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Necrotising enterocolitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087725/neurodevelopmental-outcomes-of-extremely-low-birthweight-infants-randomised-to-different-pco2-targets-the-phelbi-follow-up-study
#1
Ulrich H Thome, Orsolya Genzel-Boroviczeny, Bettina Bohnhorst, Manuel Schmid, Hans Fuchs, Oliver Rohde, Stefan Avenarius, Hans-Georg Topf, Andrea Zimmermann, Dirk Faas, Katharina Timme, Barbara Kleinlein, Horst Buxmann, Wilfried Schenk, Hugo Segerer, Norbert Teig, Annett Bläser, Roland Hentschel, Matthias Heckmann, Rolf Schlösser, Jochen Peters, Rainer Rossi, Wolfgang Rascher, Ralf Böttger, Jürgen Seidenberg, Gesine Hansen, Maria Zernickel, Harald Bode, Jens Dreyhaupt, Rainer Muche, Helmut D Hummler
BACKGROUND: Tolerating higher partial pressures of carbon dioxide (PCO2) in mechanically ventilated extremely low birthweight infants to reduce ventilator-induced lung injury may have long-term neurodevelopmental side effects. This study analyses the results of neurodevelopmental follow-up of infants enrolled in a randomised multicentre trial. METHODS: Infants (n=359) between 400 and 1000 g birth weight and 23 0/7-28 6/7 weeks gestational age who required endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation within 24 hours of birth were randomly assigned to high PCO2 or to a control group with mildly elevated PCO2 targets...
January 13, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050900/planned-early-birth-versus-expectant-management-waiting-for-prelabour-rupture-of-membranes-at-term-37-weeks-or-more
#2
REVIEW
Philippa Middleton, Emily Shepherd, Vicki Flenady, Rosemary D McBain, Caroline A Crowther
BACKGROUND: Prelabour rupture of membranes (PROM) at term is managed expectantly or by planned early birth. It is not clear if waiting for birth to occur spontaneously is better than intervening, e.g. by inducing labour. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review is to assess the effects of planned early birth (immediate intervention or intervention within 24 hours) when compared with expectant management (no planned intervention within 24 hours) for women with term PROM on maternal, fetal and neonatal outcomes...
January 4, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046187/development-of-a-gestational-age-specific-case-definition-for-neonatal-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#3
Cheryl Battersby, Nick Longford, Kate Costeloe, Neena Modi
Importance: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Preventive and therapeutic research, surveillance, and quality improvement initiatives are hindered by variations in case definitions. Objective: To develop a gestational age (GA)-specific case definition for NEC. Design, Setting, and Participants: We conducted a prospective 34-month population study using clinician-recorded findings from the UK National Neonatal Research Database between December 2011 and September 2014 across all 163 neonatal units in England...
January 3, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034304/temporal-bacterial-and-metabolic-development-of-the-preterm-gut-reveals-specific-signatures-in-health-and-disease
#4
Christopher J Stewart, Nicholas D Embleton, Emma C L Marrs, Daniel P Smith, Andrew Nelson, Bashir Abdulkadir, Tom Skeath, Joseph F Petrosino, John D Perry, Janet E Berrington, Stephen P Cummings
BACKGROUND: The preterm microbiome is crucial to gut health and may contribute to necrotising enterocolitis (NEC), which represents the most significant pathology affecting preterm infants. From a cohort of 318 infants, <32 weeks gestation, we selected 7 infants who developed NEC (defined rigorously) and 28 matched controls. We performed detailed temporal bacterial (n = 641) and metabolomic (n = 75) profiling of the gut microbiome throughout the disease. RESULTS: A core community of Klebsiella, Escherichia, Staphyloccocus, and Enterococcus was present in all samples...
December 29, 2016: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028291/contaminated-milk-is-a-common-cause-of-necrotising-enterocolitis-a-hypothesis
#5
N Y Boo
Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is the most commonly acquired gastrointestinal disease of neonates, particularly the very preterm (gestation <32 weeks) and/or very low birth weight (<1500g). It is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Despite improvement in neonatal care and increased use of expressed breast milk (EBM), the incidence remains high in many neonatal intensive care units (NICU), and even shows increasing trend in some countries. Numerous studies have pointed to the infective nature of NEC...
December 2016: Malaysian Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008787/a-review-of-dose-responses-of-probiotics-in-human-studies
#6
A C Ouwehand
The probiotic definition requires the administration of an 'adequate amount' in order to obtain a health benefit. What that amount should be is not indicated. Here, an overview is given of studies that investigated the dose-response relation of probiotics in human interventions. Studies were divided in; meta-analyses, meta-analyses on specific probiotic strains, and studies testing two or more doses of a probiotic (combination) in the same study. Meta-analyses on the effect of probiotics on antibiotic associated diarrhoea (AAD) suggest a dose-response effect; for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea on the other hand no dose-response was observed...
December 23, 2016: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990166/morbidity-and-mortality-in-preterm-infants-following-antacid-use-a-retrospective-audit
#7
Natasha Singh, Aparna Dhayade, Abdel-Latif Mohamed, Tejasvi Vasant Chaudhari
Background and Objectives. Antacids are often prescribed to preterm infants due to misdiagnosis of gastro-oesophageal reflux. This suppresses gastric acidity, a major defence mechanism against infection. This study aims to determine if ranitidine and omeprazole use in very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates, <1500 grams, is associated with increased risk of late onset sepsis, necrotising enterocolitis (NEC), and mortality. Methods. Retrospective analysis was conducted on neonates, <1500 grams, born and admitted into the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at The Canberra Hospital during the period from January 2008 to December 2012...
2016: International Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960245/bronchodilators-for-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-chronic-lung-disease-in-preterm-infants
#8
REVIEW
Geraldine Ng, Orlando da Silva, Arne Ohlsson
BACKGROUND: Chronic lung disease (CLD) occurs frequently in preterm infants. Bronchodilators have the potential effect of dilating small airways with muscle hypertrophy. Increased compliance and tidal volume and decreased pulmonary resistance have been documented with the use of bronchodilators in infants with CLD. Therefore, bronchodilators might have a role in the prevention and treatment of CLD. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of bronchodilators given as prophylaxis or as treatment for CLD on mortality and other complications of preterm birth in infants at risk for or identified as having CLD...
14, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935107/surgical-findings-during-exploratory-laparotomy-are-closely-related-to-mortality-in-premature-infants-with-necrotising-enterocolitis
#9
M L Hansen, S M Petersen, G Fonnest, G Greisen
AIM: This study investigated whether a correlation existed between surgical findings during the first laparotomy for necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) and death and, or, disease progression. METHODS: We included infants admitted within one day of birth to our tertiary neonatal department at Rigshospitalet, Denmark from 2006-2015, who underwent a laparotomy for acute NEC. They were classified according to the locality and extent of intestinal necrosis by a paediatric surgeon, based on the surgical findings...
December 9, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909996/modelling-the-cost-effectiveness-of-human-milk-and-breastfeeding-in-preterm-infants-in-the-united-kingdom
#10
James Mahon, Lindsay Claxton, Hannah Wood
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the cost savings and health benefits in the UK NHS that could be achieved if human milk usage in the NICU was increased. METHODS: A systematic review established the disease areas with the strong sources of evidence of the short, medium and long-term benefits of human milk for preterm infants as opposed to the use of formula milk. The analysis assessed the economic impact of reducing rates of necrotising enterocolitis, sepsis, sudden infant death syndrome, leukaemia, otitis media, obesity and neurodevelopmental impairment...
December 2016: Health Economics Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856479/cohort-study-of-growth-patterns-by-gestational-age-in-preterm-infants-developing-morbidity
#11
S Klevebro, P Lundgren, U Hammar, L E Smith, M Bottai, M Domellöf, C Löfqvist, B Hallberg, A Hellström
OBJECTIVES: To examine differences in growth patterns in preterm infants developing major morbidities including retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) and intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH). STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study of 2521 infants born at a gestational age (GA) of 23-30 weeks from 11 level III neonatal intensive care units in USA and Canada, and 3 Swedish population-based cohorts. OUTCOMES: Birth weight and postnatal weight gain were examined relative to birth GA and ROP, BPD, NEC and IVH development...
November 17, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809613/in-resource-limited-areas-complete-enteral-feed-in-stable-very-low-birth-weight-infants-1000-1500%C3%A2-g-started-within-24%C3%A2-h-of-life-can-improve-nutritional-outcome
#12
Reeta Bora, Nishchay B Murthy
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate feasibility of complete enteral feed (CEF) in stable very low birth weight neonates weighing 1000-1500 g. SUBJECTS AND INTERVENTIONS: One hundred and three stable very low birth weight (vlbw) neonates (1000-1500 g) irrespective of gestational age (GA) were randomized to receive either CEF with expressed breast milk (EBM) (n = 51) or minimal enteral feed (MEF) supplemented with intravenous fluid (IVF). (MEF) (n = 52). Feed volume was increased progressively...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793875/adult-necrotising-enterocolitis-pig-bel-disease-a-pacific-disease-in-london
#13
Justin Conrad Rosen Wormald, Sanjay Dindyal, Francesca Mellor, Nebil Behar
Adult necrotising enterocolitis secondary Clostridium perfringens type C-pig-bel disease-is rarely seen outside of Pacific populations, with the highest incidence being in Papau New Guinea. We present the first reported case of pig-bel disease in a previously well patient without diabetes following food poisoning since 1996. In this case, the enterotoxin-induced disease necessitated emergency laparotomy and bowel resection following the failure of medical treatment and worsening septic shock. We hypothesise that obstruction secondary to a sigmoid diverticular stricture complicated by infection-related oedema led to colonic stasis and rapid progression of disease and bowel loss...
October 28, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758929/determinants-of-developmental-outcomes-in-a-very-preterm-canadian-cohort
#14
Anne Synnes, Thuy Mai Luu, Diane Moddemann, Paige Church, David Lee, Michael Vincer, Marilyn Ballantyne, Annette Majnemer, Dianne Creighton, Junmin Yang, Reginald Sauve, Saroj Saigal, Prakesh Shah, Shoo K Lee
OBJECTIVES: Identify determinants of neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm children. METHODS: Prospective national cohort study of children born between 2009 and 2011 at <29 weeks gestational age, admitted to one of 28 Canadian neonatal intensive care units and assessed at a Canadian Neonatal Follow-up Network site at 21 months corrected age for cerebral palsy (CP), visual, hearing and developmental status using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-Third Edition (Bayley-III)...
October 6, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681352/atypical-presentation-of-acute-fulminant-neonatal-necrotising-enterocolitis-diagnostic-superiority-of-sonographic-evaluation-over-plain-radiography-of-abdomen
#15
Vidya Ramasamy, Harvey Teo, Victor Samuel Rajadurai, Suresh Chandran
A female preterm infant was born to a non-consanguineous couple at 35 weeks of gestation. On day 8 of life, while on full feeds, she developed prolonged apnoea and bradycardia, requiring respiratory support. Her abdomen was soft with unremarkable serial abdominal X-rays. Her septic screen was negative. Metabolic acidosis was worsening despite treatment. Echocardiography showed evidence of high pulmonary pressures. With further deterioration, an ultrasound scan of the abdomen was requested in view of the rising suspicion of abdominal pathology in the absence of sepsis and metabolic disorders...
September 28, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680207/definition-of-important-early-morbidities-related-to-paediatric-cardiac-surgery
#16
Katherine L Brown, Christina Pagel, Rhian Brimmell, Kate Bull, Peter Davis, Rodney C Franklin, Aparna Hoskote, Natasha Khan, Warren Rodrigues, Sara Thorne, Liz Smith, Linda Chigaru, Martin Utley, Jo Wray, Victor Tsang, Andrew Mclean
BACKGROUND: Morbidity is defined as a state of being unhealthy or of experiencing an aspect of health that is "generally bad for you", and postoperative morbidity linked to paediatric cardiac surgery encompasses a range of conditions that may impact the patient and are potential targets for quality assurance. METHODS: As part of a wider study, a multi-disciplinary group of professionals aimed to define a list of morbidities linked to paediatric cardiac surgery that was prioritised by a panel reflecting the views of both professionals from a range of disciplines and settings as well as parents and patients...
September 29, 2016: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671836/two-hourly-versus-3-hourly-feeding-for-very-low-birthweight-infants-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#17
Nor Rosidah Ibrahim, Tan Hooi Kheng, Ariffin Nasir, Noraida Ramli, Jimmy Lee Kok Foo, Sharifah Huda Syed Alwi, Hans Van Rostenberghe
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether feeding with 2-hourly or 3-hourly feeding interval reduces the time to achieve full enteral feeding and to compare their outcome in very low birthweight preterm infants. DESIGN: Parallel-group randomised controlled trial with a 1:1 allocation ratio. SETTING: Two regional tertiary neonatal intensive care units. PATIENTS: 150 preterm infants less than 35 weeks gestation with birth weight between 1...
September 26, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671183/efficacy-of-probiotics-versus-placebo-in-the-prevention-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis-in-preterm-very-low-birth-weight-infants-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Tanjina Chowdhury, Muhammad Manajjir Ali, Muhammad Monir Hossain, Jugindra Singh, Abu Noyeem Muhammad Yousuf, Fatema Yasmin, Fazle Rabbi Chowdhury
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of orally administered probiotics in preventing necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. STUDY DESIGN: Arandomized double blind controlled trial. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: The Paediatrics Department of Sylhet M.A.G. Osmani Medical College Hospital, Sylhet Bangladesh, from July 2012 to June 2015. METHODOLOGY: Preterm (28 - 33 weeks gestation) VLBW (birth weight 1000 - 1499 g) neonates were enrolled...
September 2016: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658328/a-case-of-hepatic-portal-venous-gas-after-colonoscopy
#19
Tevfik Solakoglu, Sevil O Sari, Huseyin Koseoglu, Murat Basaran, Mustafa Akar, Semnur Buyukasik, Osman Ersoy
Hepatic portal venous gas (HPVG) is a rare radiologic finding that is usually precipitated by intestinal ischaemia, intra-abdominal abscesses, necrotising enterocolitis, abdominal trauma, infectious enteritis, and inflammatory bowel disease. In this study, we present a case of HPVG in a 66-year-old female patient who underwent colonoscopy for evaluation of haematochezia and a review of the literature focused on HPVG following colonoscopy.
September 2016: Arab Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Publication of the Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624140/major-determinants-of-survival-and-length-of-stay-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-of-newborns-from-women-with-premature-preterm-rupture-of-membranes
#20
Meryem Kurek Eken, Abdülhamit Tüten, Enis Özkaya, Güner Karatekin, Ateş Karateke
OBJECTIVE: To assess the predictors of outcome in terms of length of stay in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and survival of neonates from women with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). METHODS: A population-based retrospective study including 331 singleton pregnant women with PPROM at 24-34 gestational weeks between January 2013 and December 2015 was conducted. Gestational age at delivery, birth weight, route of delivery, newborn gender, maternal age, oligohydramnios, premature retinopathy (ROP), necrotising enterocolitis (NEC), sepsis, fetal growth retardation (FGR), intracranial hemorrhagia (ICH), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH), congenital cardiac disease (CCD), patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), use of cortisol (betamethasone) and maternal complications including gestational diabetes, preeclampsia and chorioamnionitis were used to predict neonatal outcomes in terms of length of stay in the NICU and survival...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
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