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Biomedical applications

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454064/rna-based-micelles-a-novel-platform-for-chemotherapeutic-drug-loading-and-delivery
#1
Yi Shu, Hongran Yin, Mehdi Rajabi, Hui Li, Mario Vieweger, Sijin Guo, Dan Shu, Peixuan Guo
RNA can serve as powerful building blocks for bottom-up fabrication of nanostructures for biotechnological and biomedical applications. In addition to current self-assembly strategies utilizing base pairing, motif piling and tertiary interactions, we reported for the first time to build RNA based micellar nanoconstruct with a cholesterol molecule conjugated onto one helical end of a branched pRNA three-way junction (3WJ) motif. The resulting amphiphilic RNA micelles consist of a hydrophilic RNA head and a covalently linked hydrophobic lipid tail that can spontaneously assemble in aqueous solution via hydrophobic interaction...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453807/tunable-poly-methacrylic-acid-co-acrylamide-nanoparticles-through-inverse-emulsion-polymerization
#2
Justin X Zhong, John R Clegg, Eric W Ander, Nicholas A Peppas
Environmentally responsive biomaterials have played key roles in the design of biosensors and drug delivery vehicles. Their physical response to external stimuli, such as temperature or pH, can transduce a signal or trigger the release of a drug. In this work, we designed a robust, highly tunable, pH responsive nanoscale hydrogel system. We present the design and characterization of poly((methacrylic acid) - co - acrylamide) hydrogel nanoparticles, crosslinked with methylenebisacrylamide, through inverse emulsion polymerization...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453540/cellular-and-molecular-toxicity-of-iron-oxide-nanoparticles
#3
Blanca Laffon, Natalia Fernández-Bertólez, Carla Costa, Fátima Brandão, João Paulo Teixeira, Eduardo Pásaro, Vanessa Valdiglesias
Iron oxide nanoparticles (ION) have attracted much attention because of their particular physico-chemical properties, including superparamagnetism. These features make them suitable for many purposes and several interesting biomedical applications, such as to increase contrast in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as drug delivery systems and as hyperthermia agents. However, they have also shown to be easily accumulated in diverse tissues and induce toxicity at different levels. This chapter reviews the different cellular and molecular effects induced by ION reported from in vitro studies with human and non-human cell lines...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453539/nanoparticle-protein-interaction-the-significance-and-role-of-protein-corona
#4
Saad Mohammad Ahsan, Chintalagiri Mohan Rao, Md Faiz Ahmad
The physico-chemical properties of nanoparticles, as characterized under idealized laboratory conditions, have been suggested to differ significantly when studied under complex physiological environments. A major reason for this variation has been the adsorption of biomolecules (mainly proteins) on the nanoparticle surface, constituting the so-called "biomolecular corona". The formation of biomolecular corona on the nanoparticle surface has been reported to influence various nanoparticle properties viz...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453536/relevance-of-physicochemical-characterization-of-nanomaterials-for-understanding-nano-cellular-interactions
#5
Henriqueta Louro
The manufactured nanomaterials (NMs) have specific physicochemical properties that confer unique mechanical, optical, electrical and magnetic characteristics that are beneficial for biomedical and industrial applications. However, recent studies have suggested that such specific physicochemical properties of the NMs may define nano-bio interactions thereby determining their toxic potential.One of the major concerns about NMs is the potential to induce cancer, suggested by some experimental studies, as seen for titanium dioxide nanomaterials or carbon nanotubes...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453529/toxicity-assessment-in-the-nanoparticle-era
#6
Valeria De Matteis, Rosaria Rinaldi
The wide use of engineered nanomaterials in many fields, ranging from biomedical, agriculture, environment, cosmetic, urged the scientific community to understand the processes behind their potential toxicity, in order to develop new strategies for human safety. As a matter of fact, there is a big discrepancy between the increased classes of nanoparticles and the consequent applications versus their toxicity assessment. Nanotoxicology is defined as the science that studies the effects of engineered nanodevices and nanostructures in living organisms...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452276/application-of-targeted-mass-spectrometry-in-bottom-up-proteomics-for-systems-biology-research
#7
Nathan P Manes, Aleksandra Nita-Lazar
The enormous diversity of proteoforms produces tremendous complexity within cellular proteomes, facilitates intricate networks of molecular interactions, and constitutes a formidable analytical challenge for biomedical researchers. Currently, quantitative whole-proteome profiling often relies on non-targeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), which samples proteoforms broadly, but can suffer from lower accuracy, sensitivity, and reproducibility compared with targeted LC-MS. Recent advances in bottom-up proteomics using targeted LC-MS have enabled previously unachievable identification and quantification of target proteins and posttranslational modifications within complex samples...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451874/a-stochastic-and-dynamical-view-of-pluripotency-in-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#8
Yen Ting Lin, Peter G Hufton, Esther J Lee, Davit A Potoyan
Pluripotent embryonic stem cells are of paramount importance for biomedical sciences because of their innate ability for self-renewal and differentiation into all major cell lines. The fateful decision to exit or remain in the pluripotent state is regulated by complex genetic regulatory networks. The rapid growth of single-cell sequencing data has greatly stimulated applications of statistical and machine learning methods for inferring topologies of pluripotency regulating genetic networks. The inferred network topologies, however, often only encode Boolean information while remaining silent about the roles of dynamics and molecular stochasticity inherent in gene expression...
February 16, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451384/a-highly-elastic-biodegradable-single-network-hydrogel-for-cell-printing
#9
Cancan Xu, Wenhan Lee, Guohao Dai, Yi Hong
Cell printing is becoming a common technique to fabricate cellularized printed-scaffold for biomedical application. There are still significant challenges in soft tissue bioprinting using hydrogels which requires live cells inside the hydrogels. Moreover, the resilient mechanical properties from hydrogels are also required to mechanically mimic the native soft tissues. Herein, we developed a visible-light crosslinked, single-network, biodegradable hydrogel with high elasticity and flexibility for cell printing, which is different from previous highly elastic hydrogel with double-network and two-components...
February 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450862/recent-progress-in-dendrimer-based-nanomedicine-development
#10
REVIEW
Yejin Kim, Eun Ji Park, Dong Hee Na
Dendrimers offer well-defined nanoarchitectures with spherical shape, high degree of molecular uniformity, and multiple surface functionalities. Such unique structural properties of dendrimers have created many applications for drug and gene delivery, nanomedicine, diagnostics, and biomedical engineering. Dendrimers are not only capable of delivering drugs or diagnostic agents to desired sites by encapsulating or conjugating them to the periphery, but also have therapeutic efficacy in their own. When compared to traditional polymers for drug delivery, dendrimers have distinct advantages, such as high drug-loading capacity at the surface terminal for conjugation or interior space for encapsulation, size control with well-defined numbers of peripheries, and multivalency for conjugation to drugs, targeting moieties, molecular sensors, and biopolymers...
February 15, 2018: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449901/recently-integrated-alu-insertions-in-the-squirrel-monkey-saimiri-lineage-and-application-for-population-analyses
#11
Jasmine N Baker, Jerilyn A Walker, Michael W Denham, Charles D Loupe, Mark A Batzer
Background: The evolution of Alu elements has been ongoing in primate lineages and Alu insertion polymorphisms are widely used in phylogenetic and population genetics studies. Alu subfamilies in the squirrel monkey ( Saimiri ), a New World Monkey (NWM), were recently reported. Squirrel monkeys are commonly used in biomedical research and often require species identification. The purpose of this study was two-fold: 1) Perform locus-specific PCR analyses on recently integrated Alu insertions in Saimiri to determine their amplification dynamics, and 2) Identify a subset of Alu insertion polymorphisms with species informative allele frequency distributions between the Saimiri sciureus and Saimiri boliviensis groups...
2018: Mobile DNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448678/fabrication-and-friction-coefficient-of-graphene-oxide-reinforced-hydroxyapatite-composite
#12
Ming Gong, Qian Zhao, Liming Dai, Yingying Li, Tingshun Jiang
Graphene oxide (GO) reinforced hydroxyapatite (HA) composites with various contents of GO (HA/GO-C) were synthesized with addition of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) by a wetchemical precipitation method using diammonium hydrogen phosphate ((NH4)2HPO4) and calcium nitrate (Ca(NO3)2 · 4H2O) as the initial reactants, and their structure, morphology, crystallization, specific surface area were studied by FT-IR, SEM, Raman spectroscopy, XRD and BET. Particularly, the influence of GO addition and appiled load on the friction coefficient of the obtained composites was investigated...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448637/characteristics-of-sodium-polyacrylate-nano-sized-carbon-hydrogel-for-biomedical-patch
#13
Jong-Kyu Park, Sun-Kyo Seo, Seungkwan Cho, Han-Sung Kim, Chi-Hwan Lee
Conductive hydrogels were prepared for biomedical patch in order to improve the electrical conductivity. Sodium polyacrylate and nano-sized carbon were mixed and fabricated by aqueous solution gelation process in various contents of nano-sized carbon with 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 wt%. Sodium polyacrylate/nano-sized carbon conductive hydrogels were investigated by molecular structure, surface morphology and electrical conductivity. The conductivity of the hydrogel/nano-sized carbon conductive hydrogel proved to be 10% higher than conductive hydrogel without nano-sized carbon...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448602/preparation-of-silica-coated-magnetic-nanoparticles-for-bioseparation
#14
Dae-Won Lee, Hira Fatima, Kyo-Seon Kim
Magnetic nanoparticles have been intensively developed and applied in several biomedical applications such as targeted delivery, drug therapy, hyperthermia, magnetic resonance imaging and bioseparation etc. This work describes a simple and convenient method to synthesize silica coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles which have the potential to be used in the bioseparation of fetuin from fetal bovine serum and albumin from the egg. In this work, uniform Fe3O4 particles were prepared through the one-pot solvothermal process at 200 °C for 12 h using a sole iron precursor (FeCl3 · 6H2O) and then were coated with SiO2 to prepare silica coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles by hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate in ethanol and H2O medium...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448513/removing-control-of-cyclodextrin-drug-complexes-using-high-affinity-molecule
#15
Young-Hwan Kim, Sung Tae Kim, Jun-Pil Jee, Dae-Young Kim, Dongjin Kang, Kyeongsoon Kim, Sang Yeob Park, Taeyong Sim, Kwan Hyung Cho, Dong-Jin Jang
Nanostructured supramolecular assemblies with hydrophobic cavities are used for improving the solubility, bioavailability, and stability of poorly water soluble drugs. In particular, host-guest inclusion using 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) is a typical approach in the pharmaceutical field. In this study, celecoxib (CXB), a cyclooxygenase-2 selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), was used as the model drug (guest material) and effectively incorporated into HP-β-CD (host material)...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448510/preparation-and-in-vivo-biodistribution-of-ultra-small-superparamagnetic-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-with-high-magnetic-targeting-response
#16
Xiaoyu Han, Pingping Yao, Chao Cheng, Hongmin Yuan, Yuxiang Yang, Chaoying Ni
The ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) particles with high saturation magnetization and good superparamagnetism were prepared by reverse micro-emulsions using novel C16E15 as surfactant, which can reduce magnetic dipole-dipole interaction, hence decreasing the critical blocking temperature (TB). Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Infrared spectrum (FT-IR), Transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) were used to characterize the magnetic particles...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448223/2d-transition-metal-carbide-mxene-as-a-robust-biosensing-platform-for-enzyme-immobilization-and-ultrasensitive-detection-of-phenol
#17
Lingxia Wu, Xianbo Lu, Dhanjai, Zhong-Shuai Wu, Yanfeng Dong, Xiaohui Wang, Shuanghao Zheng, Jiping Chen
MXene-Ti 3 C 2 , as a new class of two-dimensional (2D) transition metal carbides (or nitrides), has been synthesized by exfoliating pristine Ti 3 AlC 2 phases with hydrofluoric acid. The SEM and XRD images show that the resultant MXene possesses a graphene-like 2D nanostructure. and the surface of MXene has been partially terminated with -OH, thus providing a favorable microenvironment for enzyme immobilization and retaining their bioactivity and stability. Considering the unique metallic conductivity, biocompatibility and good dispersion in aqueous phase, the as-prepared MXene was explored as a new matrix to immobilize tyrosinase (a model enzyme) for fabricating a mediator-free biosensor for ultrasensitive and rapid detection of phenol...
February 8, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448204/experimental-and-computational-assessment-of-mycosynthesized-cdo-nanoparticles-towards-biomedical-applications
#18
Gowri S, Gopinath K, Arumugam A
The present study reports the biogenic synthesis of Cadmium Oxide Nanoparticles (CdO NPs) using plant pathogenic fungus Nigrospora oryzae culture filtrate. Further, the effect of the NPs on the cancer cell line (HeLa) is explored. The sample was characterized using Thermogravimetric/Differential Thermal (TG/DTA), Powder X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-Visible Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy (UV-DRS), Field Emission Transmission Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX), High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM) and Selected Area Electron Diffraction (SAED) analysis...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447960/mechanically-enhanced-nested-network-hydrogels-as-a-coating-material-for-biomedical-devices
#19
Zhengmu Wang, Hongbin Zhang, Axel J Chu, John Jackson, Karen Lin, Chinten James Lim, Dirk Lange, Mu Chiao
Well-organized composite formations such as hierarchical nested-network (NN) structure in bone tissue and reticular connective tissue present remarkable mechanical strength and play a crucial role in achieving physical and biological functions for living organisms. Inspired by these delicate microstructures in nature, an analogous scaffold of double network hydrogel was fabricated by creating a poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) network in the porous structure of alginate hydrogels. The resulting hydrogel possessed hierarchical NN structure and showed significantly improved mechanical strength but still maintained high elasticity comparable to soft tissues due to a mutual strengthening effect between the two networks...
February 12, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447478/dendritic-platforms-for-biomimicry-and-biotechnological-applications
#20
Kalpana Nagpal, Anand Mohan, Sourav Thakur, Pradeep Kumar
Dendrimers, commonly referred to as polymeric trees, offer endless opportunities for biotechnological and biomedical applications. By controlling the type, length, and molecular weight of the core, branches and end groups, respectively, the chemical functionality and topology of dendrimeric archetypes can be customized which further can be applied to achieve required solubility, biodegradability, diagnosis and other applications. Given the physicochemical variability of the dendrimers and their hybrids, this review attempts to discuss a full spectrum of recent advances and strides made by these "perfectly designed structures"...
February 15, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
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