-hypocaloric-diets
#10
Daniel Antonio de Luis, Olatz Izaola, David Primo, R Aller, A Ortola, E Gómez, J J Lopez
BACKGROUND: Several adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPS) have been related with adiponectin levels and risk for obesity. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to analyze the effect of rs1501299 ADIPOQ gene polymorphism and dietary intake on total adiponectin levels and insulin resistance after two hypocaloric diets in obese subjects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A Caucasian population of 284 obese patients was enrolled in a randomized clinical trial with two hypocaloric diets (I: moderate carbohydrates vs II: low fat)...
January 8, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325733/associations-of-gbp2-gene-copy-number-variations-with-growth-traits-and-transcriptional-expression-in-chinese-cattle
#11
REVIEW
Gui-Min Zhang, Li Zheng, Hua He, Cheng-Chuang Song, Zi-Jing Zhang, Xiu-Kai Cao, Chu-Zhao Lei, Xian-Yong Lan, Xing-Lei Qi, Hong Chen, Yong-Zhen Huang
Copy number variations (CNVs) recently have been recognized as another important genetic variability followed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The guanylate binding protein 2 (GBP2) gene plays an important role in cell proliferation. This study was performed to determine the presence of GBP2 CNV (relative to Angus cattle) in 466 individuals representing six main cattle breeds from China, identify its relationship with growth, and explore the biological effects of gene expression. There were two CNV regions in the GBP2 gene, for three types, CNV1 loss type (relative to Angus cattle) was more frequent in XN than other breeds, and CNV2 loss type (relative to Angus cattle) was more frequent in XN and CDM than other breeds...
January 8, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325023/the-extending-spectrum-of-npc1-related-human-disorders-from-niemann-pick-c1-disease-to-obesity
#12
Amel Lamri, Marie Pigeyre, William S Garver, David Meyre
The Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) protein regulates the transport of cholesterol and fatty acids from late endosomes / lysosomes and has a central role in maintaining lipid homeostasis. NPC1 loss-of-function mutations in humans cause NPC1 disease, a rare autosomal-recessive lipid-storage disorder characterized by progressive and lethal neurodegeneration, liver and lung failure, due to cholesterol infiltration. In humans, genome wide association studies (GWAS) and post-GWAS reports highlight the implication of common variants in NPC1 in adult-onset obesity, body fat mass, and type 2 diabetes...
January 9, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324808/a-novel-prescription-pedometer-assisted-walking-intervention-and-weight-management-for-chinese-occupational-population
#13
Yingxiang Yu, Yiran Lv, Bin Yao, Liguang Duan, Xiaoyuan Zhang, Lan Xie, Cuiqing Chang
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Information technology has been previously used for the research and practice of health promotion. Appropriate and effective health promotion methods used by professional groups remain to be investigated. This study aimed to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of a weight management program among the Chinese occupational population using and a novel information technology exercise prescription. STUDY DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: A 3-month open, self-monitored intervention trial, involving individualized pedometer-assisted exercise prescription and a one-time targeted dietary guidance prior to exercise was conducted on the Chinese occupational population aged 18-65 years in China from 2015 to 2016...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324061/the-prediction-of-deterioration-of-nutritional-status-during-chemoradiation-therapy-in-patients-with-esophageal-cancer
#14
Sofia C M Rietveld, Jill E Witvliet-van Nierop, Karen Ottens-Oussoren, Donald L van der Peet, Marian A E de van der Schueren
Patients with esophageal cancer are at high risk of developing malnutrition during neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (CRT), which in turn is associated with postoperative morbidity. The aim of the study is to explore whether parameters of a complete pre-treatment nutritional status may predict deterioration of nutritional status during CRT in patients with esophageal cancer. In this prospective cohort study, 101 patients with esophageal cancer treated with CRT were included. Data of patient characteristics, tumor classification, performance score, %weight change, body mass index, fat (free) mass index, phase angle, handgrip strength, energy- and protein intake, and use of (additional) dietary supplements were collected...
January 11, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323266/aif-loss-deregulates-hematopoiesis-and-reveals-different-adaptive-metabolic-responses-in-bone-marrow-cells-and-thymocytes
#15
Lauriane Cabon, Audrey Bertaux, Marie-Noëlle Brunelle-Navas, Ivan Nemazanyy, Laurianne Scourzic, Laure Delavallée, Laura Vela, Mathieu Baritaud, Sandrine Bouchet, Cécile Lopez, Vu Quang Van, Kevin Garbin, Danielle Chateau, Françoise Gilard, Marika Sarfati, Thomas Mercher, Olivier A Bernard, Santos A Susin
Mitochondrial metabolism is a tightly regulated process that plays a central role throughout the lifespan of hematopoietic cells. Herein, we analyze the consequences of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS)/metabolism disorder associated with the cell-specific hematopoietic ablation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). AIF-null (AIF-/Y ) mice developed pancytopenia that was associated with hypocellular bone marrow (BM) and thymus atrophy. Although myeloid cells were relatively spared, the B-cell and erythroid lineages were altered with increased frequencies of precursor B cells, pro-erythroblasts I, and basophilic erythroblasts II...
January 11, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321946/clinical-and-radiologic-considerations-for-idiopathic-superior-mesenteric-artery-syndrome
#16
Mina S Makary, Anand Rajan, Anthony M Aquino, Suresh K Chamarthi
Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome often occurs in the setting of rapid weight loss and scoliosis corrective spinal surgery. A reduction of fat around the third part of the duodenum can predispose the duodenum to compression and obstruction by the SMA as it emerges from the abdominal aorta. In this report, we describe this underdiagnosed condition in a previously healthy young female presenting with progressive post-prandial emesis, non-specific abdominal pain, and weight loss. A critical review of this disease process is explored to highlight pathology, imaging characteristics, and essential alternative diagnostic considerations...
November 5, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320320/mr-imaging-and-cochlear-implants-with-retained-internal-magnets-reducing-artifacts-near-highly-inhomogeneous-magnetic-fields
#17
Heidi A Edmonson, Matthew L Carlson, Alice C Patton, Robert E Watson
The number of patients receiving cochlear implants and auditory brainstem implants for severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss has rapidly increased. These implants consist of an internal component implanted between the skull and the temporal scalp and an external removable speech processor unit. A small magnet within the internal component is commonly used to hold the external speech processor unit in place. Several cochlear implant models have recently received U.S. Food and Drug Administration and European Economic Area regulatory approval to allow magnetic resonance (MR) imaging examinations to be performed under certain specified conditions...
January 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319436/plasma-fatty-acids-as-markers-for-desaturase-and-elongase-activities-in-spinal-cord-injured-males
#18
Lynnette M Jones, Michael Legge
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the use of surrogate plasma fatty acid analysis to provide further insights into the underlying adiposity and the development of metabolic syndrome in men with spinal cord injury (SCI). DESIGN: Case-control, cross-sectional study. SETTING: Community-based individuals with spinal cord injury and healthy controls. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty men with SCI age, height and weight matched with 20 able-bodied controls...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318700/time-course-and-dynamics-of-obesity-related-behavioral-changes-induced-by-energy-dense-foods-in-mice
#19
Jose Espinosa-Carrasco, Aurelijus Burokas, Marta Fructuoso, Ionas Erb, Elena Martín-García, Miriam Gutiérrez-Martos, Cedric Notredame, Rafael Maldonado, Mara Dierssen
Obesity represents an important risk factor contributing to the global burden of disease. The current obesogenic environment with easy access to calorie-dense foods is fueling this obesity epidemic. However, how these foods contribute to the progression of feeding behavior changes that lead to overeating is not well understood and needs systematic assessment. Using novel automated methods for the high-throughput screening of behavior, we here examine mice meal pattern upon long-term exposure to a free-choice chocolate-mixture diet and a high-fat diet with face validity for a rapid development of obesity induced by unhealthy food regularly consumed in our societies...
January 10, 2018: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316939/dietary-fats-promote-functional-and-structural-changes-in-the-median-eminence-blood-spinal-fluid-interface-the-protective-role-for-bdnf
#20
Albina F Ramalho, Bruna Bombassaro, Nathalia R Dragano, Carina Solon, Joseane Morari, Milena Fioravante, Roberta Barbizan, Licio A Velloso, Eliana P Araujo
BACKGROUND: The consumption of large amounts of dietary fats activates an inflammatory response in the hypothalamus, damaging key neurons involved in the regulation of caloric intake and energy expenditure. It is currently unknown why the mediobasal hypothalamus is the main target of diet-induced brain inflammation. We hypothesized that dietary fats can damage the median eminence blood/spinal fluid interface. METHODS: Swiss mice were fed on a high-fat diet, and molecular and structural studies were performed employing real-time PCR, immunoblot, immunofluorescence, transmission electron microscopy, and metabolic measurements...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
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