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Necrotising enterocolitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321847/antenatal-corticosteroids-for-accelerating-fetal-lung-maturation-for-women-at-risk-of-preterm-birth
#1
REVIEW
Devender Roberts, Julie Brown, Nancy Medley, Stuart R Dalziel
BACKGROUND: Respiratory morbidity including respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is a serious complication of preterm birth and the primary cause of early neonatal mortality and disability. While researching the effects of the steroid dexamethasone on premature parturition in fetal sheep in 1969, Liggins found that there was some inflation of the lungs of lambs born at gestations at which the lungs would be expected to be airless. Liggins and Howie published the first randomised controlled trial in humans in 1972 and many others followed...
March 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302697/abstention-or-intervention-for-isolated-hypotension-in-the-first-3%C3%A2-days-of-life-in-extremely-preterm-infants-association-with-short-term-outcomes-in-the-epipage-2-cohort-study
#2
Xavier Durrmeyer, Laetitia Marchand-Martin, Raphaël Porcher, Geraldine Gascoin, Jean-Christophe Roze, Laurent Storme, Geraldine Favrais, Pierre-Yves Ancel, Gilles Cambonie
OBJECTIVE: To compare outcomes at hospital discharge for preterm infants born before 29 weeks of gestation who had at least one episode of isolated hypotension during their first 72 hours of life for which they did or did not receive antihypotensive treatment. DESIGN: Etude Epidémiologique sur les Petits Ages Gestationnels 2 (EPIPAGE 2) French national prospective population-based cohort study in 2011. SETTING: 60 neonatal intensive care units...
March 16, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294496/timing-of-antenatal-corticosteroid-administration-and-survival-in-extremely-preterm-infants-a-national-population-based-cohort-study
#3
H Norberg, J Kowalski, K Maršál, M Norman
OBJECTIVE: To explore the association between administration-to-birth interval of antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) and survival in extremely preterm infants. DESIGN: Population-based prospective cohort study. SETTING: All obstetric and neonatal units in Sweden from 1 April 2004 to 31 March 2007. POPULATION: All live-born infants (n = 707) born at 22-26 completed weeks of gestation. METHODS: The relationship between time from first administration of ACS to delivery and survival was investigated using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis...
March 15, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288222/-the-benefits-of-breastfeeding-and-associated-risks-of-replacement-with-baby-formulas
#4
Paulina Brahm, Verónica Valdés
Breastfeeding is the nourishment designed by nature for the newborn and the infant; however its prevalence is nowadays not optimal. The aim of this article is to review the current evidence of the benefits of breastfeeding for children and society, and to elaborate the risks associated with the replacement of lactation with baby formulas. Breastfeeding is a protective factor for several infectious, atopic, and cardiovascular diseases as well as for leukaemia, necrotising enterocolitis, celiac disease, and inflammatory bowel disease...
February 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281412/early-hybrid-approach-and-enteral-feeding-algorithm-could-reduce-the-incidence-of-necrotising-enterocolitis-in-neonates-with-ductus-dependent-systemic-circulation
#5
Lucia Manuri, Stefano Morelli, Salvatore Agati, Michele B Saitta, Lilia Oreto, Giuseppe Mandraffino, Enrico Iannace, Fiore S Iorio, Paolo Guccione
BACKGROUND: The reported incidence of necrotising enterocolitis in neonates with complex CHD with ductus-dependent systemic circulation ranges from 6.8 to 13% despite surgical treatment; the overall mortality is between 25 and 97%. The incidence of gastrointestinal complications after hybrid palliation for neonates with ductus-dependent systemic circulation still has to be defined, but seems comparable with that following the Norwood procedure. METHODS: We reviewed the incidence of gastrointestinal complications in a series of 42 consecutive neonates with ductus-dependent systemic circulation, who received early hybrid palliation associated with a standardised feeding protocol...
January 2017: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272242/predictive-factors-and-clinical-practice-profile-for-strictures-post-necrotising-enterocolitis
#6
MULTICENTER STUDY
Han Zhang, Jiaping Chen, Yan Wang, Chun Deng, Lei Li, Chunbao Guo
Intestinal stricture is a severe and common complication of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), causing severe and prolonged morbidity. Our goal was to investigate the clinical predictors for strictures developing after NEC and evaluate the management outcome of the post-NEC strictures to better orient their medicosurgical care.A total of 188 patients diagnosed with NEC with identical treatment protocols throughout the period under study were retrospectively reviewed from 4 academic neonatal centers between from January 1, 2011, and October 31, 2016...
March 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222717/causes-of-death-in-very-preterm-infants-cared-for-in-neonatal-intensive-care-units-a-population-based-retrospective-cohort-study
#7
Tim Schindler, Louise Koller-Smith, Kei Lui, Barbara Bajuk, Srinivas Bolisetty
BACKGROUND: While there are good data to describe changing trends in mortality and morbidity rates for preterm populations, there is very little information on the specific causes and pattern of death in terms of age of vulnerability. It is well established that mortality increases with decreasing gestational age but there are limited data on the specific causes that account for this increased mortality. The aim of this study was to establish the common causes of hospital mortality in a regional preterm population admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU)...
February 21, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211086/variation-of-the-rates-of-necrotising-enterocolitis-in-the-neonatal-networks-in-england
#8
Nicholas T Longford
Necrotising enterocolitis is an oft-fatal disease of the intestinal tract in neonates born prematurely and with low birthweight. We study the variation of its rates across the neonatal networks (groups of hospital-based neonatal care units) in England. We illustrate the problematic nature of hypothesis testing for a key decision, which an analysis is meant to inform, and apply an approach based on decision theory. We emphasise the role of sensitivity analysis in dealing with the ambiguity encountered in the process of eliciting information about the perspective of the client or sponsor for whom the analysis is conducted...
February 17, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209998/cervical-pessary-for-prevention-of-preterm-birth-a-meta-analysis
#9
Xin-Hang Jin, Dan Li, Li-Li Huang
To investigate the efficacy of cervical pessary placement in preventing preterm birth and perinatal morbidity and mortality in asymptomatic women with a singleton pregnancy and a short cervix, we searched literature in relevant databases. The meta-analysis of the 3 included trials (1412 women) showed cervical pessary placement did not reduce the risk of spontaneous preterm birth <34 weeks in these women (risk ratio (RR), 0.71; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.21-2.43, P = 0.59; I(2) = 90%). The sensitivity analyses by excluding one trial at one time showed the same results...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158932/the-association-of-neonatal-morbidity-with-long-term-neurological-outcome-in-infants-who-were-growth-restricted-and-preterm-at-birth-secondary-analyses-from-truffle-trial-of-randomized-umbilical-and-fetal-flow-in-europe
#10
A G Van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, N Marlow, C Lees, H Wolf
OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between neonatal morbidity (NNM) and two-year neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) in surviving children after early fetal growth restriction (FGR). DESIGN: Secondary analysis of a European randomised trial (TRUFFLE) of delivery for very preterm fetuses dependent on venous Doppler or cardiotocographic criteria. SETTING: Tertiary perinatal centres, participants in TRUFFLE. POPULATION: 402 surviving children after early FGR...
February 3, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146296/nasal-intermittent-positive-pressure-ventilation-nippv-versus-nasal-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-ncpap-for-preterm-neonates-after-extubation
#11
REVIEW
Brigitte Lemyre, Peter G Davis, Antonio G De Paoli, Haresh Kirpalani
BACKGROUND: Previous randomised trials and meta-analyses have shown that nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) is a useful method for providing respiratory support after extubation. However, this treatment sometimes 'fails' in infants, and they may require endotracheal re-intubation with its attendant risks and expense. Nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) can augment NCPAP by delivering ventilator breaths via nasal prongs. Older children and adults with chronic respiratory failure benefit from NIPPV, and the technique has been applied to neonates...
February 1, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129748/the-speed-of-increasing-milk-feeds-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#12
Jane Abbott, Janet Berrington, Ursula Bowler, Elaine Boyle, Jon Dorling, Nicholas Embleton, Edmund Juszczak, Alison Leaf, Louise Linsell, Samantha Johnson, Kenny McCormick, William McGuire, Tracy Roberts, Ben Stenson
BACKGROUND: In the UK, 1-2% of infants are born very preterm (<32 weeks of gestation) or have very low birth weight (<1500 g). Very preterm infants are initially unable to be fed nutritional volumes of milk and therefore require intravenous nutrition. Milk feeding strategies influence several long and short term health outcomes including growth, survival, infection (associated with intravenous nutrition) and necrotising enterocolitis (NEC); with both infection and NEC being key predictive factors of long term disability...
January 28, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128874/policy-of-feeding-very-preterm-infants-with-their-mother-s-own-fresh-expressed-milk-was-associated-with-a-reduced-risk-of-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia
#13
Odile Dicky, Virginie Ehlinger, Nathalie Montjaux, Gisèle Gremmo-Féger, Jacques Sizun, Jean-Christophe Rozé, Catherine Arnaud, Charlotte Casper
AIM: Since 2005, the French Food Safety Agency has recommended that very preterm or low-birthweight babies should be fed with pasteurised, expressed breastmilk, and feeding policies on this vary widely in French neonatal units. We investigated the differences between using a mother's expressed milk, in fresh or pasteurised forms, for very preterm infants. METHODS: This observational multicentre study analysed data on 926 very preterm infants: 636 from neonatal units who used the mother's own fresh milk and 290 who used the mother's milk after pasteurisation...
January 27, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128518/maternal-and-neonatal-outcomes-in-women-with-severe-early-onset-pre-eclampsia-before-26-weeks-of-gestation-a-case-series
#14
M F van Oostwaard, L van Eerden, M W de Laat, J J Duvekot, Jjhm Erwich, Kwm Bloemenkamp, A C Bolte, Jpf Bosma, S V Koenen, R F Kornelisse, B Rethans, P van Runnard Heimel, Hcj Scheepers, W Ganzevoort, Bwj Mol, C J de Groot, Ipm Gaugler-Senden
OBJECTIVE: To describe the maternal and neonatal outcomes and prolongation of pregnancies with severe early onset pre-eclampsia before 26 weeks of gestation. DESIGN: Nationwide case series. SETTING: All Dutch tertiary perinatal care centres. POPULATION: All women diagnosed with severe pre-eclampsia who delivered between 22 and 26 weeks of gestation in a tertiary perinatal care centre in the Netherlands, between 2008 and 2014...
January 27, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128283/a-uk-wide-cohort-study-describing-management-and-outcomes-for-infants-with-surgical-necrotising-enterocolitis
#15
Benjamin Allin, Anna-May Long, Amit Gupta, Marian Knight, Kokila Lakhoo
The Royal College of Surgeons have proposed using outcomes from necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) surgery for revalidation of neonatal surgeons. The aim of this study was therefore to calculate the number of infants in the UK/Ireland with surgical NEC and describe outcomes that could be used for national benchmarking and counselling of parents. A prospective nationwide cohort study of every infant requiring surgical intervention for NEC in the UK was conducted between 01/03/13 and 28/02/14. Primary outcome was mortality at 28-days...
January 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114736/cromolyn-sodium-for-the-prevention-of-chronic-lung-disease-in-preterm-infants
#16
REVIEW
Geraldine Ng, Arne Ohlsson
BACKGROUND: This is an update of a review last published by Cochrane in June 2012 entitled "Cromolyn sodium for the prevention of chronic lung disease in preterm infants", which included two studies. This 2016 update identified no further studies.Chronic lung disease (CLD) frequently occurs in preterm infants and has a multifactorial aetiology including inflammation. Cromolyn sodium is a mast cell stabiliser that inhibits neutrophil activation and neutrophil chemotaxis and therefore may have a role in the prevention of CLD...
January 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102115/can-probiotics-modulate-human-disease-by-impacting-intestinal-barrier-function
#17
Peter A Bron, Michiel Kleerebezem, Robert-Jan Brummer, Patrice D Cani, Annick Mercenier, Thomas T MacDonald, Clara L Garcia-Ródenas, Jerry M Wells
Intestinal barrier integrity is a prerequisite for homeostasis of mucosal function, which is balanced to maximise absorptive capacity, while maintaining efficient defensive reactions against chemical and microbial challenges. Evidence is mounting that disruption of epithelial barrier integrity is one of the major aetiological factors associated with several gastrointestinal diseases, including infection by pathogens, obesity and diabetes, necrotising enterocolitis, irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease...
January 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087725/neurodevelopmental-outcomes-of-extremely-low-birthweight-infants-randomised-to-different-pco2-targets-the-phelbi-follow-up-study
#18
Ulrich H Thome, Orsolya Genzel-Boroviczeny, Bettina Bohnhorst, Manuel Schmid, Hans Fuchs, Oliver Rohde, Stefan Avenarius, Hans-Georg Topf, Andrea Zimmermann, Dirk Faas, Katharina Timme, Barbara Kleinlein, Horst Buxmann, Wilfried Schenk, Hugo Segerer, Norbert Teig, Annett Bläser, Roland Hentschel, Matthias Heckmann, Rolf Schlösser, Jochen Peters, Rainer Rossi, Wolfgang Rascher, Ralf Böttger, Jürgen Seidenberg, Gesine Hansen, Maria Zernickel, Harald Bode, Jens Dreyhaupt, Rainer Muche, Helmut D Hummler
BACKGROUND: Tolerating higher partial pressures of carbon dioxide (PCO2) in mechanically ventilated extremely low birthweight infants to reduce ventilator-induced lung injury may have long-term neurodevelopmental side effects. This study analyses the results of neurodevelopmental follow-up of infants enrolled in a randomised multicentre trial. METHODS: Infants (n=359) between 400 and 1000 g birth weight and 23 0/7-28 6/7 weeks gestational age who required endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation within 24 hours of birth were randomly assigned to high PCO2 or to a control group with mildly elevated PCO2 targets...
January 13, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050900/planned-early-birth-versus-expectant-management-waiting-for-prelabour-rupture-of-membranes-at-term-37-weeks-or-more
#19
REVIEW
Philippa Middleton, Emily Shepherd, Vicki Flenady, Rosemary D McBain, Caroline A Crowther
BACKGROUND: Prelabour rupture of membranes (PROM) at term is managed expectantly or by planned early birth. It is not clear if waiting for birth to occur spontaneously is better than intervening, e.g. by inducing labour. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review is to assess the effects of planned early birth (immediate intervention or intervention within 24 hours) when compared with expectant management (no planned intervention within 24 hours) for women with term PROM on maternal, fetal and neonatal outcomes...
January 4, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046187/development-of-a-gestational-age-specific-case-definition-for-neonatal-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#20
Cheryl Battersby, Nick Longford, Kate Costeloe, Neena Modi
Importance: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Preventive and therapeutic research, surveillance, and quality improvement initiatives are hindered by variations in case definitions. Objective: To develop a gestational age (GA)-specific case definition for NEC. Design, Setting, and Participants: We conducted a prospective 34-month population study using clinician-recorded findings from the UK National Neonatal Research Database between December 2011 and September 2014 across all 163 neonatal units in England...
March 1, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
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