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Paresh Zanzmera, Ramshekhar N Menon, Kalyani Karkare, Himanshu Soni, Sujit Jagtap, Ashalatha Radhakrishnan
PURPOSE: The purpose of this article was to study the electroclinical characteristics and seizure outcome of children with epilepsy with myoclonic absences (EMA). METHOD: In this descriptive cohort study, we reviewed clinical records of patients who met the criteria for EMA. Each patient's demographic data, birth/developmental history, seizure semiology/pattern, antiepileptic drugs (AED), clinical examination, video-electroencephalography (VEEG), and neuroimaging data were reviewed...
October 19, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Moushira E Zaki, Hala T El-Bassyouni, Angie M S Tosson, Eman Youness, Jihan Hussein
OBJECTIVE: Evidence of oxidative stress was reported in individuals with Down syndrome. There is a growing interest in the contribution of the immune system in Down syndrome. The aim of this study is to evaluate the coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) and selected pro-inflammatory markers such as interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) in children with Down syndrome. METHODS: Eighty-six children (5-8 years of age) were enrolled in this case-control study from two public institutions...
October 19, 2016: Jornal de Pediatria
Gordon X Wang, Stephen J Smith, Philippe Mourrain
The distribution of proteins within sub-synaptic compartments is an essential aspect of their neurological function. Current methodology such as electron microscopy (EM) and super-resolution imaging techniques can provide precise localization of proteins, but are often limited to a small number of one-time observations with narrow spatial and molecular coverage. The diversity of synaptic proteins and synapse types demands synapse analysis on a scale that is prohibitive with current methods. Here, we demonstrate SubSynMAP, a fast, multiplexed sub-synaptic protein analysis method using wide-field data from deconvolution array tomography (ATD)...
October 22, 2016: ELife
Birol Ay, Erdal Karaoz, Cumhur C Kesemenli, Halime Kenar
The reconstruction of skeletal muscle tissue is currently performed by transplanting a muscle tissue graft from local or distant sites of the patient`s body, but this practice leads to donor site morbidity in case of large defects. With the aim of providing an alternative treatment approach, skeletal muscle tissue formation potential of human myoblasts and human menstrual blood derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMB-MSCs) on synthetic (poly(L-lactide-co-caprolactone), 70:30) scaffolds with oriented microfibers, human muscle extracellular matrix (ECM), and their hybrids was investigated in this study...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Fitsum Abadi, Christophe Barbraud, Olivier Gimenez
Early-life demographic traits are poorly known, impeding our understanding of population processes and sensitivity to climate change. Survival of immature individuals is a critical component of population dynamics and recruitment in particular. However, obtaining reliable estimates of juvenile survival (i.e., from independence to first year) remains challenging, as immatures are often difficult to observe and to monitor individually in the field. This is particularly acute for seabirds, in which juveniles stay at sea and remain undetectable for several years...
October 22, 2016: Global Change Biology
Silvania da Silva Teixeira, Carly Filgueira, Douglas H Sieglaff, Cindy Benod, Rosa Villagomez, Laurie J Minze, Aijun Zhang, Paul Webb, Maria Tereza Nunes
AIM: Thyroid hormones regulate metabolic response. While triiodothyronine (T3) is usually considered to be the active form of thyroid hormone, one form of diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) exerts T3-like effects on energy consumption and lipid metabolism. 3,5-T2 also improves glucose tolerance in rats and 3,5-T2 levels correlate with fasting glucose in humans. Presently, however, little is known about mechanisms of 3,5-T2 effects on glucose metabolism. Here, we set out to compare effects of T3, 3,5-T2 and another form of T2 (3,3-T2) in a mouse model of diet induced obesity and determined effects of T3 and 3,5-T2 on markers of classical insulin sensitization to understand how diiodothyronines influence blood glucose...
October 22, 2016: Acta Physiologica
M Arcan Ertürk, Xiaoping Wu, Yiğitcan Eryaman, Pierre-François Van de Moortele, Edward J Auerbach, Russell L Lagore, Lance DelaBarre, J Thomas Vaughan, Kâmil Uğurbil, Gregor Adriany, Gregory J Metzger
PURPOSE: To explore the potential of performing body imaging at 10.5 Tesla (T) compared with 7.0T through evaluating the transmit/receive performance of similarly configured dipole antenna arrays. METHODS: Fractionated dipole antenna elements for 10.5T body imaging were designed and evaluated using numerical simulations. Transmit performance of antenna arrays inside the prostate, kidneys and heart were investigated and compared with those at 7.0T using both phase-only radiofrequency (RF) shimming and multi-spoke pulses...
October 21, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Hong Shang, Subramaniam Sukumar, Cornelius von Morze, Robert A Bok, Irene Marco-Rius, Adam Kerr, Galen D Reed, Eugene Milshteyn, Michael A Ohliger, John Kurhanewicz, Peder E Z Larson, John M Pauly, Daniel B Vigneron
PURPOSE: Balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) sequences can provide superior signal-to-noise ratio efficiency for hyperpolarized (HP) carbon-13 ((13) C) magnetic resonance imaging by efficiently utilizing the nonrecoverable magnetization, but managing their spectral response is challenging in the context of metabolic imaging. A new spectrally selective bSSFP sequence was developed for fast imaging of multiple HP (13) C metabolites with high spatiotemporal resolution. THEORY AND METHODS: This novel approach for bSSFP spectral selectivity incorporates optimized short-duration spectrally selective radiofrequency pulses within a bSSFP pulse train and a carefully chosen repetition time to avoid banding artifacts...
October 21, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Stephen F Cauley, Kawin Setsompop, Berkin Bilgic, Himanshu Bhat, Borjan Gagoski, Lawrence L Wald
PURPOSE: Fast MRI acquisitions often rely on efficient traversal of k-space and hardware limitations, or other physical effects can cause the k-space trajectory to deviate from a theoretical path in a manner dependent on the image prescription and protocol parameters. Additional measurements or generalized calibrations are typically needed to characterize the discrepancies. We propose an autocalibrated technique to determine these discrepancies. METHODS: A joint optimization is used to estimate the trajectory simultaneously with the parallel imaging reconstruction, without the need for additional measurements...
October 21, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Alice H Suroviec
The use of enzymatically modified electrodes for the detection of glucose or other non-electrochemically active analytes is becoming increasingly common. Direct heterogeneous electron transfer to glucose oxidase has been shown to be kinetically difficult, which is why electron transfer mediators or indirect detection is usually used for monitoring glucose with electrochemical sensors. It has been found, however, that electrodes modified with single or multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) demonstrate fast heterogeneous electron transfer kinetics as compared to that found for traditional electrodes...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Gerald J Pepe, Adina Maniu, Graham Aberdeen, Terrie J Lynch, Soon Ok Kim, Jerry Nadler, Eugene D Albrecht
We recently demonstrated that offspring delivered to baboons deprived of estrogen during the second half of gestation exhibited insulin resistance prior to onset of puberty. Because gonadal hormones have a profound effect on insulin action and secretion in adults, we determined whether insulin resistance is retained after initiation of gonadal secretion of testosterone and estradiol. Glucose tolerance tests were performed in postpubertal baboon offspring of untreated and letrozole-treated animals (serum estradiol reduced >95 %)...
October 21, 2016: Endocrine
Erika Varkonyi-Gasic
Plant microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the posttranscriptional regulation of protein-coding genes, and they are essential for a normal development and survival. Mature miRNAs are cleaved from larger precursor RNAs and are typically 21-22 nt long.The small size, the lack of a common feature like a poly(A) tail, 3' end-modifications, and presence of a precursor-all these factors affect the detection and hinder the quantification of miRNAs. The stem-loop qRT-PCR method described here is designed to detect and quantify mature miRNAs in a fast, specific, accurate, and reliable manner...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
B Ambrosio, M A Aziz-Alaoui
This article is devoted to the characterization of the basin of attraction of pattern solutions for some slow-fast reaction-diffusion systems with a symmetric property and an underlying oscillatory reaction part. We characterize some subsets of initial conditions that prevent the dynamical system to evolve asymptotically toward solutions which are homogeneous in space. We also perform numerical simulations that illustrate theoretical results and give rise to symmetric and non-symmetric pattern solutions. We obtain these last solutions by choosing particular random initial conditions...
October 21, 2016: Acta Biotheoretica
Doanh Nguyen-Ngoc, Thuy Nguyen-Phuong
We investigate a system of two species exploiting a common resource. We consider both abiotic (i.e. with a constant resource supply rate) and biotic (i.e. with resource reproduction and self-limitation) resources. We are interested in the asymmetric competition where a given consumer is the locally superior resource exploiter (LSE) and the other is the locally inferior resource exploiter (LIE). They also interact directly via interference competition in the sense that LIE individuals can use two opposite strategies to compete with LSE individuals: we assume, in the first case, that LIE uses an avoiding strategy, i...
October 21, 2016: Acta Biotheoretica
D E Beaton, M Vidmar, K B Pitzul, R Sujic, N K Rotondi, E R Bogoch, J E M Sale, R Jain, J Weldon
: We evaluated the impact of a more intensive version of an existing post-fracture coordinator-based fracture prevention program and found that the addition of a full-risk assessment improved treatment rates. These findings provide additional support for more intensive programs aimed at reducing the risk of re-fractures. INTRODUCTION: Evidence-based guidelines support coordinator-based programs to improve post-fracture osteoporosis guideline uptake, with more intensive programs including bone mineral density (BMD) testing and/or treatment being associated with better patient outcomes...
October 21, 2016: Osteoporosis International
Matthijs H Spaan, Aline H Vrieling, Pim van de Berg, Pieter U Dijkstra, Helco G van Keeken
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. BACKGROUND: Persons with a lower limb amputation can regain mobility using a prosthetic device. For fast and adequate prescription of prosthetic components, it is necessary to predict the mobility outcome early in rehabilitation. Currently, prosthetic prescription is primarily based on empirical knowledge of rehabilitation professionals. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we explored motor ability tests, to be completed without a prosthetic device, which have predictive value for mobility outcome at the end of rehabilitation...
October 20, 2016: Prosthetics and Orthotics International
Gabriel Chia Shi Zhe, Andrew Green, Yuke Tien Fong, Haur Yueh Lee, Sweet Far Ho
Sodium hypochlorite is a clear yellowish solution with a characteristic odour of chlorine and is commonly used as a disinfectant and a bleaching agent. It is used in various healthcare settings for its fast-acting and broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. It is a known irritant and there are some reports that it can also cause allergic contact dermatitis of type IV hypersensitivity. We report a case of work-related type I hypersensitivity to sodium hypochlorite, presenting with recurrent urticarial rash and a positive prick test reaction to this chemical...
October 21, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
Changliang Zhu, Jingliang Zhang, Jing Zhang, Yanhui Jiang, Zhaopeng Shen, Huashi Guan, Xiaolu Jiang
An extracellular chondroitinase ABC (ChSase ABC, EC produced by cultivating Acinetobacter sp. C26, was purified to homogeneity from the supernatant by ammonium sulfate fractionation, Q-Sepharose Fast Flow and Sephadex G-100 chromatography. The 76kDa enzyme was purified 48.09-fold to homogeneity with specific activity of 348.64U/mg, Using the chondroitin sulfate A (CS-A) as substrate, the maximal reaction rate (Vmax) and Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) of ChSase ABC were found to be 10.471μmol/min/ml and 0...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Delfo D'Alessandro, Giuseppe Perale, Mario Milazzo, Stefania Moscato, Cesare Stefanini, Gianni Pertici, Serena Danti
The ideal scaffold for bone regeneration is required to be highly porous, non-immunogenic, biostable until the new tissue formation, bioresorbable and osteoconductive. This study aimed at investigating the process of new bone formation in patients treated with granular SmartBone(®) for sinus augmentation, providing an extensive histologic analysis. Five biopsies were collected at 4-9 months post SmartBone(®) implantation and processed for histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. Histomorphometric analysis was performed...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Ravi K Kaza, Evan A Raff, Matthew S Davenport, Shokoufeh Khalatbari
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: To compare Hounsfield unit (HU) data obtained from true-unenhanced (TUE) and virtual-unenhanced (VUE) imaging obtained with a fast kv-switching dual-energy computed tomography (CT) scanner using multimaterial decomposition algorithm. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this Institutional Review Board-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant, retrospective cohort study, CT scans of 19 patients undergoing multiphasic renal protocol abdominal CT on a fast kv-switching dual-energy CT scanner were reviewed...
October 18, 2016: Academic Radiology
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