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Niranga Wijesiri, Tevhide Ozkaya-Ahmadov, Peng Wang, Jinnan Zhang, Hong Tang, Xinjun Yu, Neil Ayres, Peng Zhang
Multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become one of the major causes of various infections, leading to morbidity in both healthy and immune-compromised populations worldwide. Herein, we report a novel type of hybrid photosensitizer based on amphiphilic block copolymer-functionalized gold nanoparticles. The design of the nanoparticles provides a facile means to incorporate hydrophobic photosensitizing molecules for use in aqueous media. The hybrid photosensitizers display greatly enhanced singlet oxygen generation and outstanding photodynamic inactivation (PDI) efficacy against MRSA under light illumination...
September 30, 2017: ACS Omega
Chandrasekhar Challa, Jaice Ravindran, Mohini Mohan Konai, Sunil Varughese, Jubi Jacob, B S Dileep Kumar, Jayanta Haldar, Ravi S Lankalapalli
Easily accessible 3,3'-diindolylmethanes (DIMs) were utilized to generate a focused library of indolo[2,3- b ]quinolines ( 2 ), chromeno[2,3- b ]indoles ( 3 ), and 3-alkenyl-oxindoles ( 4 ) under 2,3-Dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ)-mediated oxidative conditions. DIMs with ortho-NHTosyl (NHTs) phenyl group afforded indolo[2,3- b ]quinolines ( 2 ), whereas DIMs with ortho-hydroxy phenyl groups yielded chromeno[2,3- b ]indoles ( 3 ) and 3-alkenyl-oxindoles ( 4 ). The mild conditions and excellent yields of the products make this method a good choice to access a diverse library of bioactive molecules from a common starting material...
August 31, 2017: ACS Omega
Ye Gao, Avijit Pramanik, Salma Begum, Carrie Sweet, Stacy Jones, Azmain Alamgir, Paresh Chandra Ray
According to the World Health Organization, more than two billion people in our world use drinking water sources which are not free from pathogens and heavy metal contamination. Unsafe drinking water is responsible for the death of several millions in the 21st century. To find facile and cost-effective routes for developing multifunctional materials, which has the capability to resolve many of the challenges associated with drinking water problem, here, we report the novel design of multifunctional fluorescence-magnetic biochar with the capability for highly efficient separation, identification, and removal of pathogenic superbugs and toxic metals from environmental water samples...
November 30, 2017: ACS Omega
Kin-Fai Chan, Ning Sun, Siu-Cheong Yan, Iris L K Wong, Hok-Kiu Lui, Kwan-Choi Cheung, Jian Yuan, Fung-Yi Chan, Zhiwei Zheng, Edward W C Chan, Sheng Chen, Yun-Chung Leung, Tak Hang Chan, Kwok-Yin Wong
We have recently identified a new class of filamenting temperature-sensitive mutant Z (FtsZ)-interacting compounds that possess a 2,4,6-trisubstituted pyrimidine-quinuclidine scaffold with moderate antibacterial activity. Employing this scaffold as a molecular template, a compound library of amine-linked 2,4,6-trisubstituted pyrimidines with 99 candidates was successfully established by employing an efficient convergent synthesis designed to explore their structure-activity relationship. The results of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay against Staphylococcus aureus strains and cytotoxicity assay against the mouse L929 cell line identified those compounds with potent antistaphylococcal properties (MIC ranges from 3 to 8 μg/mL) and some extent of cytotoxicity against normal cells (IC50 ranges from 6 to 27 μM)...
October 31, 2017: ACS Omega
Megan R Earls, David C Coleman, Gráinne I Brennan, Tanya Fleming, Stefan Monecke, Peter Slickers, Ralf Ehricht, Anna C Shore
From 2009 to 2011 [transmission period (TP) 1] and 2014 to 2017 (TP2), two outbreaks involving community-associated clonal complex (CC) 88-MRSA spa types t186 and t786, respectively, occurred in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of an Irish hospital (H1). This study investigated the relatedness of these isolates, their relationship to other CC88 MRSA from Ireland and their likely geographic origin, using whole-genome sequencing (WGS). All 28 CC88-MRSA isolates identified at the Irish National MRSA Reference Laboratory between 2009 and 2017 were investigated including 20 H1 patient isolates, two H1 isolates recovered from a single healthcare worker (HCW) 2 years apart, three patient isolates from a second hospital (H2) and one patient isolate from each of three different hospitals (H3, H4, and H5)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Maho Yokoyama, Emily Stevens, Maisem Laabei, Leann Bacon, Kate Heesom, Sion Bayliss, Nicola Ooi, Alex J O'Neill, Ewan Murray, Paul Williams, Anneke Lubben, Shaun Reeksting, Guillaume Meric, Ben Pascoe, Samuel K Sheppard, Mario Recker, Laurence D Hurst, Ruth C Massey
BACKGROUND: Fitness costs imposed on bacteria by antibiotic resistance mechanisms are believed to hamper their dissemination. The scale of these costs is highly variable. Some, including resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to the clinically important antibiotic mupirocin, have been reported as being cost-free, which suggests that there are few barriers preventing their global spread. However, this is not supported by surveillance data in healthy communities, which indicate that this resistance mechanism is relatively unsuccessful...
July 18, 2018: Genome Biology
Beata Kowalska-Krochmal, Radosław Chaber, Katarzyna Jermakow, Magdalena Hurkacz, Elżbieta Piątkowska, Grażyna Gościniak, Grażyna Wróbel
BACKGROUND: Infections in pediatric patients with oncohematological diseases pose a huge therapeutic and diagnostic problem. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the etiology of bacteremia and the antibiotic susceptibility of pathogenic and colonizing bacterial strains in pediatric oncohematological patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the period 2011-2014, 17,209 positive test results, including 1,129 positive blood cultures, were subjected to a detailed analysis...
July 18, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
H L Htun, W M Kyaw, P F de Sessions, L Low, M L Hibberd, A Chow, Y S Leo
Current knowledge of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonisation in relation to epidemiological characteristics is incomplete. We conducted a cross-sectional study at an acute-care tertiary infectious diseases hospital of MRSA isolates identified through routine surveillance from January 2009 to December 2011. We randomly selected 205 MRSA isolates (119 inpatients) from 798 isolates (427 inpatients) for molecular profiling using multilocus sequence typing. Multilevel multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratio (OR) assessing the predilection of MRSA strains for anatomic sites, and associations of strains with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection...
July 18, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Chen Chen, Xiaoping Zhang, Qiao Lin, Nathaniel Remlinger, Thomas W Gilbert, Y Peter Di
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is composed of a complex mixture of structural and functional macromolecules that are important during growth, development, and wound repair. In this study, we seek to determine if an ECM derived from the porcine urinary bladder, specifically urinary bladder matrix (UBM), can act to prevent bacterial infection in the context of lung injury. Here, we examined a digested form of UBM, which prevented bacterial biofilm formed by both Gram-positive bacteria (GPB) such as methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) including Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) in vitro...
July 18, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Ensieh Nasli Esfahani, Maryam Mohammadi-Khanaposhtani, Zahra Rezaei, Yosef Valizadeh, Ramazan Rajabnia, Meghdad Bagheri, Fatemeh Bandarian, Mohammad Ali Faramarzi, Nasrin Samadi, Mohammad Reza Amini, Mohammad Mahdavi, Bagher Larijani
A novel series of ciprofloxacin-dithiocarbamate hybrids 7a-l were designed, synthesized, and evaluated against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. A significant part of the title compounds showed considerable antibacterial activity against Gram-positive species. The most potent compound against Gram-positive bacteria was 2-chloro derivative 7h and the most potent derivative against Gram-negative bacteria was 3-chloro compound 7i. In vitro antibacterial evaluation of compound 7h against clinically isolated bacteria methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) showed that this compound acted better than ciprofloxacin against the latter bacteria...
July 17, 2018: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Chan Yeong Kim, Muyoung Lee, Keehoon Lee, Sang Sun Yoon, Insuk Lee
Staphylococcus aureus is a gram-positive bacterium that causes a wide range of infections. Recently, the spread of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains has seriously reduced antibiotic treatment options. Anti-virulence strategies, the objective of which is to target the virulence instead of the viability of the pathogen, have become widely accepted as a means of avoiding the emergence of new antibiotic-resistant strains. To increase the number of anti-virulence therapeutic options, it is necessary to identify as many novel virulence-associated genes as possible in MRSA...
July 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Joycy F S Dos Santos, Saulo R Tintino, Thiago S de Freitas, Fábia F Campina, Irwin R de A Menezes, José P Siqueira-Júnior, Henrique D M Coutinho, Francisco A B Cunha
Staphylococcus aureus has been reported as one of the most difficult to treat. In the search for new treatment alternatives, isolated plant substances such as phenolic compounds, have demonstrated the ability to reverse bacterial resistance. The present study aims to evaluate the inhibitory action of caffeic acid and gallic acid on efflux pumps from S. aureus resistant strains. The broth microdilution assay was carried out to obtain the MICs of caffeic acid and gallic acid while the efflux pump inhibition test was assessed through the reduction of the minimum inhibitory concentration of the antibiotic and ethidium bromide...
April 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
G Abelenda Alonso, M D Corbacho Loarte, R Núñez Ramos, M Cervero Jiménez, J J Jusdado Ruiz-Capillas
OBJECTIVE: One of the most controversial issues in recent years has been the clinical significance of high vancomycin MIC in Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. The aim of this study was to elucidate the clinical implication that this parameter has in the staphylococcal bacteremia of a second level hospital. METHODS: Retrospective descriptive study between January 2014 and September 2016 with 138 records from the blood culture Severo Ochoa University Hospital registry...
August 2018: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
Ben Tyas, Martin Marsh, Tamsin Oswald, Ramsay Refaie, Catherine Molyneux, Mike Reed
Objectives: The incidence of fractured neck of femur (FNOF) is increasing yearly. Many of these patients undergo hip hemiarthroplasty. High dose dual-antibiotic cement (HDDAC) has been shown to reduce rates of deep surgical site infection (SSI) when compared to the current standard low dose single-antibiotic cement (LDSAC) in a quasi-randomised controlled trial. Some concerns exist regarding the use of HDDAC and the development of antibiotic resistance. We reviewed cases of infection in LDSAC and HDDAC bone cement with regard to causative organism and resistance profile...
2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Infection
Robert A Petit, Timothy D Read
Low-cost Illumina sequencing of clinically-important bacterial pathogens has generated thousands of publicly available genomic datasets. Analyzing these genomes and extracting relevant information for each pathogen and the associated clinical phenotypes requires not only resources and bioinformatic skills but organism-specific knowledge. In light of these issues, we created Staphopia, an analysis pipeline, database and application programming interface, focused on Staphylococcus aureus , a common colonizer of humans and a major antibiotic-resistant pathogen responsible for a wide spectrum of hospital and community-associated infections...
2018: PeerJ
Funmilola A Ayeni, Werner Ruppitsch, Franz Allerberger
Background: Staphylococcus aureus is a human colonizer with high potential for virulence, and the spread of the virulent strains from the colonized hosts to non-carriers in the community is on the increase. However, there are few reports on comprehensive analysis of staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) genes with clonal lineage in S. aureus in Africa. This is essential because of diversity of cultures and habits of the people. This study analyzed spa types and enterotoxin genes in S. aureus strains previously isolated from the human nostrils, poultry and clinical samples in Southern Nigeria...
2018: PeerJ
M M K Peiris, S S N Fernando, P M Jayaweera, N D H Arachchi, T D C P Guansekara
Green silver nanoparticle (AgNP) biosynthesis is facilitated by the enzyme mediated reduction of Ag ions by plants, fungi and bacteria. The antimicrobial activity of green AgNPs is useful to overcome the challenge of antimicrobial resistance. Antimicrobial properties of biosynthesized AgNPs depend on multiple factors including culture conditions and the microbial source. The antimicrobial activity of AgNPs biosynthesized by Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Acinetobacter baumannii (confirmed clinical isolate) were investigated in this study...
September 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Cheyenne C Conrad, Kim Stanford, Claudia Narvaez-Bravo, Norman F Neumann, Krysty Munns, Lisa Tymensen, Cassandra Jokinen, Tim A McAllister
This study aimed to better understand the potential public health risk associated with zoonotic pathogens in agricultural fairs and petting zoos in Canada. Prevalence of Salmonella , Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7, and top six non-O157 STEC serogroups in feces ( n = 88), hide/feather ( n = 36), and hand rail samples ( n = 46) was assessed, as well as distributions of antimicrobial resistant (AMR) broad and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli . Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in pig nasal swabs ( n = 4), and Campylobacter , Cryptosporidium , and Giardia in feces was also assessed...
July 16, 2018: Microorganisms
Claudia Peters, Olaf Kleinmüller, Albert Nienhaus, Anja Schablon
OBJECTIVES: Healthcare workers frequently come into contact with infected individuals and are at a greater risk of infection than the general population due to their occupation. Multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) also pose a significant challenge for personnel and medical facilities. Currently, little is known about the occupational risk of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in outpatient care settings. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted in Hamburg to investigate MRSA colonisation among outpatient nursing staff...
July 16, 2018: BMJ Open
Qun Yan, Melissa J Karau, Yash S Raval, Robin Patel
The anti-biofilm activity of oritavancin in combination with rifampin, gentamicin or linezolid was evaluated against ten prosthetic joint infection (PJI) related methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by time-kill assays. Oritavancin combined with rifampin demonstrated statistically significant bacterial reductions compared to either antimicrobial alone for all ten isolates (P ≤0.001), with synergy being observed for 80% (8/10) of the isolates. Oritavancin and rifampin combination therapy may be an option for treating MRSA PJI...
July 16, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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