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Biomedical applications

Anne Nsubuga, Massimo Sgarzi, Kristof Zarschler, Manja Kubeil, René Hübner, Robin Steudtner, Bim Graham, Tanmaya Joshi, Holger Stephan
Pure hexagonal (β-phase) NaYF4-based hydrophobic upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs) were surface-modified with O-phospho-l-threonine (OPLT), alendronic acid, and PEG-phosphate ligands to generate water-dispersible UCNPs. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to establish the presence of the ligands on the UCNP surface. These UCNPs exhibit great colloidal stability and a near-neutral surface at physiological pH, as confirmed by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential (ζ) measurements, respectively...
April 25, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Fong-Ci Lin, Chen-Yu Wang, Rung Ji Shang, Fei-Yuan Hsiao, Mei-Shu Lin, Kuan-Yu Hung, Jui Wang, Zhen-Fang Lin, Feipei Lai, Li-Jiuan Shen, Chih-Fen Huang
BACKGROUND: Traditional clinical surveillance relied on the results from clinical trials and observational studies of administrative databases. However, these studies not only required many valuable resources but also faced a very long time lag. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to illustrate a practical application of the National Taiwan University Hospital Clinical Surveillance System (NCSS) in the identification of patients with an osteoporotic fracture and to provide a high reusability infrastructure for longitudinal clinical data...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Petra Mazancová, Veronika Némethová, Dušana Treľová, Lucia Kleščíková, Igor Lacík, Filip Rázga
Ionically crosslinked chitosan/tripolyphosphate (Chit/TPP) particles have been widely tested in biomedical applications, particularly as potential carriers for controlled drug delivery. Since Chit/TPP particles are typically prepared under acidic conditions, their application in physiological environment and correct evaluation of biological data ultimately require knowledge on their physico-chemical properties and overall behaviour at physiological pH, as they may differ substantially from those exhibited after preparation...
July 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Meng Yuan, Bo Bi, Jiachang Huang, Renxi Zhuo, Xulin Jiang
In situ forming injectable hydrogels based on thermosensitive polymers are being investigated for tissue engineering applications. However, the major limitations of this kind of hydrogels are low gel stability and weak mechanical properties under physiological conditions. Here, thermosensitive hydroxypropyl chitin (HPCH) was synthesized homogenously and subsequently functionalized with photocrosslinkable methacrylate groups via glycidyl methacrylate to generate glycidyl methacrylate-modified HPCH (GM-HPCH)...
July 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Gaetano Giammona, Emanuela Fabiola Craparo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 23, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Lide Gu, Wanli Yan, Le Liu, Shujun Wang, Xu Zhang, Mingsheng Lyu
Enhancing the limit of detection (LOD) is significant for crucial diseases. Cancer development could take more than 10 years, from one mutant cell to a visible tumor. Early diagnosis facilitates more effective treatment and leads to higher survival rate for cancer patients. Rolling circle amplification (RCA) is a simple and efficient isothermal enzymatic process that utilizes nuclease to generate long single stranded DNA (ssDNA) or RNA. The functional nucleic acid unit (aptamer, DNAzyme) could be replicated hundreds of times in a short period, and a lower LOD could be achieved if those units are combined with an enzymatic reaction, Surface Plasmon Resonance, electrochemical, or fluorescence detection, and other different kinds of biosensor...
April 21, 2018: Pharmaceuticals
S Rajaboopathi, S Thambidurai
In the present study, green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) functionalized with seaweed (Padina gymnospora) extract was investigated. Thus synthesized AgNPs were coated on cotton fabric by pad try-cure method using citric acid as a cross linking agent. The chemical linkage of colloidal AgNPs onto the cellulosic structure are characterized and confirmed by FTIR, SEM, EDX and AFM analysis. The optical, crystalline and morphological features of the functionalized AgNPs were confirmed by UV-Visible, X-ray diffraction and TEM analysis...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Zhenluan Xue, Songjun Zeng, Jianhua Hao
Optical bioimaging by using the new short-wavelength infrared window (SWIR, also named as NIR-II, 1000-1700 nm) is emerged as a next generation imaging technique for disease diagnosis owing to the unprecedented improvements in imaging sensitivity and spatial resolution. However, it is challenging to search new imaging agents with highly biocompatible and bright narrow-band emission located in the 1500-1700 nm (referred as NIR-IIb) region. Here we developed high quality polyacrylic acid (PAA) modified NaYF4 :Gd/Yb/Er nanorods (PAA-NRs) with remarkably enhanced NIR-IIb emission and decent bio-compatibility for in vivo cerebral vascular bioimaging and small tumor visualization...
April 17, 2018: Biomaterials
Weishuo Li, Jin Geng, Helen Titmarsh, Alicia Megia-Fernandez, Kev Dhaliwal, Margaret Frame, Mark Bradley
The combination of controlled living polymerization in association with rapid and highly efficient macromolecule conjugation strategies provides a powerful tool for the synthesis of novel polymeric materials. Here functional block copolymers were rapidly and quantitatively conjugated using an efficient reaction between polymers containing a phenolic group and the 4-phenyl-3H-1,2,4-triazole-3,5(4H)-dione (PTAD) moiety, and used to generate nanoparticles that encapsulated drugs. This rapidly growing field in nanotechnology for biomedical applications provides opportunities to design and develop multifunctional devices that can target, diagnose, controlled delivery of drugs, and treat cancer more efficiently...
April 24, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Bader AlQattan, Ali K Yetisen, Haider Butt
Contact lenses are ubiquitous biomedical devices used for vision correction and cosmetic purposes. Their application as quantitative analytical devices is highly promising for point-of-care diagnostics. However, it is a challenge to integrate nanoscale features into commercial contact lenses for application in low-cost biosensors. A neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser (1064 nm, 3 ns pulse, 240 mJ) in holographic interference patterning mode was utilized to produce optical nanostructures over the surface of a hydrogel contact lens...
April 24, 2018: ACS Nano
F Zölzer
The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has recently reviewed the ethical foundations of its recommendations. The approach taken in its report is similar to principlism, i.e. the system of Beauchamp and Childress proposed in their 'Principles of Biomedical Ethics.' The commission identifies a number of 'core values' which have helped shape the evolution of the ICRP system of radiological protection, namely 'Beneficence and non-maleficence', 'Prudence', 'Justice' and 'Dignity'. In addition, 'procedural values' are cited that are important for the system's applications in practice, 'Accountability', 'Transparency' and 'Inclusiveness (Stakeholder Participation)'...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Kleanthi Lakiotaki, Nikolaos Vorniotakis, Michail Tsagris, Georgios Georgakopoulos, Ioannis Tsamardinos
Biotechnology revolution generates a plethora of omics data with an exponential growth pace. Therefore, biological data mining demands automatic, 'high quality' curation efforts to organize biomedical knowledge into online databases. BioDataome is a database of uniformly preprocessed and disease-annotated omics data with the aim to promote and accelerate the reuse of public data. We followed the same preprocessing pipeline for each biological mart (microarray gene expression, RNA-Seq gene expression and DNA methylation) to produce ready for downstream analysis datasets and automatically annotated them with disease-ontology terms...
January 1, 2018: Database: the Journal of Biological Databases and Curation
Yuxin Qian, Fan Qi, Qi Chen, Qiang Zhang, Zhongqian Qiao, Si Zhang, Ting Wei, Qian Yu, Shan Yu, Zhengwei Mao, Changyou Gao, Yiru Ding, Yanyong Cheng, Chenyu Jin, Hexin Xie, Runhui Liu
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been one of the major nosocomial pathogens to cause frequent and serious infections that are associated with various biomedical surfaces. This study demonstrated that surface modified with host defense peptide-mimicking β-peptide polymer, has surprisingly high bactericidal activities against Escherichia coli ( E. coli) and MRSA. As surface-tethered β-peptide polymers cannot move freely to adopt the collaborative interactions with bacterial membrane and are too short to penetrate the cell envelop, we proposed a mode of action by diffusing away the cell membrane-stabilizing divalent ions, Ca2+ and Mg2+ ...
April 24, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Thomas R Carey, Kristen L Cotner, Brian Li, Lydia L Sohn
Advancements in microfluidic technologies have led to the development of many new tools for both the characterization and sorting of single cells without the need for exogenous labels. Label-free microfluidics reduce the preparation time, reagents needed, and cost of conventional methods based on fluorescent or magnetic labels. Furthermore, these devices enable analysis of cell properties such as mechanical phenotype and dielectric parameters that cannot be characterized with traditional labels. Some of the most promising technologies for current and future development toward label-free, single-cell analysis and sorting include electronic sensors such as Coulter counters and electrical impedance cytometry; deformation analysis using optical traps and deformation cytometry; hydrodynamic sorting such as deterministic lateral displacement, inertial focusing, and microvortex trapping; and acoustic sorting using traveling or standing surface acoustic waves...
April 24, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Xue Tang, Ying-Juan Gao, Hui-Qing Deng, Jin-Ju Lei, Si-Wei Liu, Lin Zhou, Yin Shi, Hao Liang, Jie Qiao, Li Guo, Bo Han, Hai-Lei Cui
We have developed a mild and scalable catalyst-free [3 + 2] cyclization of dihydroisoquinolines and isatin-derived Morita-Baylis-Hillman carbonates. The incorporation of tetrahydroisoquinoline and spirooxindole frameworks could be realized affording highly functionalized heterocycles in moderate to excellent yields with good diastereocontrols (up to 92% yields, >20 : 1 dr). The extension of this method to dihydro-β-carbolines has also been achieved. A gram-scale reaction could be performed successfully enabling the potential application for further biomedical research...
April 24, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Shengxin Weng, Xu Zhao, Guomin Liu, Yuefeng Guan, Fanglong Wu, Yungang Luo
Postoperative infection associated with medical implants is a devastating complication of orthopedic surgery. Considering the difficulties for the diagnosis and treatment of infection, coating the implant material with antibacterial substances is a promising protocol by which to avoid such an adverse reaction. Nanoparticles (NPs) constructed of anatase microspheres, one form of titanium dioxide (TiO2 ), with a high specific surface area are fabricated in this study in a facile one-step process using homogeneous precipitation at 90 °C under atmospheric pressure using titanium sulfate (Ti[SO4 ]2 ) and urea as the titanium source and precipitant, respectively...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
Jin Li, Huiqiao Liu, Pengfei Rong, Wen Zhou, Xiaohu Gao, Dingbin Liu
Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) tags have attracted tremendous attention in diverse fields owing to their outstanding sensitivity and multiplexing capability. However, the selection of Raman dyes that can be immobilized onto metal nanoparticles is very limited, because certain chemical groups are needed in the dye molecules to interact either with the metal surface or through some intermediate layers. Here, we report a simple, rapid, and robust platform methodology for the one-pot preparation of Raman nanoprobes without the constraints of Raman dye chemical structures...
April 24, 2018: Nanoscale
Gawon Yi, Jihwan Son, Jihye Yoo, Changhee Park, Heebeom Koo
Background: Click chemistry is termed as a group of chemical reactions with favorable reaction rate and orthogonality. Recently, click chemistry is paving the way for novel innovations in biomedical science, and nanoparticle research is a representative example where click chemistry showed its promising potential. Challenging trials with nanoparticles has been reported based on click chemistry including copper-catalyzed cycloaddition, strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition, and inverse-demand Diels-Alder reaction...
2018: Biomaterials Research
Luz M López-Marín, Ana Leonor Rivera, Francisco Fernández, Achim M Loske
Controlled permeabilization of mammalian cell membranes is fundamental to develop gene and cell therapies based on macromolecular cargo delivery, a process that emerged against an increasing number of health afflictions, including genetic disorders, cancer and infections. Viral vectors have been successfully used for macromolecular delivery; however, they may have unpredictable side effects and have been limited to life-threatening cases. Thus, several chemical and physical methods have been explored to introduce drugs, vaccines, and nucleic acids into cells...
March 21, 2018: Physics of Life Reviews
D Rittel, K Shemtov-Yona, R Lapovok
Severe plastic deformation (SPD) has long been known to confer superior mechanical properties for many metals and alloys. In the general field of biomedical devices, and dental implants in particular, the superior strength of SPD-processed commercially pure (CP) titanium, that may surpass that of the stronger Ti6Al4V alloy, has been associated with a superior fatigue resistance. Such a property would make those materials both biocompatible and strong alternatives to the currently used titanium alloy. However, the fatigue characterization reported so far in the literature relies on a very small sample size, thereby precluding any meaningful statistical analysis...
April 14, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
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