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Upper respiratory

Małgorzata Sadkowska-Todys, Andrzej Zieliński, Mirosław P Czarkowski
PURPOSE of the STUDY: The aim of the study is to assess epidemiological situation of infectious and parasitic diseases in Poland in 2014, and an indication of the potential health risks from communicable diseases occurring in other areas of the globe. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This paper is a summary of the analysis and evaluation of the results of epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases in Poland in 2014, and those elements of European and global epidemiological background, which in this period had an impact on the epidemiological situation in Poland or constituted a threat...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
John C Flunker, Jessica Miller Clouser, David Mannino, Jennifer Swanberg
BACKGROUND: Latino thoroughbred workers may be at risk for developing abnormal pulmonary function related to occupational exposures. METHODS: Eighty worker participants were recruited via community-based purposive sampling. Questionnaires and spirometry tests were administered by trained lay health promoters. Demographic and occupational factors were assessed for associations with respiratory outcomes via multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Twenty-seven percent of participants exhibited abnormal pulmonary function (primarily restrictive), 79% reported any respiratory symptoms, and 94% infrequently used dust masks...
October 24, 2016: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
Hasan M Al-Dorzi, Abdulaziz S Aldawood, Raymond Khan, Salim Baharoon, John D Alchin, Amal A Matroud, Sameera M Al Johany, Hanan H Balkhy, Yaseen M Arabi
BACKGROUND: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has caused several hospital outbreaks, including a major outbreak at King Abdulaziz Medical City, a 940-bed tertiary-care hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (August-September 2015). To learn from our experience, we described the critical care response to the outbreak. METHODS: This observational study was conducted at the Intensive Care Department which covered 5 ICUs with 60 single-bedded rooms. We described qualitatively and, as applicable, quantitatively the response of intensive care services to the outbreak...
December 2016: Annals of Intensive Care
Christina Gaarslev, Melissa Yee, Georgi Chan, Stephanie Fletcher-Lartey, Rabia Khan
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is a public health challenge supplemented by inappropriate prescribing, especially for an upper respiratory tract infection in primary care. Patient/carer expectations have been identified as one of the main drivers for inappropriate antibiotics prescribing by primary care physicians. The aim of this study was to understand who is more likely to expect an antibiotic for an upper respiratory tract infection from their doctor and the reasons underlying it...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
D Costa Santos, F Barros, M Frazão, M Maia
Face burns expose patients to a higher respiratory risk, and early prophylactic intubation before they enter the burn unit might be life-saving. However, unnecessary intubation may compromise their clinical evolution. Hence, the decision to perform pre-burn centre endotracheal intubation remains a clinical challenge. A retrospective study was developed to characterize the experience of the tertiary burn unit of the Hospital da Prelada with face burn patients arriving endotracheally-intubated between January 2009 and September 2013...
December 31, 2015: Annals of Burns and Fire Disasters
Ye Rin Lee, Kanghee Moon, Young Ae Kim, So Youn Park, Chang Mo Oh, Kyung Suk Lee, In Hwan Oh
Globally, the incidence of communicable diseases has decreased compared to non-communicable diseases. However, chronic communicable diseases such as HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis persist worldwide. Furthermore, emerging new infections such as H1N1 influenza pose a new threat to public health. However, most studies have focused on non-communicable diseases because of their increasing incidence, with fewer studies investigating communicable diseases. Therefore, we estimated the burden of communicable diseases in Korea using national representative 2012 data...
November 2016: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Alexander J Sweidan, Navneet K Singh, Natasha Dang, Vinh Lam, Jyoti Datta
INTRODUCTION: Amiodarone is often used in the suppression of tachyarrhythmias. One of the more serious adverse effects includes amiodarone pulmonary toxicity (APT). Several pulmonary diseases can manifest including interstitial pneumonitis, organizing pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, pulmonary nodules or masses, and pleural effusion. Incidence of APT varies from 5-15% and is correlated to dosage, age of the patient, and preexisting lung disease...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Case Reports
Els De Schryver, Lara Derycke, Paloma Campo, Eline Gabriels, Guy F Joos, Thibaut Van Zele, Claus Bachert, Peter W Hellings, Philippe Gevaert
BACKGROUND: An important percentage of subjects diagnosed with chronic upper airway disease report alcohol-induced worsening of their symptoms. The prevalence and characteristics of respiratory reactions provoked by alcohol-containing drinks has not been fully investigated yet. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and characteristics of alcohol hyper-responsiveness in patients with chronic airway disease and healthy controls. Furthermore, nasal inflammation was evaluated in nasal polyp patients with and without hyper-responsiveness...
October 22, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
M S Tan, E J Teoh, C P Hor, A A C Yeoh
INTRODUCTION: Children who develop any hypersensitivity reaction to eggs are routinely referred to hospital for Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) vaccination as inpatients to prevent anaphylaxis. We aimed to study the association between hypersensitivity reactions after egg exposure and similar reactions after MMR immunisation; and examine the necessity of hospital admission for vaccination. METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted in Paediatric Department in Bukit Mertajam Hospital, Penang, between March and December 2014...
August 2016: Medical Journal of Malaysia
Yanping Li, Rong Cheng Li, Qiang Ye, Changgui Li, You Ping Liu, Xiao Ma, Yanan Li, Hong Zhao, Xiaoling Chen, Deepak Assudani, Naveen Karkada, Htay Htay Han, Olivier Van Der Meeren, Narcisa Mesaros
We conducted three phase III, randomized, open-label, clinical trials assessing the safety, reactogenicity (all studies), immunogenicity (Primary vaccination study) and persistence of immune responses (Booster study) to the combined diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis, and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (DTPa-IPV/Hib) in Chinese infants and toddlers. In the Pilot study (NCT00964028), 50 infants (randomized 1:1) received three doses of DTPa-IPV/Hib at 2-3-4 (Group A) or 3-4-5 months of age (Group B)...
October 21, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
K Reich, M Gooderham, L Green, A Bewley, Z Zhang, I Khanskaya, R M Day, J Goncalves, K Shah, V Piguet, J Soung
BACKGROUND: Apremilast, an oral, small-molecule phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor, has demonstrated efficacy in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate efficacy and safety of apremilast vs. placebo in biologic-naive patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis and safety of switching from etanercept to apremilast in a phase IIIb, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (NCT01690299). METHODS: 250 patients were randomized to placebo (n=84), apremilast 30 mg BID (n=83) or etanercept 50 mg QW (n=83) through Week 16; thereafter, all patients continued or switched to apremilast through Week 104...
October 21, 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Siddharth Jain, Animesh Ray, Manish Soneja, S Leve Joseph Devarajan, Shyam Madabhushi, Anitha Swamy, T Naveen, S K Sharma
A known case of primary Sjogren's syndrome with chronic kidney disease presented with respiratory symptoms and subsequent altered sensorium. Chest imaging suggested cavitating lung lesions in both the lungs. Serum c-ANCA was positive without any upper respiratory tract involvement or active urinary sediments. Treatment with appropriate anti-microbials produced no improvement in the respiratory or neurological parameters. MRI brain revealed tell-tale signs of CNS vascultis. A diagnosis of GPA was made as per European Medical Agency algorithm and the patient was started on immune-suppressants to which there was dramatic response...
October 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Faisal R Jahangiri, Sami Al Eissa, Samir Sayegh, Fahad Al Helal, Shomoukh A Al-Sharif, Monerah M Annaim, Sheryar Muhammad, Tanweer Aziz
A 16-year-old male patient with Ehler-Danlos syndrome (EDS) and a back deformity since birth presented with severe kyphoscoliosis. The patient was neurologically intact but had respiratory and cardiac insufficiencies. A two-stage vertebral column resection (VCR) at T9-T10 with multiple level fusion with multimodality intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) was planned.  During the first stage, pedicle screws were placed at multiple spinal levels above and below the VCR level. Upper and lower somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP), transcranial electrical motor evoked potentials (TCeMEP), and electromyography were monitored continuously and showed no significant changes...
August 31, 2016: Curēus
Risha L Moskalewicz, Leidy L Isenalumhe, Cindy Luu, Choo Phei Wee, Alan L Nager
OBJECTIVE: To examine clinical characteristics associated with bacteremia in febrile nonneutropenic pediatric oncology patients with central venous catheters (CVCs) in the emergency department (ED). BACKGROUND: Fever is the primary reason pediatric oncology patients present to the ED. The literature states that 0.9% to 39% of febrile nonneutropenic oncology patients are bacteremic, yet few studies have investigated infectious risk factors in this population. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study in a pediatric ED, reviewing medical records from 2002 to 2014...
September 17, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Matthias Jacob, Daniel Chappell, Bernhard F Becker
Oxygen delivery to cells is the basic prerequisite of life. Within the human body, an ingenious oxygen delivery system, comprising steps of convection and diffusion from the upper airways via the lungs and the cardiovascular system to the microvascular area, bridges the gap between oxygen in the outside airspace and the interstitial space around the cells. However, the complexity of this evolutionary development makes us prone to pathophysiological problems. While those problems related to respiration and macrohemodynamics have already been successfully addressed by modern medicine, the pathophysiology of the microcirculation is still often a closed book in daily practice...
October 21, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Jessica A Flynn, Eberhard Durr, Ryan Swoyer, Pedro J Cejas, Melanie S Horton, Jennifer D Galli, Scott A Cosmi, Amy S Espeseth, Andrew J Bett, Lan Zhang
Infection with Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) causes both upper and lower respiratory tract disease in humans, leading to significant morbidity and mortality in both young children and older adults. Currently, there is no licensed vaccine available, and therapeutic options are limited. During the infection process, the type I viral fusion (F) glycoprotein on the surface of the RSV particle rearranges from a metastable prefusion conformation to a highly stable postfusion form. In people naturally infected with RSV, most potent neutralizing antibodies are directed to the prefusion form of the F protein...
2016: PloS One
Charles W Lanks, Timothy L Van Natta, David W Hsia
Localized tracheobronchial amyloidosis is a rare disease that results from submucosal deposition of insoluble amyloid proteins in the large airways. Amyloidosis affecting the larynx and subglottic space typically results in unilateral, nodular vocal cord infiltration. It rarely can present with bilateral vocal cord involvement and can progress to lifethreatening respiratory failure due to upper airway obstruction. In these patients, typical treatment modalities such as CO2 laser ablation are often ineffectual...
October 2016: Journal of Bronchology & Interventional Pulmonology
Hsueh-Yu Li, Yu-Lun Lo, Chao-Jan Wang, Li-Jen Hsin, Wan-Ni Lin, Tuan-Jen Fang, Li-Ang Lee
Surgical success for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) depends on identifying sites of obstruction in the upper airway. In this study, we investigated sites of obstruction by evaluating dynamic changes in the upper airway using drug-induced sleep computed tomography (DI-SCT) in patients with OSA. Thirty-five adult patients with OSA were prospectively enrolled. Sleep was induced with propofol under light sedation (bispectral index 70-75), and low-dose 320-detector row CT was performed for 10 seconds over a span of 2-3 respiratory cycles with supporting a continuous positive airway pressure model...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
B P C Hoppe, E de Jongh, A Griffioen-Keijzer, J M Zijlstra-Baalbergen, E P F IJzerman, F Baboe
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a paramyxovirus that causes respiratory tract infections ranging from mild upper airway infection to severe pneumonia. Patients with haematological disease, especially haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients, are more likely to develop more severe infections. We describe three cases of hMPV infection in HSCT patients. The most reliable diagnostic procedure for hMPV is multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) on a nasopharyngeal swab. Sensitivity and specificity of MLPA to detect hMPV is high and time to diagnosis is short...
October 2016: Netherlands Journal of Medicine
Markus Bastir, Daniel García-Martínez, Nicole Torres-Tamayo, Juan Alberto Sanchis-Gimeno, Paul O'Higgins, Cristina Utrilla, Isabel Torres Sánchez, Francisco García Río
The human ribcage expands and contracts during respiration as a result of the interaction between the morphology of the ribs, the costo-vertebral articulations and respiratory muscles. Variations in these factors are said to produce differences in the kinematics of the upper thorax and the lower thorax, but the extent and nature of any such differences and their functional implications have not yet been quantified. Applying geometric morphometrics we measured 402 three-dimensional (3D) landmarks and semilandmarks of 3D models built from computed tomographic scans of thoraces of 20 healthy adult subjects in maximal forced inspiration (FI) and expiration (FE)...
October 19, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
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