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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340516/markers-of-dietary-protein-intake-are-associated-with-successful-weight-loss-in-the-pounds-lost-trial
#1
G A Bray, D H Ryan, W Johnson, C M Champagne, C M Johnson, J Rood, D A Williamson, F M Sacks
To assess the association of markers for dietary protein intake, measures of dietary adherence and demographic variables with weight loss in the POUNDS Lost study over the first 6 months and again between 6 and 24 months using data from those who completed each period. This is a secondary analysis of pooled data on completers assigned to one of four diets: 65%C/15%P/20%F (AP/LF), 55%C/25%P/20%F (HP/LF), 45%C/15%P/40%F (AP/HF) or 35%C/25%P40%F (HP/HF) in the POUNDS Lost study. Urinary nitrogen excretion, dietary adherence measured by 24-h recall and attendance at sessions, age (above and below 50 years), gender, race/ethnicity and activity by pedometry were analysed...
March 24, 2017: Clinical Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340152/sarcopenia-and-relationships-between-muscle-mass-measured-glomerular-filtration-rate-and-physical-function-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-stages-3-5
#2
Yunan Zhou, Matthias Hellberg, Philippa Svensson, Peter Höglund, Naomi Clyne
Background.: Sarcopenia and poor physical function are common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Our aim was to investigate the relationships between muscle mass and measured glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and between muscle mass and strength and balance, respectively, in patients with CKD stages 3-5. Methods.: This is a baseline data analysis of a randomized controlled clinical trial. A total of 148 adult patients with an estimated GFR <30 mL/min/1...
March 1, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340004/prevalence-of-malnutrition-and-validation-of-bioelectrical-impedance-analysis-for-the-assessment-of-body-composition-in-patients-with-systemic-sclerosis
#3
Moon J Spanjer, Irene E M Bultink, Marian A E de van der Schueren, Alexandre E Voskuyl
Objectives.: The aims were to assess the prevalence of malnutrition and to validate bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) against whole-body DXA for the assessment of body composition in patients with SSc. Methods.: Malnutrition was defined as BMI <18.5 kg/m 2 or unintentional weight loss >10% in combination with a fat-free mass index (FFMI) <15 kg/m 2 for women or <17 kg/m 2 for men or BMI <20.0 kg/m 2 (age <70 years) or <22 kg/m 2 (age >70 years)...
March 7, 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334911/mertk-rs4374383-variant-predicts-incident-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-diabetes-role-of-mononuclear-cell-activation-and-adipokine-response-to-dietary-fat
#4
Giovanni Musso, Maurizio Cassader, Franco De Michieli, Elena Paschetta, Silvia Pinach, Francesca Saba, Daria Bongiovanni, Luciana Framarin, Mara Berrutti, Nicola Leone, Stefania Corvisieri, Renato Parente, Federica Molinaro, Antonio Sircana, Bo Simona, Roberto Gambino
The loss-of-function rs4374383 G>A variant in Myeloid-epithelial-reproductive Tyrosine Kinase (MERTK) gene has been linked to hepatic fibrosis in chronic liver diseases. MERTK is expressed by immune and non-immune cells involved in inflammation, metabolism and vascular homeostasis. We assessed the impact of MERTK rs4374383 G>A variant on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) incidence and severity and on glucose and lipid metabolism.We followed-up 305 healthy nonobese nondiabetic, metabolic syndrome-free insulin sensitive participants in a population-based study, characterized for MERTK G>A polymorphism, adipokine profile and inflammatory markers...
March 8, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333151/fto-is-required-for-myogenesis-by-positively-regulating-mtor-pgc-1%C3%AE-pathway-mediated-mitochondria-biogenesis
#5
Xiaobo Wang, Ning Huang, Min Yang, Dandan Wei, Haoran Tai, Xiaojuan Han, Hui Gong, Jiao Zhou, Jianqiong Qin, Xiawei Wei, Honghan Chen, Tingting Fang, Hengyi Xiao
Global germ line loss of fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO) gene results in both the reduction of fat mass and lean mass in mice. The role of FTO in adipogenesis has been proposed, however, that in myogenesis has not. Skeletal muscle is the main component of body lean mass, so its connection with FTO physiologic significance need to be clarified. Here, we assessed the impact of FTO on murine skeletal muscle differentiation by in vitro and in vivo experiments. We found that FTO expression increased during myoblasts differentiation, while the silence of FTO inhibited the differentiation; in addition, skeletal muscle development was impaired in skeletal muscle FTO-deficient mice...
March 23, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333140/metabolic-and-molecular-insights-into-an-essential-role-of-nicotinamide-phosphoribosyltransferase
#6
Li Q Zhang, Leon Van Haandel, Min Xiong, Peixin Huang, Daniel P Heruth, Charlie Bi, Roger Gaedigk, Xun Jiang, Ding-You Li, Gerald Wyckoff, Dmitry N Grigoryev, Li Gao, Linheng Li, Min Wu, J Steven Leeder, Shui Qing Ye
Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is a pleiotropic protein implicated in the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome, aging, cancer, coronary heart diseases, diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, obesity, rheumatoid arthritis, and sepsis. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of NAMPT in these physiological and pathological processes are not fully understood. Here, we provide experimental evidence that a Nampt gene homozygous knockout (Nampt(-/-)) resulted in lethality at an early stage of mouse embryonic development and death within 5-10 days in adult mice accompanied by a 25...
March 23, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332301/a-randomized-trial-comparing-gliclazide-liraglutide-and-metformin-effects-on-diabetes-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#7
Wenhuan Feng, Caixia Gao, Yan Bi, Min Wu, Ping Li, Shanmei Shen, Wei Chen, Tingting Yin, Dalong Zhu
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of gliclazide, liraglutide, and metformin in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: Eighty-seven subjects were randomized to receive liraglutide, metformin, or gliclazide for 24 weeks. Primary outcomes included hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels, intrahepatic fat (IHF) content, and liver function. RESULTS: HbA1c levels and IHF content reduced after treatment in the three groups...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330953/your-mitochondria-are-what-you-eat-a-high-fat-or-a-high-sucrose-diet-eliminates-metabolic-flexibility-in-isolated-mitochondria-from-rat-skeletal-muscle
#8
Wenche Jørgensen, Kasper A Rud, Ole H Mortensen, Lis Frandsen, Niels Grunnet, Bjørn Quistorff
Extreme diets consisting of either high fat (HF) or high sucrose (HS) may lead to insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, often associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. However, it is not known if these diets alter normal interactions of pyruvate and fatty acid oxidation at the level of the mitochondria. Here, we report that rat muscle mitochondria does show the normal Randle-type fat-carbohydrate interaction seen in vivo. The mechanism behind this metabolic flexibility at the level of the isolated mitochondria is a regulation of the flux-ratio: pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH)/β-oxidation to suit the actual substrate availability, with the PDH flux as the major point of regulation...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330732/racial-ethnic-differences-in-weight-loss-strategies-among-us-adults-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-2007-2012
#9
Becky Marquez, Rosenda Murillo
BACKGROUND: Dieting, exercising, and seeking professional help have been associated with intentional weight loss among adults. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the use of diet (eg, ate less, ate less fat, or switched to low-calorie foods), exercise, diet and exercise, and professional help (eg, weight-loss program or prescribed diet pills) for weight loss among non-Hispanic whites, Mexican Americans, and non-Hispanic blacks. DESIGN: Cross-sectional data from the 2007-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used...
March 15, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329121/very-low-calorie-diets-for-weight-loss-in-obese-older-adults-a-randomized-trial
#10
Cilla J Haywood, Luke A Prendergast, Katrina Purcell, Lauren Le Fevre, Wen Kwang Lim, Mary Galea, Joseph Proietto
Background: Obesity contributes to disability in older adults, and this is offset by weight loss and exercise. Very Low Calorie Diets (VLCDs) achieve rapid weight loss; however, these have not been rigorously evaluated in older people. Methods: A randomized trial was conducted from August 2012 through December 2015. The intervention was 12 weeks of thrice weekly exercise combined with either healthy eating advice (Ex/HE), hypocaloric diet (Ex/Diet), or VLCD (Ex/VLCD)...
February 20, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328638/complications-after-reduction-mammaplasty-a-comparison-of-wise-pattern-inferior-pedicle-and-vertical-scar-superomedial-pedicle
#11
Adeyemi A Ogunleye, Ofelia Leroux, Norman Morrison, Aviva B Preminger
Reduction mammaplasty is a commonly-performed procedure among plastic surgeons. Although several methods exist, the Wise pattern/inferior pedicle (IP) technique is the most widely used. The vertical scar/superomedial pedicle (SP) technique has gained acceptance for its shorter scar and more durable projection results, but some hesitation remains with its use in larger volume reductions.The incidence of complications in 124 consecutively performed breast reductions (246 breasts) at a single institution using either the Wise pattern/IP technique or vertical scar/SP technique, as well as risk factors associated with them, was determined...
March 21, 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325338/physicochemical-properties-and-antidiabetic-effects-of-a-polysaccharide-from-corn-silk-in-high-fat-diet-and-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mice
#12
Yuxiang Pan, Cong Wang, Zhongqin Chen, Weiwei Li, Guoqi Yuan, Haixia Chen
This study aimed to investigate the physicochemical properties and antidiabetic effects of a polysaccharide obtained from corn silk (PCS2). PCS2 was isolated and the physicochemical properties were characterized. The hypoglycemic effects were determined using the high-fat diet and streptozocin induced type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM) insulin resistance mice. The results showed that PCS2 was a heteropolysaccharide with the average molecular weight of 45.5kDa. PCS2 was composed of d-galactose, d-mannose, d-(+)-glucose, d-(+)-xylose, l-arabinose and l-rhamnose...
May 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325141/effect-of-intranasal-administration-of-galanin-like-peptide-galp-on-body-weight-and-hepatic-lipids-accumulation-in-mice-with-diet-induced-obesity
#13
Satoshi Hirako, Nobuhiro Wada, Haruaki Kageyama, Fumiko Takenoya, Hyounju Kim, Yuzuru Iizuka, Akiyo Matsumoto, Mai Okabe, Seiji Shioda
Galanin-like peptide (GALP) is a neuropeptide involved in the regulation of food intake behavior, body weight and energy metabolism. In previous studies, we demonstrated that the intranasal administration of GALP has weight loss effects, although the mechanism of this action was not clarified. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the functional significance of GALP on lipid metabolism in the liver. Mice were fed a high fat diet to cause diet-induced obesity (DIO) and then administered GALP intranasally for 2 weeks (experimental), or vehicle (control)...
March 20, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324870/effects-of-long-spray-chilling-on-water-pocket-development-in-ribeyes
#14
A S de Mello, T P Ringkob, Y Yeh
Water Pocket (WP) is a defect on beef that may lead to significant economic losses. Our hypothesis is that longer spray-chilling time increases WP incidence on ribeyes (M. longissimus thoracis). Ribeyes (28,801) were visually evaluated for the presence of WP after 24 or 72h of spray chilling. Additionally, 252 beef sides were evaluated prior to chilling to predict WP development after 24h of spray chilling. Also, the 12th rib fat thickness was measured on 313 sides and the sides were assigned to two categories of WP or no WP to evaluate fat thickness as an indicator for WP...
March 11, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323952/randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-mufa-or-fiber-rich-diet-on-hepatic-fat-in-pre-diabetes
#15
Isabel Errazuriz, Simmi Dube, Michael Slama, Roberto Visentin, Sunita Nayar, Helen O'Connor, Claudio Cobelli, Swapan Kumar Das, Ananda Basu, Walter Karl Kremers, John Port, Rita Basu
Context: Increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and prediabetes worldwide has been attributed, at least in part, to a modern lifestyle, in particular, to an unhealthy diet. Objective: To evaluate whether 12 weeks of high MUFA or fiber-rich weight maintenance diet lowers hepatic fat and improves glucose tolerance in people with prediabetes. Design: Subjects underwent a [6, 6-2H2] labeled 75 g oral glucose tolerance test to estimate hepatic insulin sensitivity (Siliver) along with measurement of liver fat fraction (LFF) using magnetic resonance spectroscopy before and after intervention...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323951/assessing-energy-requirements-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-comparison-against-doubly-labeled-water
#16
Nicholas T Broskey, Monica C Klempel, L Anne Gilmore, Elizabeth F Sutton, Abby D Altazan, Jeffrey H Burton, Eric Ravussin, Leanne M Redman
Context: Weight loss is prescribed to offset the deleterious consequences of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), but a successful intervention requires an accurate assessment of energy requirements. Objective: Describe energy requirements in women with PCOS and evaluate common prediction equations compared to doubly-labeled water (DLW). Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Academic research center. Participants: Twenty-eight weight-stable women with PCOS completed a 14-day DLW study along with measures of body composition, resting metabolic rate, and physical activity assessment by accelerometry...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323920/perinatal-exposure-to-low-dose-bisphenol-a-bpa-disrupts-the-structural-and-functional-development-of-the-hypothalamic-feeding-circuitry
#17
Harry MacKay, Zachary R Patterson, Alfonso Abizaid
Bisphenol-A (BPA) is a component of polycarbonate and other plastics to which humans are regularly exposed at low levels. BPA is characterized as an endocrine disruptor due to observations of its estrogenic activity in various experimental models. We have previously shown evidence of disrupted hypothalamic feeding circuitry and leptin sensitivity in adult BPA-exposed animals subject to a high-fat diet, but because these animals were already exhibiting a diet-induced obese phenotype, we could not rule out the possibility that these observations were simply consequences of the obesity, not a pre-existing phenotype produced by BPA exposure...
February 7, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323025/ability-to-predict-resting-energy-expenditure-with-six-equations-compared-to-indirect-calorimetry-in-octogenarian-men
#18
Mikael Karlsson, Erika Olsson, Wulf Becker, Brita Karlström, Tommy Cederholm, Per Sjögren
The accuracy of predictive equations for calculating resting energy expenditure (REE) in elderly people has been questioned. Aging is associated with progressive declines in REE, which partly is explained by loss of fat free mass (FFM). Against this background we aimed to identify the most accurate predictive equation for REE in octogenarian men, taking body composition into account and using indirect calorimetry as reference value. REE was measured in 22 men (mean age 82.6±0.3years) and compared with six predictive equations: two based on FFM and four based on body weight, height and/or age...
March 16, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320672/spatial-analysis-of-multichannel-surface-emg-in-hemiplegic-stroke
#19
Ghulam Rasool, Babak Afsharipour, Nina Suresh, William Z Rymer
We investigated spatial activation patterns of upper extremity muscles during isometric force generation in both intact persons and in hemispheric stroke survivors. We used a 128-channel surface electromyogram (EMG) grid to record the electrical activity of biceps brachii muscles during these contractions. EMG data were processed to develop 2-dimensional root mean square (RMS) maps of muscle activity. Our objective was to determine whether motor impairments following stroke were associated with changes in the muscle activity maps and in the spatial distribution of muscular activation...
March 15, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320464/impact-of-different-dietary-approaches-on-glycemic-control-and-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#20
Lukas Schwingshackl, Anna Chaimani, Georg Hoffmann, Carolina Schwedhelm, Heiner Boeing
BACKGROUND: Dietary advice is one of the cornerstones in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The American Diabetes Association recommended a hypocaloric diet for overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes in order to induce weight loss. However, there is limited evidence on the optimal approaches to control hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes patients. The aim of the present study is to assess the comparative efficacy of different dietary approaches on glycemic control and blood lipids in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in a systematic review including a standard pairwise and network meta-analysis of randomized trials...
March 20, 2017: Systematic Reviews
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