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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806528/surface-adaptive-gold-nanoparticles-with-effective-adherence-and-enhanced-photothermal-ablation-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilm
#1
Dengfeng Hu, Huan Li, Bailiang Wang, Zi Ye, Wenxi Lei, Fan Jia, Qiao Jin, Ke-Feng Ren, Jian Ji
Biofilms which contribute to the persistent bacterial infections pose serious threats to global public health, mainly due to their resistance to antibiotics penetration and escaping innate immune attacks by phagocytes. Here, we report a kind of surface-adaptive gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) exhibiting (1) self-adaptive target to the acidic microenvironment of biofilm, (2) enhanced photothermal ablation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) biofilm under near-infrared (NIR) light irradiation and (3) no damage to the healthy tissues around biofilm...
August 14, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804601/policy-implementation-for-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-seven-european-countries-a-comparative-analysis-from-1999-to-2015
#2
Takuya Kinoshita, Hironobu Tokumasu, Shiro Tanaka, Axel Kramer, Koji Kawakami
Background: Policies to reduce methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections, both healthcare-acquired (HA-MRSA) and livestock-associated (LA-MRSA) are implemented Europe-wide, but evaluations are difficult for countries yet to implement such policies. A descriptive study was conducted, describing multinational MRSA rates and policy implementation, focusing on MRSA mandatory surveillance. We also investigated antibiotic use and MRSA rates and the use of veterinary antibiotics. Methods: This study used Europe-wide surveillance data on infectious diseases (EARS-Net), antibiotic consumption (ESAC-Net), and veterinary medicine (ESVAC)...
2017: Journal of Market Access & Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803587/the-rise-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-now-the-dominant-cause-of-skin-and-soft-tissue-infection-in-central-australia
#3
E Macmorran, S Harch, E Athan, S Lane, S Tong, L Crawford, S Krishnaswamy, S Hewagama
This study aimed to examine the epidemiology and treatment outcomes of community-onset purulent staphylococcal skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) in Central Australia. We performed a prospective observational study of patients hospitalised with community-onset purulent staphylococcal SSTI (n = 160). Indigenous patients accounted for 78% of cases. Patients were predominantly young adults; however, there were high rates of co-morbid disease. Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) was the dominant phenotype, accounting for 60% of cases...
August 14, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802796/antibacterial-prophylaxis-for-gram-positive-and-gram-negative-infections-in-cranial-surgery-a-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Pranav Abraham, Nayan Lamba, Michael Acosta, Joanna Gholmie, Hassan Y Dawood, Matthew Vestal, Kevin Huang, Maher Hulou, Morteza Asgarzadeh, Hasan Zaidi, Rania A Mekary, Timothy R Smith
BACKGROUND: Perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis against gram positive and gram negative infections is considered standard of care in the perioperative management of patients undergoing cranial surgery. The antibiotic regimen which best reduces the risk of surgical site infections (SSIs) remains controversial. OBJECTIVES: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis were conducted to examine the effect of various prophylactic antibiotics on infection incidence among patients undergoing cranial surgeries...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800818/characterization-of-a-novel-endolysin-lyssa11-and-its-utility-as-a-potent-biocontrol-agent-against-staphylococcus-aureus-on-food-and-utensils
#5
Yoonjee Chang, Minsik Kim, Sangryeol Ryu
Here we show that the LysSA11 endolysin, derived from the virulent Staphylococcus aureus phage SA11, has lytic activity against staphylococcal strains. Bioinformatics analysis revealed an enzymatically active CHAP (cysteine, histidine-dependent amidohydrolases/peptidases) domain at the N-terminus of LysSA11 that showed amidase activity. A novel cell wall binding domain (CBD) in the C-terminus could bind to a broad spectrum of staphylococcal cells. The bactericidal activity of LysSA11 was determined in food and utensils artificially contaminated with methicillin-resistant S...
December 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800088/upregulation-and-identification-of-antibiotic-activity-of-a-marine-derived-streptomyces-sp-via-co-cultures-with-human-pathogens
#6
Anne A Sung, Samantha M Gromek, Marcy J Balunas
Marine natural product drug discovery has begun to play an important role in the treatment of disease, with several recently approved drugs. In addition, numerous microbial natural products have been discovered from members of the order Actinomycetales, particularly in the genus Streptomyces, due to their metabolic diversity for production of biologically active secondary metabolites. However, many secondary metabolites cannot be produced under laboratory conditions because growth conditions in flask culture differ from conditions in the natural environment...
August 11, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799881/prevalence-and-microbiological-characteristics-of-qaca-b-positive-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-in-a-surgical-intensive-care-unit
#7
Oh-Hyun Cho, Ki-Ho Park, Ji Young Song, Jeong Min Hong, Taeeun Kim, Sun In Hong, Sunjoo Kim, In-Gyu Bae
The increasing use of chlorhexidine for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) decolonization has raised concerns about the emergence of resistance to or tolerance of this antiseptic. We examined the frequency and characteristics of qacA/B chlorhexidine tolerance genes among MRSA isolates in a surgical intensive care unit (ICU) where MRSA-colonized patients are decolonized by chlorhexidine bathing. The MRSA isolates were evaluated for chlorhexidine susceptibility, mupirocin resistance, molecular typing, agr functionality, and the heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate S...
August 11, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799789/naphtho-1-2-b-furan-4-5-dione-is-a-potent-anti-mrsa-agent-against-planktonic-biofilm-and-intracellular-bacteria
#8
Shih-Chun Yang, Feng-Lin Yen, Pei-Wen Wang, Ibrahim A Aljuffali, Yi-Han Weng, Chih-Hua Tseng, Jia-You Fang
AIM: Naphtho[1,2-b]furan-4,5-dione (N12D) and naphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione (N23D) are furanonaphthoquinone derivatives from natural resources. We examined the antimicrobial activity of N12D and N23D against drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. MATERIALS & METHODS: Minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration, bacterial viability and agar diffusion assay were conducted against methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and clinical isolates of vancomycin-resistant S...
August 11, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799332/attaching-the-nora-efflux-pump-inhibitor-inf55-to-methylene-blue-enhances-antimicrobial-photodynamic-inactivation-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#9
Ardeshir Rineh, Naveen K Dolla, Anthony R Ball, Maria Magana, John B Bremner, Michael R Hamblin, George P Tegos, Michael J Kelso
Antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation (aPDI) uses photosensitizers (PSs) and harmless visible light to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and kill microbes. Multidrug efflux systems can moderate the phototoxic effects of PSs by expelling the compounds from cells. We hypothesized that increasing intracellular concentrations of PSs by inhibiting efflux with a covalently attached efflux pump inhibitor (EPI) would enhance bacterial cell phototoxicity and reduce exposure of neighbouring host cells to damaging ROS...
August 11, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798188/complete-genome-sequence-of-a-livestock-associated-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-sequence-type-5-isolate-from-the-united-states
#10
Samantha J Hau, Darrell O Bayles, David P Alt, Timothy S Frana, Tracy L Nicholson
Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) may be the largest MRSA reservoir outside the hospital setting. One concern with LA-MRSA is the acquisition of novel mobile genetic elements by these isolates. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a swine LA-MRSA sequence type 5 isolate from the United States.
August 10, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798187/complete-genome-sequence-of-livestock-associated-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-sequence-type-398-isolated-from-swine-in-the-united-states
#11
Samantha J Hau, Darrell O Bayles, David P Alt, Timothy S Frana, Tracy L Nicholson
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonizes and causes disease in many animal species. Livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA) isolates are represented by isolates of the sequence type 398 (ST398). These isolates are considered to be livestock adapted. This report provides the complete genome sequence of one swine-associated LA-MRSA ST398 isolate from the United States.
August 10, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797802/antibiotic-susceptibilities-and-prevalence-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-isolated-from-bovine-milk-in-pakistan
#12
Amjad Islam Aqib, Muhammad Ijaz, Aftab Ahmad Anjum, Muhammad Abdul Rauf Malik, Khalid Mehmood, Shahid Hussain Farooqi, Kashif Hussain
The study was designed to investigate bovine milk for prevalence of an emerging zoonotic pathogen Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and in-vitro therapeutic response of various antibiotics against MRSA. Nine hundred (900) milk samples were collected (half from cattle and half from buffalo) from private and public farms located in various tehsils of district Faisalabad, using the convenient sampling method. Milk samples were put to biochemical identification of Staphylococcus aureus and later oxacilline disk sensitivity testing for confirmation of MRSA...
August 7, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797758/infection-control-measures-and-prevalence-of-multidrug-resistant-organisms-in-non-hospital-care-settings-in-northeastern-germany-results-from-a-one-day-point-prevalence-study
#13
N O Hübner, K Dittmann, R Begunk, A Kramer
BACKGROUND: Much of the existing literature on the epidemiology of multidrug resistant bacterial organisms (MDROs) and infection control measures still concentrates on hospital care settings. AIM: We piloted a cross-sectional survey in long-term care facilities (LTCFs), rehabilitation clinics and home care services (HCSs) to assess the prevalence of MDROs, structural data on infection control and referral links between care settings in the state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (Germany) in 2015...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797757/micro-textured-films-for-reducing-microbial-colonization-in-a-clinical-setting
#14
Alon R Mendez, Thean Yen Tan, Hong Yee Low, Katja Holtta Otto, Helena Tan, Xiaojuan Khoo
Transmission of microbes in the hospital environment occurs frequently through human interactions with high touch surfaces such as patient beds and over-bed tables. Although stringent cleaning routines are implemented as a preventive measure to minimize transmission of microbes, it is desirable to have high touch surfaces made of anti-microbial materials. Physical texturing of solid surfaces offers a non-bactericidal approach to control the colonization of such surfaces by microbes. This study investigated the efficacy of micro-textured polycarbonate (PC) films in reducing bacterial load on over-bed tables in a hospital ward...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797580/particle-engineering-for-intracellular-delivery-of-vancomycin-to-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-infected-macrophages
#15
Yihua Pei, Mohamed F Mohamed, Mohamed N Seleem, Yoon Yeo
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is a serious threat to the public health. MRSA is particularly difficult to treat when it invades host cells and survive inside the cells. Although vancomycin is active against MRSA, it does not effectively kill intracellular MRSA due to the molecular size and polarity that limit its cellular uptake. To overcome poor intracellular delivery of vancomycin, we developed a particle formulation (PpZEV) based on a blend of polymers with distinct functions: (i) poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA, P) serving as the main delivery platform, (ii) polyethylene glycol-PLGA conjugate (PEG-PLGA, p) to help maintain an appropriate level of polarity for timely release of vancomycin, (iii) Eudragit E100 (a copolymer based on dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate, butyl methacrylate and methyl methacrylate, E) to enhance vancomycin encapsulation, and (iv) a chitosan derivative called ZWC (Z) to trigger pH-sensitive drug release...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797299/prevalence-of-antimicrobial-drug-resistant-bacteria-carried-by-in-and-outpatients-attending-a-secondary-care-hospital-in-zambia
#16
Marjolijn M B Nagelkerke, Kapembwa Sikwewa, Dennis Makowa, Irene de Vries, Simon Chisi, J Wendelien Dorigo-Zetsma
OBJECTIVE: Antimicrobial resistance is an increasing global health problem. Very little data on resistance patterns of pathogenic bacteria in low-income countries exist. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of antimicrobial drug resistant bacteria carried by in- and outpatients in the resource constraint setting of a secondary care hospital in Zambia. Nasal and rectal samples from 50 in- and 50 outpatients were collected. Patients were randomly selected and informed consent was obtained...
August 10, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797064/bacteriological-profiling-of-diphenylureas-as-a-novel-class-of-antibiotics-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#17
Haroon Mohammad, Waleed Younis, Hany G Ezzat, Christine E Peters, Ahmed AbdelKhalek, Bruce Cooper, Kit Pogliano, Joe Pogliano, Abdelrahman S Mayhoub, Mohamed N Seleem
Bacterial resistance to antibiotics remains an imposing global public health challenge. Of the most serious pathogens, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is problematic given strains have emerged that exhibit resistance to several antibiotic classes including β-lactams and agents of last resort such as vancomycin. New antibacterial agents composed of unique chemical scaffolds are needed to counter this public health challenge. The present study examines two synthetic diphenylurea compounds 1 and 2 that inhibit growth of clinically-relevant isolates of MRSA at concentrations as low as 4 µg/mL and are non-toxic to human colorectal cells at concentrations up to 128 μg/mL...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796008/methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-cystic-fibrosis-how-should-it-be-managed
#18
Marianne S Muhlebach
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) remains prevalent in people with cystic fibrosis (CF). As chronic infection with worse pulmonary outcomes develops frequently, the organism is concerning to CF providers and patients. This review describes current epidemiology, our understanding of risk factors for MRSA infection, and relevant aspects of treatment with review of new and ongoing trials. RECENT FINDINGS: Prevalence ranges from a low of 3 to 4% in some European countries to a high of approximately 26% in the United States...
August 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794647/cefazolin-potency-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-a-microbiologic-assessment-in-support-of-a-novel-drug-delivery-system-for-skin-and-skin-structure-infections
#19
David P Nicolau, Barry N Silberg
INTRODUCTION: Despite aggressive medical and surgical management, the resolution of skin and skin structure infections is often difficult due to insufficient host response, reduced drug penetration, and a high prevalence of resistance organisms such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). As a result of these factors, conventional management often consists of prolonged broad-spectrum systemic antimicrobials. An alternative therapy in development, ultrasonic drug dispersion (UDD), uses a subcutaneous injection followed by external trans-cutaneous ultrasound to deliver high tissue concentrations of cefazolin with limited systemic exposure...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793964/in-vitro-activities-of-tedizolid-and-comparator-antimicrobial-agents-against-clinical-isolates-of-staphylococcus-aureus-collected-in-12-countries-from-2014-to-2016
#20
James A Karlowsky, Meredith A Hackel, Samuel K Bouchillon, Jeff Alder, Daniel F Sahm
Clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (n=3929) collected by 54 medical center laboratories in 12 countries in 2014-2016 were tested for in vitro susceptibility to tedizolid, linezolid, and 11 comparators using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) broth microdilution methodology with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) interpreted by CLSI M100-S26 (2016) criteria. All isolates of S. aureus tested were susceptible to both tedizolid (MIC, ≤0.5μg/mL) and linezolid (MIC, ≤4μg/mL). The concentration of tedizolid that inhibited 90% of isolates (MIC90) was 0...
July 8, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
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