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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149481/neuroprotective-effects-of-melatonin-on-amphetamine-induced-dopaminergic-fiber-degeneration-in-the-hippocampus-of-postnatal-rats
#1
Tanawan Leeboonngam, Ratchadaporn Pramong, Kwankanit Sae-Ung, Piyarat Govitrapong, Pansiri Phansuwan-Pujito
Chronic amphetamine (AMPH) abuse leads to damage of the hippocampus, the brain area associated with learning and memory process. Previous results have shown that AMPH-induced dopamine neurotransmitter release, reactive oxygen species formation and degenerative protein aggregation lead to neuronal death. Melatonin, a powerful antioxidant, plays a role as a neuroprotective agent. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the protective effect of melatonin on AMPH-induced hippocampal damage in the postnatal rat acts through the dopaminergic pathway...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146759/visual-field-indices-and-patterns-of-visual-field-deficits-in-mesopic-and-dark-adapted-two-colour-fundus-controlled-perimetry-in-macular-diseases
#2
Maximilian Pfau, Moritz Lindner, Julia S Steinberg, Sarah Thiele, Christian K Brinkmann, Monika Fleckenstein, Frank G Holz, Steffen Schmitz-Valckenberg
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To analyse the retest reliability of visual field indices and to describe patterns of visual field deficits in mesopic and dark-adapted two-colour fundus-controlled perimetry (FCP) in macular diseases. METHODS: Seventy-seven eyes (30 eyes with macular diseases and 47 normal eyes) underwent duplicate mesopic and dark-adapted two-colour FCP (Scotopic Macular Integrity Assessment, CenterVue). Non-weighted (mean defect, loss variance), variability-weighted (mean deviation, pattern standard deviation (PSD)) and graphical (cumulative defect (Bebie) curves) indices were computed...
November 16, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146293/andrographolide-a-promising-therapeutic-agent-negatively-regulates-glial-cell-derived-neurodegeneration-of-prefrontal-cortex-hippocampus-and-working-memory-impairment
#3
Sudeshna Das, K P Mishra, Lilly Ganju, S B Singh
Over activation of glial cell derived innate immune factors induces neuro-inflammation that results in neurodegenerative disease, like working memory impairment. In this study, we have investigated the role of andrographolide, a major constituent of Andrographis paniculata plant, in reduction of reactive glial cell derived working memory impairment. Real time PCR, Western bloting, flow cytometric and immunofluorescence studies demonstrated that andrographolide inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced overexpression of HMGB1, TLR4, NFκB, COX-2, iNOS, and release of inflammatory mediators in primary mix glial culture, adult mice prefrontal cortex and hippocampus region...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142062/the-serine-protease-inhibitor-neuroserpin-is-required-for-normal-synaptic-plasticity-and-regulates-learning-and-social-behavior
#4
Rebecca Reumann, Ricardo Vierk, Lepu Zhou, Frederice Gries, Vanessa Kraus, Julia Mienert, Eva Romswinkel, Fabio Morellini, Isidre Ferrer, Chiara Nicolini, Margaret Fahnestock, Gabriele Rune, Markus Glatzel, Giovanna Galliciotti
The serine protease inhibitor neuroserpin regulates the activity of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) in the nervous system. Neuroserpin expression is particularly prominent at late stages of neuronal development in most regions of the central nervous system (CNS), whereas it is restricted to regions related to learning and memory in the adult brain. The physiological expression pattern of neuroserpin, its high degree of colocalization with tPA within the CNS, together with its dysregulation in neuropsychiatric disorders, suggest a role in formation and refinement of synapses...
December 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139313/body-image-quality-of-life-and-psychological-distress-a-comparison-between-kidney-transplant-patients-and-a-matching-healthy-sample
#5
Yaron Yagil, Shulamit Geller, Sigal Levy, Yael Sidi, Shiri Aharoni
The purpose of the current study was to assess the uniqueness of the condition of kidney transplant recipients in comparison to a sample of matching healthy peers in relation to body-image dissatisfaction and identification, quality of life and psychological distress. Participants were 45 kidney transplant recipients who were under follow-up care at a Transplant Unit of a major Medical Center, and a sample of 45 matching healthy peers. Measures were taken using self-report questionnaires [Body-Image Ideals Questionnaire (BIIQ), Body Identification Questionnaire (BIQ), Brief Symptoms Inventory (BSI), and the SF-12]...
November 15, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138001/pdz-ligand-binding-induced-conformational-coupling-of-the-pdz-sh3-gk-tandems-in-psd-95-family-maguks
#6
Menglong Zeng, Fei Ye, Jia Xu, Mingjie Zhang
DLG MAGUKs are abundantly expressed in glutamatergic synapses, crucial for synaptic transmission and plasticity by anchoring various postsynaptic components including glutamate receptors, downstream scaffold proteins and signaling enzymes. Different DLG members have shared structures and functions, but also contain unique features. How DLG family proteins function individually and cooperatively are largely unknown. Here, we report that PSD-95 PDZ3 directly couples with SH3-GK tandem in a PDZ ligand binding-dependent manner, and the coupling can promote PSD-95 dimerization and multimerization...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136779/juglanin-ameliorates-lps-induced-neuroinflammation-in-animal-models-of-parkinson-s-disease-and-cell-culture-via-inactivating-tlr4-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#7
Fang-Xue Zhang, Ren-Shi Xu
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neuro-degenerative disorder, and novel therapeutic targets are required for the treatment of PD. Juglanin is a natural compound extracted from the crude Polygonum aviculare, exhibiting anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-cancer activities. In our study, PD in mice was induced by systemic LPS treatment as evidenced by enhanced α-synuclein and reduced tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), which were reversed by juglanin treatment. Moreover, juglanin administration attenuated LPS-caused behavioral and memory impairments and reduced LPS-induced enhancement of neuro-degenerative markers, including amyloid β (Aβ) and p-Tau...
November 7, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135022/a-fast-and-simple-method-to-estimate-relative-hyphal-tensile-strength-of-filamentous-fungi-used-to-assess-the-effect-of-autophagy
#8
Daniela Quintanilla, Cynthia Chelius, Sirasa Iambamrung, Sidney Nelson, Donnel Thomas, Krist V Gernaey, Mark R Marten
Fungal hyphal strength is an important phenotype which can have a profound impact on bioprocess behavior. Until now, there is not an efficient method which allows its characterization. Currently available methods are very time consuming; thus, compromising their applicability in strain selection and process development. To overcome this issue, a method for fast and easy, statistically-verified quantification of relative hyphal tensile strength was developed. It involves off-line fragmentation in a high shear mixer followed by quantification of fragment size using laser diffraction...
November 14, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134655/protein-components-of-postsynaptic-density-lattice-a-backbone-structure-for-type-i-excitatory-synapses
#9
Tatsuo Suzuki, Kiyokazu Kametani, Weiheng Guo, Weidong Li
It is essential to study the molecular architecture of postsynaptic density (PSD) to understand the molecular mechanism underlying the dynamic nature of PSD, one of the bases of synaptic plasticity. A well-known model for the architecture of PSD of type I excitatory synapses basically comprises of several scaffolding proteins (scaffold protein model). On the contrary, "PSD lattice" observed through electron microscopy has been considered a basic backbone of type I PSDs. However, major constituents of the PSD lattice and the relationship between the PSD lattice and the scaffold protein model, are unknown...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134143/eeg-sensorimotor-rhythms-variation-and-functional-connectivity-measures-during-motor-imagery-linear-relations-and-classification-approaches
#10
Carlos A Stefano Filho, Romis Attux, Gabriela Castellano
Hands motor imagery (MI) has been reported to alter synchronization patterns amongst neurons, yielding variations in the mu and beta bands' power spectral density (PSD) of the electroencephalography (EEG) signal. These alterations have been used in the field of brain-computer interfaces (BCI), in an attempt to assign distinct MI tasks to commands of such a system. Recent studies have highlighted that information may be missing if knowledge about brain functional connectivity is not considered. In this work, we modeled the brain as a graph in which each EEG electrode represents a node...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133651/comparison-of-30-2-standard-and-fast-programs-of-swedish-interactive-threshold-algorithm-of-humphrey-field-analyzer-for-perimetry-in-patients-with-intracranial-tumors
#11
Manav Deep Singh, Kanika Jain
PURPOSE: To find out whether 30-2 Swedish Interactive Threshold Algorithm (SITA) Fast is comparable to 30-2 SITA Standard as a tool for perimetry among the patients with intracranial tumors. METHODS: This was a prospective cross-sectional study involving 80 patients aged ≥18 years with imaging proven intracranial tumors and visual acuity better than 20/60. The patients underwent multiple visual field examinations using the two algorithms till consistent and repeatable results were obtained...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132076/kinematic-analysis-of-direct-pointing-in-projection-based-stereoscopic-environments
#12
Chiuhsiang Joe Lin, Bereket Haile Woldegiorgis
This work investigated the effects of visual information, parallax, and target positions on movement performances in projection-based stereoscopic displays (PSDs). Fifteen (26.5 ± 3.83 years) self-declared right-handed individuals, with normal or corrected to normal visual acuity, completed pointing tasks in stereoscopic and real environments (RE). Three-dimensional spatial data, recorded by a motion system composed of six infrared cameras, was used to compute kinematics of reaching a real/virtual object at a combination of three parallax and nine frontal planar positions...
November 10, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128343/post-stroke-depression-mechanisms-and-pharmacological-treatment
#13
REVIEW
Roberto Federico Villa, Federica Ferrari, Antonio Moretti
Depression, the most frequent psychiatric disorder following ischaemic stroke, negatively affects survivals' functional outcome, response to rehabilitation and quality of life. Approximately, one-third of them are affected by post-stroke depression (PSD), making it a serious social and public health problem and anti-depressant preventive and curative therapies worth investigating. However, a two-way association between depression and stroke has been also established: stroke increases the risk of PSD, but depression is an independent risk factor for stroke...
November 8, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128330/decreased-serum-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-may-indicate-the-development-of-poststroke-depression-in-patients-with-acute-ischemic-stroke-a-meta-analysis
#14
Hong-Bo Xu, Yu-Hong Xu, Ying He, Fang Xue, Jing Wei, Haigang Zhang, Jinglan Wu
BACKGROUND: Depression is a common complication after stroke and has been associated with poor outcome. Thus, it is of great importance to identify potential biomarkers that can aid in predicting and detecting patients with stroke at high risk of poststroke depression (PSD) development. Previous studies showed that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) had potential use as a biomarker for discriminating patients with stroke at high risk of PSD. However, the results were inconsistent...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121965/chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-induces-post-stroke-dementia-following-acute-ischemic-stroke-in-rats
#15
Dong Bin Back, Kyoung Ja Kwon, Dong-Hee Choi, Chan Young Shin, Jongmin Lee, Seol-Heui Han, Hahn Young Kim
BACKGROUND: Post-stroke dementia (PSD) is one of the major consequences after stroke. Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) can induce vascular cognitive impairment and potentiate amyloid pathology. We investigated how CCH contributes to the development of PSD after stroke in the context of neuroinflammation and amyloid pathology. METHODS: We designed a unique animal model for PSD. We performed middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) surgery in rats mimicking acute territorial infarct, which was followed by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAo) surgery mimicking CCH...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121065/proteomic-analysis-reveals-novel-ligands-and-substrates-for-lnx1-e3-ubiquitin-ligase
#16
Joan A Lenihan, Orthis Saha, Paul W Young
Ligand of Numb protein X1 (LNX1) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that contains a catalytic RING (Really Interesting New Gene) domain and four PDZ (PSD-95, DlgA, ZO-1) domains. LNX1 can ubiquitinate Numb, as well as a number of other ligands. However, the physiological relevance of these interactions in vivo remain unclear. To gain functional insights into the LNX family, we have characterised the LNX1 interactome using affinity purification and mass spectrometry. This approach identified a large number of novel LNX1-interacting proteins, as well as confirming known interactions with NUMB and ERC2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118000/ca-2-calmodulin-binding-to-psd-95-mediates-homeostatic-synaptic-scaling-down
#17
Dhrubajyoti Chowdhury, Matthew Turner, Tommaso Patriarchi, Anne C Hergarden, David Anderson, Yonghong Zhang, Junqing Sun, Chao-Yin Chen, James B Ames, Johannes W Hell
Postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95) localizes AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) to postsynaptic sites of glutamatergic synapses. Its postsynaptic displacement is necessary for loss of AMPARs during homeostatic scaling down of synapses. Here, we demonstrate that upon Ca(2+) influx, Ca(2+)/calmodulin (Ca(2+)/CaM) binding to the N-terminus of PSD-95 mediates postsynaptic loss of PSD-95 and AMPARs during homeostatic scaling down. Our NMR structural analysis identified E17 within the PSD-95 N-terminus as important for binding to Ca(2+)/CaM by interacting with R126 on CaM...
November 8, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117140/modeling-and-positioning-of-a-pzt-precision-drive-system
#18
Che Liu, Yanling Guo
The fact that piezoelectric ceramic transducer (PZT) precision drive systems in 3D printing are faced with nonlinear problems with respect to positioning, such as hysteresis and creep, has had an extremely negative impact on the precision of laser focusing systems. To eliminate the impact of PZT nonlinearity during precision drive movement, mathematical modeling and theoretical analyses of each module comprising the system were carried out in this study, a micro-displacement measurement circuit based on Position Sensitive Detector (PSD) is constructed, followed by the establishment of system closed-loop control and creep control models...
November 8, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112734/memantine-prevents-acute-radiation-induced-toxicities-at-hippocampal-excitatory-synapses
#19
Joseph G Duman, Jeffrey Dinh, Wei Zhou, Henry Cham, Vasilis C Mavratsas, Matea Paveškovic, Shalaka Mulherkar, Susan L McGovern, Kimberley F Tolias, David R Grosshans
Background: Memantine has shown clinical utility in preventing radiation-induced cognitive impairment, but the mechanisms underlying its protective effects remain unknown. We hypothesized that abnormal glutamate signaling causes radiation-induced abnormalities in neuronal structure and that memantine prevents synaptic toxicity. Methods: Hippocampal cultures expressing eGFP were irradiated or sham-treated and their dendritic spine morphology assessed at acute (minutes) and later (days) times using high-resolution confocal microscopy...
November 2, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104850/psd-microscopy-a-new-technique-for-adaptive-local-scanning-of-microscale-objects
#20
Mehdi Rahimi, Yantao Shen
A position-sensitive detector/device (PSD) is a sensor that is capable of tracking the location of a laser beam on its surface. PSDs are used in many scientific instruments and technical applications including but not limited to atomic force microscopy, human eye movement monitoring, mirrors or machine tool alignment, vibration analysis, beam position control and so on. This work intends to propose a new application using the PSD. That is a new microscopy system called scanning PSD microscopy. The working mechanism is about putting an object on the surface of the PSD and fast scanning its area with a laser beam...
2017: Robotics and Biomimetics
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