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Biomedical applications

Xiaoyi Zhang, Ling Wang, Qiang Lu, David L Kaplan
Mass production of high quality graphene dispersions under mild conditions impacts the utility of the material for biomedical applications. Various proteins have been used to prepare graphene dispersions, rare sources and expensive prices for these proteins restrict their large scale utility for the production of graphene. Here, inexpensive silk proteins as an abundant resource in nature were used for graphene exfoliation. The silk proteins were assembled into hydrophobic nanofibers with negative charge, and then optimized for the production of graphene...
June 18, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Sofia Raniolo, Giulia Vindigni, Valeria Unida, Alessio Ottaviani, Elena Romano, Alessandro Desideri, Silvia Biocca
DNA has been used to build nanostructures with potential biomedical applications. However, their use is limited by the lack of information on the mechanism of entry, intracellular fate and degradation rate of nanostructures inside cells. We generated octahedral DNA nanocages functionalized with folic acid and investigated the cellular uptake mediated by two distinctive internalization pathways, using two cellular systems expressing the oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) and the α isoform of the folate receptor (αFR), respectively...
June 18, 2018: Nanoscale
Jie Feng, Yingyue Zhang, Simon A McManus, Kurt D Ristroph, Hoang D Lu, Kai Gong, Claire E White, Robert K Prud'homme
While the formulation of nanoparticle (NP) suspensions has been widely applied in materials and life science, the recovery of NPs from such a suspension into a solid state is practically important to confer long-term storage stability. However, solidification, while preserving the original nanoscale properties, remains a formidable challenge in the pharmaceutical and biomedical applications of NPs. Herein we combined flash nanoprecipitation (FNP) and spray-drying as a nanofabrication platform for NP formulation and recovery without compromising the dissolution kinetics of the active ingredient...
May 25, 2018: ACS Appl Nano Mater
Yeonjeong Ha, Saebom Ko, Ijung Kim, Yimin Huang, Kishore Mohanty, Chun Huh, Jennifer A Maynard
Superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SPMNPs) have attracted interest for various biomedical applications due to their unique magnetic behavior, excellent biocompatibility, easy surface modification, and low cost. Their unique magnetic properties, superparamagnetism, and magnetophoretic mobility have led to their inclusion in immunoassays to enhance biosensor sensitivity and allow for rapid detection of various analytes. In this review, we describe SPMNP characteristics valuable for incorporation into biosensors, including the use of SPMNPs to increase detection capabilities of surface plasmon resonance and giant magneto-resistive biosensors...
February 23, 2018: ACS Appl Nano Mater
Qingfu Ban, Wen Sun, Jie Kong, Si Wu
Hyperbranched polymers (HPs) have been widely used for drug delivery due to their highly branched topology, which endows the HPs with a large amount of intramolecular cavities for drug encapsulation and terminal groups for drug conjugation. Additionally, the one-pot and large-scale preparation features enable the easy fabrication of HPs for biomedical applications. This review provides an overview of the synthesis of HPs and their application for drug delivery. First, we introduce the diversity of synthesis of HPs with controllable topologies...
June 17, 2018: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Ahmad Mohammad Abdel-Mawgoud, Gregory Stephanopoulos
Glycosylated lipids (GLs) are added-value lipid derivatives of great potential. Besides their interesting surface activities that qualify many of them to act as excellent ecological detergents, they have diverse biological activities with promising biomedical and cosmeceutical applications. Glycolipids, especially those of microbial origin, have interesting antimicrobial, anticancer, antiparasitic as well as immunomodulatory activities. Nonetheless, GLs are hardly accessing the market because of their high cost of production...
March 2018: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
Nicholas Martin, George Youssef
Hydrophilic polymers, or hydrogels, are used for a wide variety of biomedical applications, due to their inherent ability to withhold a high-water content. In recent years, a large effort has been focused on tailoring the mechanical properties of these hydrogels to become more appropriate materials for use as anatomical and physiological structural supports. A few of these such methods include using diverse types of polymers, both natural and synthetic, varying the type of molecular cross-linking, as well as combining these efforts to form interpenetrating polymer network hydrogels...
June 7, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Philip van Damme, Manuel Quesada-Martínez, Ronald Cornet, Jesualdo Tomás Fernández-Breis
Ontologies and terminologies have been identified as key resources for the achievement of semantic interoperability in biomedical domains. The development of ontologies is performed as a joint work by domain experts and knowledge engineers. The maintenance and auditing of these resources is also the responsibility of such experts, and this is usually a time-consuming, mostly manual task. Manual auditing is impractical and ineffective for most biomedical ontologies, especially for larger ones. An example is SNOMED CT, a key resource in many countries for codifying medical information...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
S Sruthi, A Loiseau, J Boudon, F Sallem, L Maurizi, P V Mohanan, G Lizard, N Millot
Titanate nanotubes (TiONts) are promising agents for biomedical applications. Microglial activation and associated oxidative burst are major challenges in drug delivery applications across the brain. Here, TiONts were designed for drug delivery systems by functionalizing them with (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES), their interactions and biocompatibility were studied in vitro using murine microglial BV-2 cells. TiONts-APTES exposure resulted in increased ROS production and transient mitochondrial hyperpolarization...
June 13, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Vibor Laketa
A comprehensive understanding of host-pathogen interactions requires quantitative assessment of molecular events across a wide range of spatiotemporal scales and organizational complexities. Due to recent technical developments, this is currently only achievable with microscopy. This article is providing a general perspective on the importance of microscopy in infectious disease research, with a focus on new imaging modalities that promise to have a major impact in biomedical research in the years to come. Every major technological breakthrough in light microscopy depends on, and is supported by, advancements in computing and information technologies...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
Pingping Zhu, Jian Zhang, Yujie Chen, Shanshan Yin, Mingming Su, Guoxiang Xie, Kim L R Brouwer, Changxiao Liu, Ke Lan, Wei Jia
Host-gut microbiota metabolic interactions are closely associated with health and disease. A manifestation of such co-metabolism is the vast structural diversity of bile acids (BAs) involving both oxidative stereochemistry and conjugation. Herein, we describe the development and validation of a LC-MS-based method for the analysis of human C24 BA metabolome in serum and urine. The method has high throughput covering the discrimination of oxidative stereochemistry of unconjugated species in a 15-min analytical cycle...
June 16, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Oleksandr H Minchenko, Dariia O Tsymbal, Dmytro O Minchenko, Svitlana V Prylutska, Oksana S Hnatiuk, Yuriy I Prylutskyy, Nikos G Tsierkezos, Uwe Ritter
The effect of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) on the expression of a subset of immune response, apoptosis and cell proliferation -associated genes was studied in normal human astrocytes (line NHA/TS). In the cells treated with SWCNTs (2, 10 and 50 ng/ml of medium for 24 h) we observed a strong dose-dependent down-regulation of the expression of a cell surface glycoproteins HLA-DRA (major histocompatibility complex, class II, DR alpha) and HLA-DRB1. At the same time, the expression of HLA-F (major histocompatibility complex, class I, F), LMNB1 (lamin B1), and HTRA1 (high temperature requirement A1) genes as well as the level of miR-190b and miR-7 was up-regulated in NHA/TS subjected to different concentrations of SWCNTs...
June 12, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Fan Yang, Fangzhi Mou, Yuzhou Jiang, Ming Luo, Leilei Xu, Huiru Ma, Jianguo Guan
In this work, we demonstrate a simple, versatile and real-time motion guidance strategy for artificial microengines and motile microorganisms in a ferrofluid by dynamic topographical pathways (DTPs), which are assembled from superparamagnetic nanoparticles in response to external magnetic field ( H). In this general strategy, the DTPs can exert anisotropic resistance forces on autonomously moving microengines and thus regulate their orientation. As the DTPs with different directions and lengths can be reversibly and swiftly assembled in response to the applied H, the microengines in the ferrofluid can be guided on demand with controlled motion directions and trajectories, including circular, elliptical, straight-line, semi-sine and sinusoidal trajectories...
June 15, 2018: ACS Nano
Ana Espinosa, Alberto Curcio, Sonia Cabana, Guillaume Radtke, Matthieu Bugnet, Jelena Kolosnjaj-Tabi, Christine Péchoux, Carmen Alvarez-Lorenzo, Gianluigi A Botton, Amanda Silva, Ali Abou-Hassan, Claire Wilhelm
Despite their highly efficient plasmonic properties, gold nanoparticles are currently preferred to silver nanoparticles for biomedical applications such as photothermal therapy due to their high chemical stability in the biological environment. To confer protection while preserving their plasmonic properties, we allied the advantages of both materials and produced hybrid nanoparticles, made of an anisotropic silver nanoplate core coated with a frame of gold. The efficiency of such hybrid nanoparticles (Ag@AuNPs) in photothermia was compared to mono-metallic silver nanoplates (AgNPs) or gold nanostars (AuNPs)...
June 15, 2018: ACS Nano
Amparo Fernández, Marta Ruiz-Bermejo, José L de la Fuente
The kinetics of the reaction of the synthesis of HCN polymers in aqueous medium at high temperatures have been analysed to ascertain a suitable model for this material, for which it was recently demonstrated that prebiotic chemistry may now be adapted in the development of a new generation of high performance coatings and adhesives with biomedical applications. These experimental conditions were chosen for the simplicity of the reagents, being particularly convenient in regard to potential industrial scale-up of coating technology, where these polymers have revealed an interesting field of application...
June 15, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Na Yang, Yanping Ding, Yinlong Zhang, Bin Wang, Xiao Zhao, Keman Cheng, Yixin Huang, Mohammad Taleb, Jing Zhao, Wen-Fei Dong, Lirong Zhang, Guangjun Nie
Multiple cell plasma membranes have been utilized for surface functionalization of synthetic nanomaterials and construction of biomimetic drug delivery systems for cancer treatment. The natural characters and facile isolation of original cells facilitate the biomedical applications of plasma membranes in functionalizing nanocarriers. Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been identified to show tropism towards malignant lesions and have great advantages in ease of acquisition, low immunogenicity, and high proliferative ability...
June 15, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Zhouping Wang, Xin Jin, Qionghai Dai
Imaging through scattering media is still a formidable challenge with widespread applications ranging from biomedical imaging to remote sensing. Recent research progresses provide several feasible solutions, which are hampered by limited complexity of targets, invasiveness of data collection process and lack of robustness for reconstruction. In this paper, we show that the complex to-be-observed targets can be non-invasively reconstructed with fine details. Training targets, which can be directly reconstructed by speckle correlation and phase retrieval, are utilized as the input of the proposed speckle pattern estimation model, in which speckle modeling and constrained least square optimization are applied to estimate the distribution of the speckle pattern...
June 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Zheng Gu, Richard Taschereau, Nam Vu, David L Prout, Robert W Silverman, Jason Lee, Arion F Chatziioannou
G8 is a bench top integrated PET/CT scanner dedicated to high sensitivity and high resolution imaging of mice. This work characterizes its National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) NU4-2008 performance where applicable and also provides an assessment of the basic imaging performance of the CT subsystem. Methods: The PET subsystem in G8 consists of four flat-panel type detectors arranged in a box like geometry. Each panel consists of two modules of a 26 × 26 pixelated bismuth germanate (BGO) scintillator array with individual crystals measuring 1...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
J A Michel-Macarty, M A Murillo-Escobar, R M López-Gutiérrez, C Cruz-Hernández, L Cardoza-Avendaño
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Currently, telemedicine is levered upon the improvement in communication network technology such as Body Area Sensor Networks (BASN) to provided biomedicine solutions. Nevertheless, information security is an important issue since biomedical data is exchanged through insecure channels, which exposes private information that can be intercepted by malicious intruder. Therefore, secure communication protocols for multiuser networks in telemedicine applications are a big challenge...
August 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Xiaoyong Wang, Lan Zhang, Junqing Wang, Xuan Liu, Peng Lv, Jie Zeng, Gang Liu
Triangular Ag nanoplates with a thickness of 5 nm and tunable edge lengths were fabricated using a seed-mediated protocol, featuring enhanced near-infrared absorption as the edge length of nanoplates increased. The photoacoustic (PA) efficiency of these Ag nanoplates were assessed. Nanoplates with an edge length of 100 nm (r1) performed best among others in the in vitro assessment. In the following in vivo test, r1 nanoplates were also found to boost the PA signal of tumor vessels, while a detailed PA imaging of tumor vasculature was obtained...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
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