Read by QxMD icon Read


Alexandre Hassanin, Nicolas Nesi, Julie Marin, Blaise Kadjo, Xavier Pourrut, Éric Leroy, Guy-Crispin Gembu, Prescott Musaba Akawa, Carine Ngoagouni, Emmanuel Nakouné, Manuel Ruedi, Didier Tshikung, Célestin Pongombo Shongo, Céline Bonillo
Both Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus were detected in several fruit bat species of the family Pteropodidae, suggesting that this taxon plays a key role in the life cycle of filoviruses. After four decades of Zaire Ebolavirus (ZEBOV) outbreaks in Central Africa, the virus was detected for the first time in West Africa in 2014. To better understand the role of fruit bats as potential reservoirs and circulating hosts between Central and West Africa, we examine here the phylogeny and comparative phylogeography of Pteropodidae...
October 13, 2016: Comptes Rendus Biologies
P Gale
The host reservoir of Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) remains elusive. One suggestion is that EBOV emerges in mammals when the precursor virus jumps from mayflies (or other riverine insects) to insectivorous bats. However, this does not fit with the current view that filoviruses cannot infect arthropods. Here, it is first argued that the evidence that arthropods are refractory is not definitive. Second, it is proposed that a combination of filovirus filament length and the high temperature (~42°C) experienced by an insect virus ingested by a flying bat, together with the large number of insects eaten by bats (e...
September 26, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Emily P Thi, Amy C H Lee, Joan B Geisbert, Raul Ursic-Bedoya, Krystle N Agans, Marjorie Robbins, Daniel J Deer, Karla A Fenton, Andrew S Kondratowicz, Ian MacLachlan, Thomas W Geisbert, Chad E Mire
Although significant progress has been made in developing therapeutics against Zaire ebolavirus, these therapies do not protect against other Ebola species such as Sudan ebolavirus (SUDV). Here, we describe an RNA interference therapeutic comprising siRNA targeting the SUDV VP35 gene encapsulated in lipid nanoparticle (LNP) technology with increased potency beyond formulations used in TKM-Ebola clinical trials. Twenty-five rhesus monkeys were challenged with a lethal dose of SUDV. Twenty animals received siRNA-LNP beginning at 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 days post-challenge...
2016: Nature Microbiology
Jolie Kaner, Sarah Schaack
Near the end of 2013, an outbreak of Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) began in Guinea, subsequently spreading to neighboring Liberia and Sierra Leone. As this epidemic grew, important public health questions emerged about how and why this outbreak was so different from previous episodes. This review provides a synthetic synopsis of the 2014-15 outbreak, with the aim of understanding its unprecedented spread. We present a summary of the history of previous epidemics, describe the structure and genetics of the ebolavirus, and review our current understanding of viral vectors and the latest treatment practices...
2016: Globalization and Health
Shao-Ru Wang, Qiu-Yan Zhang, Jia-Qi Wang, Xing-Yi Ge, Yan-Yan Song, Ya-Fen Wang, Xiao-Dan Li, Bo-Shi Fu, Guo-Hua Xu, Bo Shu, Peng Gong, Bo Zhang, Tian Tian, Xiang Zhou
In the present study, our bioinformatics analysis first reveals the existence of a conserved guanine-rich sequence within the Zaire ebolavirus L gene. Using various methods, we show that this sequence tends to fold into G-quadruplex RNA. TMPyP4 treatment evidently inhibits L gene expression at the RNA level. Moreover, the mini-replicon assay demonstrates that TMPyP4 effectively inhibits the artificial Zaire ebolavirus mini-genome and is a more potent inhibitor than ribavirin. Although TMPyP4 treatment reduced the replication of the mutant mini-genome when G-quadruplex formation was abolished in the L gene, its inhibitory effect was significantly alleviated compared with wild-type...
September 22, 2016: Cell Chemical Biology
Robert W Cross, Matthew L Boisen, Molly M Millett, Diana S Nelson, Darin Oottamasathien, Jessica N Hartnett, Abigal B Jones, Augustine Goba, Mambu Momoh, Mohamed Fullah, Zachary A Bornholdt, Marnie L Fusco, Dafna M Abelson, Shunichiro Oda, Bethany L Brown, Ha Pham, Megan M Rowland, Krystle N Agans, Joan B Geisbert, Megan L Heinrich, Peter C Kulakosky, Jeffrey G Shaffer, John S Schieffelin, Brima Kargbo, Momoh Gbetuwa, Sahr M Gevao, Russell B Wilson, Erica Ollmann Saphire, Kelly R Pitts, Sheik Humarr Khan, Donald S Grant, Thomas W Geisbert, Luis M Branco, Robert F Garry
BACKGROUND:  Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a severe viral illness caused by Ebola virus (EBOV). The 2013-2016 EVD outbreak in West Africa is the largest recorded, with >11 000 deaths. Development of the ReEBOV Antigen Rapid Test (ReEBOV RDT) was expedited to provide a point-of-care test for suspected EVD cases. METHODS:  Recombinant EBOV viral protein 40 antigen was used to derive polyclonal antibodies for RDT and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay development...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Chad E Mire, Joan B Geisbert, Krystle N Agans, Emily P Thi, Amy C H Lee, Karla A Fenton, Thomas W Geisbert
BACKGROUND:  Convalescent serum and blood were used to treat patients during outbreaks of Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV) infection in 1976 and 1995, with inconclusive results. During the recent 2013-2016 West African epidemic, serum/plasma from survivors of ZEBOV infection was used to treat patients in the affected countries and several repatriated patients. The effectiveness of this strategy remains unknown. METHODS:  Nine rhesus monkeys were experimentally infected with ZEBOV-Makona...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Todd Cutts, Allen Grolla, Shane Jones, Bradley W M Cook, Xiangguo Qiu, Steven S Theriault
Personnel deployed to remote areas during infectious disease outbreaks have limited access to mechanical and chemical inactivation resources. The inactivation of infectious agents present in diagnostic samples is critical to ensure the safety of personnel and the containment of the disease. We evaluated the efficacy of thermal inactivation (exposure to 56°C for 1 hour) and chemical inactivation with 0.5% Tween-20 against a high titer of Ebola virus (species Zaire ebolavirus) variant Makona in spiked human serum samples...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Toni Rieger, Romy Kerber, Hussein El Halas, Elisa Pallasch, Sophie Duraffour, Stephan Günther, Stephan Ölschläger
BACKGROUND:  Diagnosis of Ebola virus (EBOV) disease (EVD) requires laboratory testing. METHODS:  The RealStar Filovirus Screen reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) kit and the derived RealStar Zaire Ebolavirus RT-PCR kit were validated using in vitro transcripts, supernatant of infected cell cultures, and clinical specimens from patients with EVD. RESULTS:  The Filovirus Screen kit detected EBOV, Sudan virus, Taï Forest virus, Bundibugyo virus, Reston virus, and Marburg virus and differentiated between the genera Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus The amount of filovirus RNA that could be detected with a probability of 95% ranged from 11 to 67 RNA copies/reaction on a LightCycler 480 II...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Carolina Nanclares, Jimmy Kapetshi, Fanshen Lionetto, Olimpia de la Rosa, Jean-Jacques Muyembe Tamfun, Miriam Alia, Gary Kobinger, Andrea Bernasconi
During July-November 2014, the Democratic Republic of the Congo underwent its seventh Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak. The etiologic agent was Zaire Ebola virus; 66 cases were reported (overall case-fatality rate 74.2%). Through a retrospective observational study of confirmed EVD in 25 patients admitted to either of 2 Ebola treatment centers, we described clinical features and investigated correlates associated with death. Clinical features were mainly generic. At admission, 76% of patients had >1 gastrointestinal symptom and 28% >1 hemorrhagic symptom...
September 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Martin Michaelis, Jeremy S Rossman, Mark N Wass
The ongoing Ebola virus (also known as Zaire ebolavirus, a member of the Ebolavirus family) outbreak in West Africa has so far resulted in >28000 confirmed cases compared with previous Ebolavirus outbreaks that affected a maximum of a few hundred individuals. Hence, Ebolaviruses impose a much greater threat than we may have expected (or hoped). An improved understanding of the virus biology is essential to develop therapeutic and preventive measures and to be better prepared for future outbreaks by members of the Ebolavirus family...
August 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
Dürdal Us
Superantigens (SAgs) are microbial proteins produced by various microorganisms that elicit excessive and strong stimulation of T cells via an unconventional mechanism. They cause polyclonal activation of T cells in a non-specific manner, by binding to a particular variable-beta (Vβ) chain of T-cell receptor (TCR) and MHC class II molecule, in unprocessed form and outside of peptide-binding cleft, forming a bridge between the antigen presenting cell and the T cell. SAgs are classified into three groups, namely 1) exogenous (soluble proteins and exotoxins secreted by microorganisms), 2) endogenous (transmembrane proteins encoded by viruses which are integrated into the genome) and 3) B-cell SAgs (proteins which stimulate predominantly B cells)...
July 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
Robert J Fischer, Trenton Bushmaker, Seth Judson, Vincent J Munster
The largest outbreak of Ebola virus disease began in Guéckédou, Guinea, West Africa, in December 2013 and rapidly spread to major population centers in 3 West African countries. Early reports in some scientific and public media speculated that the virus had evolved to more effectively transmit between humans. One route of transmission postulated was aerosol transmission, although there was little epidemiological evidence to support this claim. This study investigates the viability of 2 Zaire ebolavirus strains within aerosols at 22°C and 80% relative humidity over time...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
R Migliani, S Keïta, B Diallo, S Mesfin, W Perea, B Dahl, G Rodier
Ebola Zaire species variant Makona between its emergence in December 2013 and April 2016, resulted in an epidemic of Guinea importance and unprecedented gravity with 3814 reported cases of which 3358 were confirmed (88.0%) and 2544 were died (66.7%). The epidemic has evolved in phases: a silent phase without identification of all fatal cases until February 2014; a first outbreak from March 2014, when the alarm is raised and the virus detected, which lasted until July 2014; a second increase, which was the most intense, from August 2014 to January 2015 focused primarily on the forest Guinea; and a final increase from February 2015 centered on lower Guinea and the capital Conakry...
July 25, 2016: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
Adam J Hume, Joshua Ames, Linda J Rennick, W Paul Duprex, Andrea Marzi, John Tonkiss, Elke Mühlberger
Effective inactivation of biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) pathogens is vital in order to study these agents safely. Gamma irradiation is a commonly used method for the inactivation of BSL-4 viruses, which among other advantages, facilitates the study of inactivated yet morphologically intact virions. The reported values for susceptibility of viruses to inactivation by gamma irradiation are sometimes inconsistent, likely due to differences in experimental protocols. We analyzed the effects of common sample attributes on the inactivation of a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus expressing the Zaire ebolavirus glycoprotein and green fluorescent protein...
2016: Viruses
Andrew S Barbas, Yanhong Li, Murtuza Zair, Julie A Van, Olusegun Famure, Martin J Dib, Jerome M Laurence, S Joseph Kim, Anand Ghanekar
Living kidney donor evaluation commonly includes nuclear renography to assess split kidney function and computed tomography (CT) scan to evaluate anatomy. To streamline donor workup and minimize exposure to radioisotopes, we sought to assess the feasibility of using proportional kidney volume from CT volumetry in lieu of nuclear renography. We examined the correlation between techniques and assessed their ability to predict residual postoperative kidney function following live donor nephrectomy. In a cohort of 224 live kidney donors, we compared proportional kidney volume derived by CT volumetry with split kidney function derived from nuclear renography and found only modest correlation (left kidney R(2) =26...
September 2016: Clinical Transplantation
Zoulikha M Zaïr, Donald Rj Singer
AIM: Chemotherapeutic agents have been shown to increase lung patient survival, however their use may be limited by their serious adverse effects. We aimed to assess int impact of pharmacogenetic variation of influx transporters on inter-individual patient variation in adverse drug reactions. PATIENTS & METHODS: We conducted a meta-analysis and systemic review and identified 16 publications, totaling 1510 patients, to be eligible for review. RESULTS: Meta-analysis showed east-Asian patients expressing SLCO1B1 521T>C or 1118G>A to have a two- to fourfold increased risk of irinotecan-induced neutropenia but not diarrhea...
July 6, 2016: Pharmacogenomics
Huan Li, Xuesong Wang, Wei Liu, Xiao Wei, Weishi Lin, Erna Li, Puyuan Li, Derong Dong, Lifei Cui, Xuan Hu, Boxing Li, Yanyan Ma, Xiangna Zhao, Chao Liu, Jing Yuan
[This corrects the article on p. 1332 in vol. 6, PMID: 26648918.].
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Arunachalam Ramaiah, Vaithilingaraja Arumugaswami
The current outbreak of Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) lasted longer than the previous outbreaks and there is as yet no proven treatment or vaccine available. Understanding host immune pressure and associated EBOV immune evasion that drive the evolution of EBOV is vital for diagnosis as well as designing a highly effective vaccine. The aim of this study was to deduce adaptive selection pressure acting on each amino acid sites of EBOV responsible for the recent 2014 outbreak. Multiple statistical methods employed in the study include SLAC, FEL, REL, IFEL, FUBAR and MEME...
June 2016: Virusdisease
Joel G Breman, David L Heymann, Graham Lloyd, Joseph B McCormick, Malonga Miatudila, Frederick A Murphy, Jean-Jacques Muyembé-Tamfun, Peter Piot, Jean-François Ruppol, Pierre Sureau, Guido van der Groen, Karl M Johnson
BACKGROUND:  In 1976, the first cases of Ebola virus disease in northern Democratic Republic of the Congo (then referred to as Zaire) were reported. This article addresses who was responsible for recognizing the disease; recovering, identifying, and naming the virus; and describing the epidemic. Key scientific approaches used in 1976 and their relevance to the 3-country (Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia) West African epidemic during 2013-2016 are presented. METHODS:  Field and laboratory investigations started soon after notification, in mid-September 1976, and included virus cell culture, electron microscopy (EM), immunofluorescence antibody (IFA) testing of sera, case tracing, containment, and epidemiological surveys...
June 29, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"