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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805928/effects-of-dietary-fish-oil-supplementation-on-performance-meat-quality-and-cecal-fermentation-of-growing-rabbits
#1
M Rodríguez, M D Carro, V Valiente, N Formoso-Rafferty, P G Rebollar
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with fish oil on growth performance (during all fatening period), carcass characteristics and fatty acid (FA) profile of muscle and fat tissues (at slaughter), as well as cecal fermentation and ileal mucosa morphology of growing rabbits (at 30, 45, and 60 d of age). Two isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets, only differing in their fat source, were formulated and provided each to 24 does (12 per diet) and their offspring during pregnancy and lactation...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805905/standardized-ileal-digestible-amino-acids-and-digestible-energy-contents-in-high-protein-distiller-s-dried-grains-with-solubles-fed-to-growing-pigs
#2
Y Rho, C Zhu, E Kiarie, C F M de Lange
Chemical composition and, therefore, potential nutritive value of corn distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is constantly evolving as the ethanol industry innovates processing techniques. We determined standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA (Exp. 1) and DE (Exp. 2) contents in high-protein (HP; >40% on a DM basis) DDGS samples. Two HP DDGS (HP-A and HP-B) samples and 1 conventional DDGS (CON) sample were selected for this study. Three semipurified corn starch-based diets (minimum 18% CP, as-fed basis) were formulated with DDGS as the sole source of AA...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805897/effects-of-grass-silage-quality-and-level-of-feed-intake-on-enteric-methane-production-in-lactating-dairy-cows
#3
D Warner, A Bannink, B Hatew, H van Laar, J Dijkstra
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of level of feed intake and quality of ryegrass silage as well as their interaction on enteric methane (CH) emission from dairy cows. In a randomized block design, 56 lactating dairy cows received a diet of grass silage, corn silage, and a compound feed meal (70:10:20 on DM basis). Treatments consisted of 4 grass silage qualities prepared from grass harvested from leafy through late heading stage, and offered to dairy cows at 96 ± 2.4 (mean ± SEM) days in milk (namely, high intake) and 217 ± 2...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804941/proteomic-analysis-to-unravel-the-effect-of-heat-stress-on-gene-expression-and-milk-synthesis-in-bovine-mammary-epithelial-cells
#4
Lian Li, Yiru Wang, Chengmin Li, Genlin Wang
Heat stress can play a negative effect on milk yield and composition of dairy cattle, leading to immeasurable economic loss. The basic components of the mammary gland are the alveoli; these alveolar mammary epithelial cells reflect the milk producing ability of dairy cows. In this study, we exposed bovine mammary epithelial cells to heat stress and compared them to a control group using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation combined with liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry...
August 14, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804449/loss-of-leptin-induced-modulation-of-hippocampal-synaptic-trasmission-and-signal-transduction-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#5
Marco Mainardi, Matteo Spinelli, Federico Scala, Andrea Mattera, Salvatore Fusco, Marcello D'Ascenzo, Claudio Grassi
Hippocampal plasticity is triggered by a variety of stimuli including sensory inputs, neurotrophins and inflammation. Leptin, whose primary function is to regulate food intake and energy expenditure, has been recently shown to affect hippocampal neurogenesis and plasticity. Interestingly, mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) exhibit impaired hippocampal function, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. To address this issue, we compared leptin responsiveness of hippocampal neurons in control and HFD-fed mice by combining single-cell electrophysiology and biochemical assays...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803585/performance-and-financial-consequences-of-stillbirth-in-holstein-dairy-cattle
#6
A Mahnani, A Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, H Keshavarzi
Stillbirth is an economically important trait on dairy farms. Knowledge of the consequences of, and the economic losses associated with stillbirth can help the producer when making management decisions. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of stillbirth on productive and reproductive performance as well as financial losses due to stillbirth incidence in Iranian Holstein dairy farms. Economic and performance data were collected from nine Holstein dairy farms in Isfahan and Khorasan provinces of Iran from March 2008 to December 2013...
August 14, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803396/early-regression-of-carotid-intima-media-thickness-after-bariatric-surgery-and-its-relation-to-serum-leptin-reduction
#7
G Lambert, Marcelo Miranda de Oliveira Lima, A C Felici, J C Pareja, A C J Vasques, F S Novaes, S Rodovalho, F F P Hirsch, J R Matos-Souza, Élinton A Chaim, B Geloneze
PURPOSE: Bariatric surgery (BS) promotes carotid intima-media thickness (C-IMT) regression as early as 6 months post-surgery. To verify whether C-IMT regression occurs even earlier, we aimed at the effect of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) and biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) on C-IMT 1-2 months and 12 months post-surgery. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Prospective trial. BS was performed on 109 patients either with (RYGBP = 42; BDP = 40) or without type 2 diabetes (RYGBP = 27)...
August 12, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802901/effect-of-vertical-sleeve-gastrectomy-on-alcohol-consumption-and-preferences-in-dietary-obese-rats-and-mice-a-plausible-role-for-altered-ghrelin-signaling
#8
Elise R Orellana, Catherine Jamis, Nelli Horvath, Andras Hajnal
Vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) are the most common surgical options for the treatment of obesity and metabolic disorder. Whereas RYGB may result in greater and more durable weight loss, recent clinical and pre-clinical studies in rats have raised concerns that RYGB surgery may increase risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD). In contrast, recent clinical reports suggest a lesser risk for AUD following VSG, although no preclinical studies have been done to confirm that. Therefore, the present study sought to determine the effects of VSG on ethanol intake and preferences in rodent models using protocols similar to those previously used in animal studies for RYGB...
August 9, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802792/fat-mass-fat-free-mass-and-resting-metabolic-rate-in-weight-stable-sleeve-gastrectomy-patients-compared-with-weight-stable-nonoperated-patients
#9
Luigi Schiavo, Giuseppe Scalera, Vincenzo Pilone, Gabriele De Sena, Antonio Iannelli, Alfonso Barbarisi
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that body composition and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in weight-stable patients after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and duodenal switch is similar to that of nonoperated individuals within the same body mass index (BMI) interval. Currently, data concerning fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM), and RMR on weight-stable patients after sleeve gastrectomy (SG) are lacking. OBJECTIVES: To assess FM, FFM, and RMR, in a selected and homogenous population of weight-stable SG patients (WSSG) and compare them with those obtained from healthy normal weight-stable nonoperated (WSNO) volunteers controls of similar sex, age, and BMI...
July 1, 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802007/characterization-of-intrinsic-material-properties-of-a-model-lipoproteic-emulsion-gel-by-oscillatory-and-creep-compliance-rheometry
#10
Kyle S Okada, Wan-Yuan Kuo, Youngsoo Lee
The effects of varying formulation and processing parameters on rheological properties in a model lipid/protein-based emulsion gel were studied. Heat-set model lipoproteic emulsion gels were prepared with varying levels of protein, lipid, and NaCl contents and high pressure homogenization treatments. Small deformation oscillatory rheometry, creep compliance, and pore size analysis experiments were used to characterize intrinsic structural properties, matrix interactions, and microstructure. Creep compliance behavior of the gel system was successfully modeled by a four-component Burgers model...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Texture Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801068/lepr-polymorphism-may-affect-energy-balance-during-weight-loss-among-brazilians-obese-adolescents
#11
Flávia Campos Corgosinho, Sandro Soares Almeida, Lian Tock, João Bosco Pesquero, Ronaldo Carvalho Araújo, Ana Paula Grotti Clemente, Bárbara Dal'Molin Netto, Raquel Munhoz da Silveira Campos, Deborah Cristina Landi Masquio, Joana Pereira de Carvalho Ferreira, Priscila de Lima Sanches, Aline de Piano Ganen, Marcelo Macedo Rogero, Lila Missae Oyama, Sergio Tufik, Marco Túlio de Mello, Ana Raimunda Dâmaso
OBJECTIVE: Leptin is an adipokine released mainly by adipose tissue, with many functions including regulation of energy balance. However, little is known about the effect of LEPR polymorphism on orexigenic and anorexigenic neuropeptides. Thus, the aim of the present study is to verify the influence of LEPR polymorphism (rs2767485) on serum orexigenic (NPY, MCH and AgRP) and anorexigenic (Leptin and α-MSH) neuropeptides levels among obese adolescents submitted to 1year of multicomponent weight loss therapy...
August 2, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800398/a-13-week-randomized-pilot-trial-of-a-low-glycemic-load-diet-and-lifestyle-modification-program-combining-low-glycemic-load-protein-shakes-and-targeted-nutraceuticals-improved-weight-loss-and-cardio-metabolic-risk-factors-over-a-low-glycemic-load-diet-alone
#12
Clinton J Dahlberg, Joseph J Ou, John G Babish, Joseph J Lamb, Sarah Eliason, Holly Brabazon, Wei Gao, Mohan R Kaadige, Matthew L Tripp
An open label, randomized, exploratory study comprising 44 healthy, overweight subjects with cardio-metabolic syndrome (CMS) risk factors was conducted to assess the safety, tolerability and efficacy of a proprietary lifestyle modification program without (DIET) and with (PROG) targeted nutraceutical supplementation including soy, pea and whey proteins, phytosterols, antioxidants, probiotics, fish oil and berberine over 13-weeks. Key metrics were recorded at baseline, weeks 9 and 13. For DIET and PROG compliance was 85% and 86%, respectively, with no adverse events related to the diet or supplements...
August 11, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796827/impact-of-ghrelin-on-body-composition-and-muscle-function-in-a-long-term-rodent-model-of-critical-illness
#13
Neil E Hill, Kevin G Murphy, Saima Saeed, Rahul Phadke, Darren Chambers, Duncan R Wilson, Stephen J Brett, Mervyn Singer
BACKGROUND: Patients with multiple injuries or sepsis requiring intensive care treatment invariably develop a catabolic state with resultant loss of lean body mass, for which there are currently no effective treatments. Recovery can take months and mortality is high. We hypothesise that treatment with the orexigenic and anti-inflammatory gastric hormone, ghrelin may attenuate the loss of body mass following critical illness and improve recovery. METHODS: Male Wistar rats received an intraperitoneal injection of the fungal cell wall derivative zymosan to induce a prolonged peritonitis and consequent critical illness...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796017/sarcopenia-prevalence-and-impact-on-operative-and-oncologic-outcomes-in-the-multimodal-management-of-locally-advanced-esophageal-cancer
#14
Jessie A Elliott, Suzanne L Doyle, Conor F Murphy, Sinead King, Emer M Guinan, Peter Beddy, Narayanasamy Ravi, John V Reynolds
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article was to study the prevalence and significance of sarcopenia in the multimodal management of locally advanced esophageal cancer (LAEC), and to assess its independent impact on operative and oncologic outcomes. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Sarcopenia in cancer may confer negative outcomes, but its prevalence and impact on modern multimodal regimens for LAEC have not been systematically studied. METHODS: Two hundred fifty-two consecutive patients were studied...
August 8, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795443/effect-of-conjugated-linoleic-acids-and-omega-3-fatty-acids-with-or-without-resistance-training-on-muscle-mass-in-high-fat-diet-fed-middle-aged-mice
#15
Sang-Rok Lee, Andy V Khamoui, Edward Jo, Michael C Zourdos, Lynn B Panton, Michael J Ormsbee, Jeong-Su Kim
This study investigated the effects of 20 weeks of combined conjugated linoleic acid/omega-3 fatty acid (n-3) administration independently or combined with resistance exercise training (RET) muscle in middle-aged mice consuming a high-fat diet (HFD). Nine-month-old C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned into four experimental groups (H: high-fat diet, HE: H + RET, HCN: H + CLA/n-3, and HECN: H + CLA/n3 + RET). Body composition and functional capacity were assessed at pre- and post-intervention. Muscle tissues were collected at 14 months of age...
August 10, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794211/dietary-whole-egg-consumption-attenuates-body-weight-gain-and-is-more-effective-than-supplemental-cholecalciferol-in-maintaining-vitamin-d-balance-in-type-2-diabetic-rats
#16
Cassondra J Saande, Samantha K Jones, Kaylee E Hahn, Carter H Reed, Matthew J Rowling, Kevin L Schalinske
Background: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterized by vitamin D insufficiency owing to excessive urinary loss of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(OH)D]. We previously reported that a diet containing dried whole egg, a rich source of vitamin D, was effective at maintaining circulating 25(OH)D concentrations in rats with T2D. Furthermore, whole egg consumption reduced body weight gain in rats with T2D.Objective: This study was conducted to compare whole egg consumption with supplemental cholecalciferol with respect to vitamin D balance, weight gain, and body composition in rats with T2D...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794207/moderate-walking-enhances-the-effects-of-an-energy-restricted-diet-on-fat-mass-loss-and-serum-insulin-in-overweight-and-obese-adults-in-a-12-week-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Bernadette Kleist, Ursel Wahrburg, Peter Stehle, Ralph Schomaker, Andreas Greiwing, Birgit Stoffel-Wagner, Sarah Egert
Background: Increased physical activity may be advantageous for weight loss.Objective: We investigated the effects of an energy-restricted diet with and without moderate walking on body weight, body composition, resting energy expenditure (REE), and endocrine and cardiometabolic risk variables in overweight and obese participants.Methods: A 12-wk, randomized, 2-arm, parallel, controlled, energy-restricted (500-800 kcal/d) dietary intervention study was conducted in 82 men and women [mean baseline characteristics: age, 39...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794154/both-brown-adipose-tissue-and-skeletal-muscle-thermogenesis-processes-are-activated-during-mild-to-severe-cold-adaptation-in-mice
#18
Naresh C Bal, Sushant Singh, Felipe C G Reis, Santosh K Maurya, Sunil Pani, Leslie A Rowland, Muthu Periasamy
Thermogenesis is an important homeostatic mechanism, essential for survival and normal physiological functions in mammals. Both brown adipose tissue (BAT) (i.e. uncoupling protein 1 [UCP1]-based) and skeletal muscle (i.e. sarcolipin [SLN]-based) thermogenesis processes play important roles in temperature homeostasis, but their relative contributions differ from small to large mammals. In this study, we investigated the functional interplay between skeletal muscle and BAT-based thermogenesis under mild versus severe cold adaptation employing UCP1-/- and SLN-/- mice...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792488/effect-of-lactobacillus-on-body-weight-and-body-fat-in-overweight-subjects-a-systematic-review-of-randomized-controlled-clinical-trials
#19
REVIEW
L Crovesy, M Ostrowski, D M T P Ferreira, E L Rosado, M Soares-Mota
Gut microbiota is important for maintaining body weight. Modulation of gut microbiota by probiotics may result in weight loss and thus help in obesity treatment. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of Lactobacillus on weight loss and/or fat mass in overweight adults. A search was performed on the Medline (PubMed) and Scopus electronic databases using the search terms: 'probiotics', 'Lactobacillus, 'obesity', 'body weight changes', 'weight loss', 'overweight', 'abdominal obesity', 'body composition', 'body weight', 'body fat' and 'fat mass'...
July 10, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791737/bone-marrow-fat-changes-after-gastric-bypass-surgery-are-associated-with-loss-of-bone-mass
#20
Tiffany Y Kim, Ann V Schwartz, Xiaojuan Li, Kaipin Xu, Dennis M Black, Dimitry M Petrenko, Lygia Stewart, Stanley J Rogers, Andrew M Posselt, Jonathan T Carter, Dolores M Shoback, Anne L Schafer
Bone marrow fat is a unique fat depot that may regulate bone metabolism. Marrow fat is increased in states of low bone mass, severe underweight, and diabetes. However, longitudinal effects of weight loss and improved glucose homeostasis on marrow fat are unclear, as is the relationship between marrow fat and bone mineral density (BMD) changes. We hypothesized that after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery, marrow fat changes are associated with BMD loss. We enrolled 30 obese women, stratified by diabetes status...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
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