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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163457/the-agr-quorum-sensing-system-represses-persister-formation-through-regulation-of-phenol-soluble-modulins-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#1
Tao Xu, Xu-Yang Wang, Peng Cui, Yu-Meng Zhang, Wen-Hong Zhang, Ying Zhang
The opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus aureus has become an increasing threat to public health. While the Agr quorum sensing (QS) system is a master regulator of S. aureus virulence, its dysfunction has been frequently reported to promote bacteremia and mortality in clinical infections. Here we show that the Agr system is involved in persister formation in S. aureus. Mutation of either agrCA or agrD but not RNAIII resulted in increased persister formation of stationary phase cultures. RNA-seq analysis showed that in stationary phase AgrCA/AgrD and RNAIII mutants showed consistent up-regulation of virulence associated genes (lip and splE, etc...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162210/letter-to-the-editor-livestock-associated-meticillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-la-mrsa-austria-2013
#2
Werner Ruppitsch, Stefanie Monschein, Sarah Lepuschitz, Franz Allerberger, Burkhard Springer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162115/opportunities-for-topical-antimicrobial-therapy-permeation-of-canine-skin-by-fusidic-acid
#3
Sian-Marie Frosini, Ross Bond, Anette Loeffler, Jo Larner
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcal infection of the canine epidermis and hair follicle is amongst the commonest reasons for antimicrobial prescribing in small animal veterinary practice. Topical therapy with fusidic acid (FA) is an attractive alternative to systemic therapy based on low minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs, commonly <0.03 mg/l) documented in canine pathogenic staphylococci, including strains of MRSA and MRSP (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and S. pseudintermedius)...
November 21, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161942/trends-in-incidence-and-resistance-patterns-of-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia
#4
Elina Jokinen, Janne Laine, Reetta Huttunen, Outi Lyytikäinen, Risto Vuento, Jaana Vuopio, Jaana Syrjänen
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) causes a significant burden on the population. Several infection control measures have been implemented in Pirkanmaa county to combat a local epidemic with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). We aimed to study the epidemiology of SAB and antibiotic resistance of S. aureus and the possible influence of improved infection control. METHODS: Register data from 2005 to 2015 were retrospectively analysed to study the antimicrobial susceptibility, the incidence and mortality in SAB in a population-based setting...
November 21, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161941/are-we-missing-the-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteraemia-forest-for-the-mrsa-trees
#5
Kevin B Laupland
In this edition of the journal, Jokinen et al. report on a population based study of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) in Finland. They observe increasing incidence of cases over time that are associated with an increase in blood culture sampling. As compared to methicillin-sensitive SAB that increases during the study period, the incidence of methicillin-resistant SAB increases and then decreases. The proportion of cases with penicillin-sensitive SAB markedly increases in the study representing 43% of isolates in the most recent year of surveillance...
November 21, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160517/prevalence-and-antibiogram-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-medical-device-related-infections-a-retrospective-study-in-lahore-pakistan
#6
Muhammad Sohail, Zakia Latif
INTRODUCTION: With the advancement of medicine and surgery, various types of medical devices have become part of treatment strategies. METHODS: Identification and antimicrobial sensitivity testing were done according to CLSI guidelines following standard microbiological practices. RESULTS: Urinary catheter infections (31%) were most frequent followed by central venous catheter (18%) and orthopedic implants (15%). Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was a major cause of device-related infection after Escherichia coli (21%); other pathogens were Klebsiella pneumoniae (14%), Pseudomonas spp...
September 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160504/nasal-carriage-rate-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-among-iranian-healthcare-workers-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
Mohammad Emaneini, Fereshteh Jabalameli, Hosseinali Rahdar, Willem B van Leeuwen, Reza Beigverdi
Globally, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) remains a major cause of healthcare-associated infections. Healthcare workers (HCWs), patients and the environment may act as reservoirs for the spread of MRSA to patients and other HCWs. Screening and eradication of MRSA colonization is an effective method of reducing the MRSA infection rate. There are limited data on the prevalence of MRSA among Iranian HCWs. We performed a systematic search by using different electronic databases including Medline (via PubMed), Embase, Web of Science, and Iranian Databases (from January 2000 to July 2016)...
September 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158906/molecular-characterization-of-panton-valentine-leukocidin-pvl-toxin-encoding-phages-from-south-india
#8
V Balaji, D B Yamuna, Y I Francis, G Priya Doss
A total of 19 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates were investigated for Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) toxin, PVL gene sequence variation and PVL-encoding phages. Whole genome sequencing was performed for all isolates. Analysis of MRSA isolates (n = 19) confirmed that most MRSA (n = 11) were positive for the PVL gene and were multidrug resistant. ST772-MRSA-V was the predominant PVL-positive MRSA clone, although all of them were found to carry the ΦIND772PVL phage in the genome...
November 2017: New Microbes and New Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158405/origin-evolution-and-global-transmission-of-community-acquired-staphylococcus-aureus-st8
#9
Lena Strauß, Marc Stegger, Patrick Eberechi Akpaka, Abraham Alabi, Sebastien Breurec, Geoffrey Coombs, Beverly Egyir, Anders Rhod Larsen, Frederic Laurent, Stefan Monecke, Georg Peters, Robert Skov, Birgit Strommenger, François Vandenesch, Frieder Schaumburg, Alexander Mellmann
USA300 is a pandemic clonal lineage of hypervirulent, community-acquired, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) with specific molecular characteristics. Despite its high clinical relevance, the evolutionary origin of USA300 remained unclear. We used comparative genomics of 224 temporal and spatial diverse S. aureus isolates of multilocus sequence type (ST) 8 to reconstruct the molecular evolution and global dissemination of ST8, including USA300. Analyses of core SNP diversity and accessory genome variations showed that the ancestor of all ST8 S...
November 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158272/combination-antibiotic-exposure-selectively-alters-the-development-of-vancomycin-intermediate-resistance-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#10
Xuting Zheng, Andrew D Berti, Sue McCrone, Melanie Roch, Adriana E Rosato, Warren E Rose, Baiyi Chen
Invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) treated with vancomycin (VAN) is associated with reduced VAN susceptibility and treatment failure. VAN combination therapy is one strategy to improve response, but comprehensive assessments of combinations to prevent resistance are limited. This study identifies optimal combinations to prevent the emergence of VAN-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA). Two standard MRSA and two heterogeneous VISA (hVISA) strains were exposed for 28 days in vitro to VAN alone, VAN with cefazolin (CFZ), fosfomycin (FOF), gentamicin (GEN), meropenem (MEM), rifampin (RIF), piperacillin-tazobactam (TZP) or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT)...
November 20, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157953/chromogenic-detection-procedure-for-the-multidrug-resistant-neonatal-sepsis-associated-clone-staphylococcus-capitis-nrcs-a
#11
Marine Butin, Yann Dumont, Jean-Philippe Rasigade, Patricia Martins Simoes, Louise Hoden, Jean-Charles Picaud, Frédéric Laurent
The multiresistant Staphylococcus capitis clone NRCS-A is a major pathogen in neonates worldwide. We show that NRCS-A grows as mauve colonies with a cream-color halo after a 5-day incubation on MRSA Brilliance 2 agar (Oxoid®). This innovative protocol will ease the screening of clinical and environmental niches of this clone.
October 23, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157827/supplementation-with-tocotrienols-from-bixa-orellana-improves-the-in-vivo-efficacy-of-daptomycin-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-a-mouse-model-of-infected-wound
#12
Elisa Pierpaoli, Fiorenza Orlando, Oscar Cirioni, Oriana Simonetti, Andrea Giacometti, Mauro Provinciali
BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a common cause of skin and soft-tissue infection worldwide. An adequate immune response acts as a first line of defence against infections and therefore plays an essential role in the maintenance of health. Tocotrienols (T3s), the lesser known isomers of vitamin E, possess many biological properties and have been recognized as immunomodulators. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the in vivo supplementation with a mixture of 87...
December 1, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157314/risk-factors-for-staphylococcus-aureus-acquisition-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-a-matched-case-case-control-study
#13
Matthew C Washam, Andrea Ankrum, Beth E Haberman, Mary Allen Staat, David B Haslam
OBJECTIVE To determine risk factors independent of length of stay (LOS) for Staphylococcus aureus acquisition in infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). DESIGN Retrospective matched case-case-control study. SETTING Quaternary-care referral NICU at a large academic children's hospital. METHODS Infants admitted between January 2014 and March 2016 at a level IV NICU who acquired methicillin resistant (MRSA) or susceptible (MSSA) S. aureus were matched with controls by duration of exposure to determine risk factors for acquisition...
November 21, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156865/antibacterial-resistance-patterns-and-incidence-of-hospital-acquired-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia-in-a-tertiary-care-educational-hospital-in-turkey-a-perspective-from-2001-to-2013
#14
Oğuz Reşat Sipahi, Serhat Uysal, Sabire Şöhret Aydemir, Hüsnü Pullukçu, Meltem Taşbakan, Alper Tünger, Fatma Feriha Çilli, Tansu Yamazhan, Bilgin Arda, Hilal Sipahi, Sercan Ulusoy
Background/aim: Staphylococcus aureus is an important nosocomial pathogen and a successful antimicrobial-resistance developer. In this study we retrospectively evaluated the resistance patterns and incidence of microbiologically confirmed nosocomial bacteremia (MCNB) related S. aureus strains between 2001 and 2013. Materials and methods: Any patient in whom S. aureus was isolated in at least one set of blood cultures (sent to the bacteriology laboratory 72 h after hospital admission) was considered to have MCNB...
August 23, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155125/virulence-characteristics-and-molecular-relatedness-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-harboring-different-staphylococcal-cassette-chromosome-mec
#15
Rana El-Baz, Dina E Rizk, Rasha Barwa, Ramadan Hassan
INTRODUCTION: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a versatile pathogen capable of causing multitude of human diseases. It is one of the most important nosocomial pathogen that implicated in community and healthcare associated infections. Therefore, this study aims to characterize different SCCmec elements found in MRSA isolates. Moreover, molecular typing was performed to investigate the genetic relatedness among MRSA isolates. METHODS: Phenotypic identification of MRSA was done by disc diffusion method...
November 15, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154746/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-activity-of-fosfomycin-alone-and-in-combination-with-rifampin-and-tigecycline-against-gram-positive-cocci-isolated-from-surgical-wound-infections
#16
Oriana Simonetti, Gianluca Morroni, Roberto Ghiselli, Fiorenza Orlando, Andrea Brenciani, Ledia Xhuvelaj, Mauro Provinciali, Annamaria Offidani, Mario Guerrieri, Andrea Giacometti, Oscar Cirioni
Complicated skin and soft tissue infections constitute a heterogeneous group of severe disorders, with surgical site infections being the most common hospital-acquired ones. The aim of our study was to investigate the synergistic and bactericidal activities of antimicrobial combinations of fosfomycin with rifampicin and tigecycline against Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clinical isolates, and also to evaluate their in vivo effects in a mouse wound infection model...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153513/biofilm-formation-of-staphylococcus-aureus-dairy-isolates-representing-different-genotypes
#17
E Thiran, P A Di Ciccio, H U Graber, E Zanardi, A Ianieri, J Hummerjohann
The objective of this study was to compare the biofilm-forming capabilities of different genotypes of Staphylococcus aureus dairy isolates from Switzerland and northern Italy, including Staph. aureus genotype B (GTB) and methicillin-resistant Staph. aureus (MRSA). We hypothesized that biofilm formation might be more pronounced in the contagious GTB isolates compared with other genotypes affecting individual animals. Twenty-four dairy isolates, including 9 MRSA, were further characterized by genotyping by using ribosomal spacer PCR, spa typing, biofilm formation under static and dynamic conditions, and scanning electron microscopy...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153470/impact-of-a-pharmacist-driven-care-package-on-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia-management-in-a-large-community-healthcare-network-a-propensity-score-matched-quasi-experimental-study
#18
Jordan R Smith, Jeremy J Frens, Cynthia B Snider, Kimberly C Claeys
OBJECTIVES: Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Suboptimal treatment has been associated with poor patient outcomes. Our antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) evaluated SAB management based on predefined performance measures both prior to and after instituting a "care package" intervention led by clinical pharmacists and infectious diseases physicians. The primary outcome included a 4-point "optimal care score" (OCS) consisting of targeted antibiotic therapy within 24hours, repeating blood cultures, antibiotic duration assessment, and appropriate duration of therapy...
October 7, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152580/chromosomal-targeting-by-the-type-iii-a-crispr-cas-system-can-reshape-genomes-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#19
Jing Guan, Wanying Wang, Baolin Sun
CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat [CRISPR]-CRISPR-associated protein [Cas]) systems can provide protection against invading genetic elements by using CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) as a guide to locate and degrade the target DNA. CRISPR-Cas systems have been classified into two classes and five types according to the content of cas genes. Previous studies have indicated that CRISPR-Cas systems can avoid viral infection and block plasmid transfer. Here we show that chromosomal targeting by the Staphylococcus aureus type III-A CRISPR-Cas system can drive large-scale genome deletion and alteration within integrated staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec)...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151993/antibiotic-based-phenotype-and-hospital-admission-profile-are-the-most-likely-predictors-of-genotyping-classification-of-mrsa
#20
Ali M Bazzi, Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq, Ali A Rabaan, Dianne Neal, Aimee Ferraro, Mahmoud M Fawarah
Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and financial burdens. Phenotyping methods are used to classify MRSA as either health care MRSA (HA-MRSA) or community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA). Recent studies suggested the phenotyping methods are not always reliable, based on a lack of concordance with genotyping results. Objective: In this study, concordance of classification methods based on clinical characteristics or antibiotic susceptibility compared to the gold standard genotyping was assessed in the classification of MRSA...
2017: Open Microbiology Journal
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