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Biomedical applications

Jiangan Xie, Yongqun He
Vaccine is the one of the greatest inventions of modern medicine that has contributed most to the relief of human misery and the exciting increase in life expectancy. In 1796, an English country physician, Edward Jenner, discovered that inoculating mankind with cowpox can protect them from smallpox (Riedel S, Edward Jenner and the history of smallpox and vaccination. Proceedings (Baylor University. Medical Center) 18(1):21, 2005). Based on the vaccination worldwide, we finally succeeded in the eradication of smallpox in 1977 (Henderson, Vaccine 29:D7-D9, 2011)...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Eunseong Moon, David Blaauw, Jamie D Phillips
Wireless biomedical implantable devices on the mm-scale enable a wide range of applications for human health, safety, and identification, though energy harvesting and power generation are still looming challenges that impede their widespread application. Energy scavenging approaches to power biomedical implants have included thermal [1-3], kinetic [4-6], radio-frequency [7-11] and radiative sources [12-14]. However, the achievement of efficient energy scavenging for biomedical implants at the mm-scale has been elusive...
May 2017: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Paskalis Sahaya Murphin Kumar, Davoodbasha MubarakAli, Rijuta Ganesh Saratale, Ganesh Dattatraya Saratale, Arivalagan Pugazhendhi, Kumar Gopalakrishnan, Nooruddin Thajuddin
Algae could offer a potential source of fine chemicals, pharmaceuticals and biofuels. In this study, a green synthesis of dispersed cuboidal gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was achieved using red algae, Gelidium amansii reacted with HAuCl4. It was found to be 4-7 nm sized cubical nanoparticles with aspect ratio of 1.4 were synthesized using 0.5 mM of HAuCl4 by HRSEM analysis. The crystalline planes (111), (200), (220), (311) and elemental signal of gold was observed by XRD and EDS respectively. The major constitutes, galactose and 3,6-anhydrogalactose in the alga played a critical role in the synthesis of crystalline AuNPs with cubical dimension...
October 19, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
Yan-Ru Lou, Alan W Leung
Organoids are in vitro cultures of miniature fetal or adult organ-like structures. Their potentials for use in tissue and organ replacement, disease modeling, toxicology studies, and drug discovery are tremendous. Currently, major challenges facing human organoid technology include (i) improving the range of cellular heterogeneity for a particular organoid system, (ii) mimicking the native micro- and matrix-environment encountered by cells within organoids, and (iii) developing robust protocols for the in vitro maturation of organoids that remain mostly fetal-like in cultures...
October 19, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
Pranjali Yadav, Surya Prakash Singh, Aravind Kumar Rengan, Asifkhan Shanavas, Rohit Srivastava
Gold nanostructures are promising entities for various biomedical applications, due to their promising physical and optical properties. They can be tailored in different sizes and shapes to play vital roles for photothermal therapy, Biosensing, In vivo X-ray/CT contrast etc. Many biomacromolecules have been used for chemical reduction of ionic gold into zero-valent metallic nanoparticles of specific shape/size followed by stabilizing them for long term utilization. This review will sum up a range of biomacromolecules including Alginate, Agarose, Starch, Carragenan, Cellulose, Chitin, Chitosan, Collagen, Cyclodextrins, Chondrotin Sulfate, Dextran Sulfate, Fucoidan, Gelatin, Guar Gum and Hyaluronic Acid, whose functionalities have been explored in combination with gold nanoparticles for various biomedical applications...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Airul Ashri, Nurul Amalina, Akhsan Kamil, Shazrul Fazry, M Fareed Sairi, Muhammad Faizan Nazar, Azwan Mat Lazim
Starch-based hydrogels are promising smart materials for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications, which offer exciting perspectives in biophysical research at molecular level. This work was intended to develop, characterize and explore the properties of hydrogel from starch extracted from new source, Dioscorea hispida Dennst. Starch-mediated hydrogels were successfully synthesized via free radical polymerization method with varying concentrations of acrylic acid (AA),N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) in aqueous system...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Navid Samadi, Mohammad Sabzi, Masoud Babaahmadi
The aim of this work was to prepare polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/Agar/Graphene nanocomposite hydrogels through a one-pot and green solution mixing method using water as solvent. Herein a novel strategy for designing stiff, tough and self-healing triple network (TN) hydrogels was proposed. The prepared TN hydrogels composed of strong Agar polysaccharide as the first network, tough PVA biopolymer gel as the second network, and graphene nanoplatelets as the third network. Interestingly, similar to natural biomaterials, all of the networks of the nanocomposite hydrogel were physically cross-linked via dynamic hydrogen bonding associations, i...
October 18, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Ananya Deb, R Vimala
Two dimensional graphene and its derivatives have been a focus of scientific study due to its unique features which makes it suitable for biomedical applications. Herein a comparative study was carried out between chitosan polymerized graphene oxide and polyvinylpyrrolidone polymerized graphene oxide nanoparticles. The polymerized nanocarriers were further decorated with folic acid and anticancer drug camptothecin was loaded. The nanocarriers thus synthesized were characterized by x-ray diffractometer (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), UV-visible spectroscopy (UV), zeta potential and fluorescence spectroscopy...
October 18, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
JiUn Lee, Miji Yeo, WonJin Kim, YoungWon Koo, Geun Hyung Kim
Cell-printing is an emerging technique that enables to build a customized structure using biomaterials and living cells for various biomedical applications. In many biomaterials, alginate has been widely used for rapid gelation, low cost, and relatively high processability. However, biocompatibilities enhancing cell adhesion and proliferation were limited, so that, to overcome this problem, an outstanding alternative, collagen, has been extensively investigated. Many factors remain to be proven for cell-printing applications, such as printability, physical sustainability after printing, and applicability of in vitro cell culture...
October 17, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Huaping Peng, Danwei Lin, Pan Liu, Yanhong Wu, Shanhong Li, Yun Lei, Wei Chen, Yuanzhong Chen, Xinhua Lin, Xinghua Xia, Ailin Liu
This report outlines a rapid and highly sensitive colorimetric sensing platform based on a novel water-soluble WOx quantum dots (QDs) as enzymatic mimics. The WOx QDs, synthesized by a green hydrothermal method, were proven to possess excellent intrinsic peroxidase-like activity. The peroxidase substrate, 2, 2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) could be catalyzed oxidation by WOx QDs quickly in the present of H2O2 to form a green color. Due to its excellent properties such as excellent water-solublity, good biocompatibility, easy preparation, and high stability, the proposed system showed typical Michaelis-Menten kinetics and high affinity for ABTS and H2O2, indicating WOx QDs can be used as satisfactory peroxidase mimics...
November 1, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
Priyadarshani Choudhary, Thanusu Parandhaman, Baskaran Ramalingam, Natarajan Duraipandy, Manikantan Syamala Kiran, Sujoy K Das
Bacterial colonization on medical devices is a major concern in the healthcare industry. In the present study we report synthesis of environmental sustainable reduced graphene oxide (rGO) at large scale through biosynthetic route and its potential application for antibacterial coating on medical devices. HRTEM image depicts formation of graphene nanosheet, while DLS and ζ potential studies reveal that in aqueous medium the average hydrodynamic size and surface charge of rGO are 4410 ± 116 nm and -25.2 ± 3...
October 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Elbay Malikmammadov, Tugba Endogan Tanir, Aysel Kiziltay, Vasif Hasirci, Nesrin Hasirci
Biodegradable polymers have met withan increasing demand in medical usage over the last decades. One of such polymers is poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), whichis a polyester that has been widely used in tissue engineering field for its availability, relatively inexpensive price and suitability for modification. Its chemical and biological properties, physicochemical state, degradability and mechanical strengthcan be adjusted, and therefore,it can be usedunderharsh mechanical, physical and chemical conditions without significant loss of its properties...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
Lakshmanaperumal Sundarabharathi, Hemalatha Parangusan, Deepalekshmi Ponnamma, Mariam Al Ali Al-Maadeed, Mahendran Chinnaswamy
In the present investigation, we have successfully synthesized luminescent Eu(3+) -doped and Eu(3+) /Sr(2+) codoped hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles through sol-gel assisted precipitation method with the aim of developing novel biomaterials containing osteoblast mineral (Sr(2+) ) and luminescence activator (Eu(3+) ). The structure, morphology, thermal stability, and luminescence properties of the resultant spherical nanoparticles (50-100 nm diameters) were studied. Moreover, the in-vitro bioactivity of Eu0...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Wenjun Jiang, Baochang Zhang, Chuyao Fan, Min Wang, Jiaxing Wang, Qiang Deng, Xianyu Liu, Ji Chen, Jishen Zheng, Lei Liu, Ting F Zhu
The construction of mirror-image biological systems may open the next frontier for biomedical technology development and discovery. Here we have designed and chemically synthesized a mutant version of the thermostable Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 DNA polymerase IV (Dpo4) consisting of d-amino acids. With a total peptide length of 358 amino acid residues, it is the largest chemically synthesized d-amino acid protein reported to date. We show that the d-polymerase is able to amplify a 120-bp l-DNA sequence coding for the Escherichia coli 5S ribosomal RNA gene rrfB by mirror-image polymerase chain reaction, and that both the natural and mirror-image systems operate with strict chiral specificity...
2017: Cell Discovery
Hye-Young Kim, Brian R Novak, Bijay Shrestha, S Emma Lee, Dorel Moldovan
VECAR are novel bolaamphiphilic molecules consisting of two hydrophilic molecular groups, a carnosine derivative and a chromanol group, covalently linked by a hydrophobic alkyl spacer of varying length. Despite the potential for application in various biomedical applications VECAR properties, including their bulk properties, are still largely unknown. The early stage of the self-assembly process of VECAR molecules in water is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. The study reveals that the length of the hydrophobic spacer in VECAR affects the aggregation kinetics as well as the size, shape, density, and atomistic structure of the self-assembled aggregates...
June 20, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. A, Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects
Xiaolu Liu, Yicong Zuo, Jing Sun, Zhenzhen Guo, Hongsong Fan, Xingdong Zhang
Bioink development is vital in biofabriacation for generating three-dimensional (3D) tissue-like constructs. As potential candidates of bioinks, hydrogels need to meet the requirements of good moldability, initially strong mechanical properties and prominent bioactivity to guarantee cell vitality and further assembly. Enzyme-induced dynamic degradation is an efficient and biocompatible approach to improve the bioactivity of hydrogels through releasing space continuously for cell proliferation and promoting the functional establishing of engineered tissue...
December 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Liefeng Hu, Panpan Zhang, Xin Wang, Xu Cheng, Jiejie Qin, Rupei Tang
Hydrogel systems with favorable biocompatibility and biodegradability are of much interest for application in biomaterials and tissue engineering. In this study, a new ortho ester-based acid-labile crosslink agent with dual-epoxy end groups was synthesized and crosslinked with carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) at different molar ratios to prepare a series of pH-sensitive hydrogels for drug delivering. Doxorubicin (DOX) was then readily loaded into the hydrogels and the in vitro release profiles indicated that the release rate increased rapidly while pH decreased from 7...
December 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
M Zdimalova, R Roznovjak, P Weismann, H El Falougy, E Kubikova
INTRODUCTION: Image segmentation is a known problem in the field of image processing. A great number of methods based on different approaches to this issue was created. One of these approaches utilizes the findings of the graph theory. METHODS: Our work focuses on segmentation using shortest paths in a graph. Specifically, we deal with methods of "Intelligent Scissors," which use Dijkstra's algorithm to find the shortest paths. RESULTS: We created a new software in Microsoft Visual Studio 2013 integrated development environment Visual C++ in the language C++/CLI...
2017: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
Jingjiang Xu, Shaozhen Song, Yuandong Li, Ruikang K Wang
Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is increasingly becoming a popular inspection tool for biomedical imaging applications. By exploring amplitude, phase and complex information available in the OCT signals, numerous algorithms are proposed to contrast functional vessel networks with microcirculation tissue beds. However, it is not clear which algorithm delivers optimal imaging performance. Here, we investigate systematically how the amplitude and phase information would have an impact on the OCTA imaging performance, upon which to establish the relationship of amplitude and phase stability with OCT signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), time interval and particle dynamics...
October 19, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
M A Rajora, J W H Lou, G Zheng
Porphyrins are organic heterocyclic macrocycles with photophysical properties well-suited for clinical phototherapy and cancer imaging. However, their wider application in the clinical management of disease is barred by poor aqueous solubility, bioavailability, tumour accumulation and skin phototoxicity. These limitations instigated the development of supramolecular platforms that improved porphyrin pharmacokinetics and tumour-homing. The supramolecular formulation of porphyrins also facilitates single agent-mediated deeper tissue photoactivation, extended imaging and theranostic multimodality, and synergistic application of multiple therapies...
October 19, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
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