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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937239/nasal-nitric-oxide-in-healthy-adults-reference-values-and-affecting-factors
#1
M Antosova, D Mokra, I Tonhajzerova, P Mikolka, P Kosutova, M Mestanik, L Pepucha, J Plevkova, T Buday, V Calkovsky, A Bencova
Nitric oxide (NO) is an important endogenous mediator with significant role in the respiratory system. Many endogenous and exogenous factors influence the synthesis of NO and its level is significantly changed during the inflammation. Analysis of nasal nitric oxide (nNO) is not validated so far as the diagnostic method. There is a lack of reference values with possible identification of factors modulating the nNO levels. In healthy adult volunteers (n=141) we studied nasal NO values by NIOX MINO® (Aerocrine, Sweden) according to the recommendations of the ATS & ERS...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936955/-analysis-of-characteristics-of-bacteria-in-respiratory-tract-infection-in-2013-2016-in-heibei-3a-hospital-a-single-center-report-of-7-497-patients
#2
Lili Hou, Lili Liu, Ping Dang, Guannan Kang, Qinfeng Zhang, Dongling Li
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the changes and characteristics of respiratory tract bacteria in Hebei 3A Hospital, and to provide new rationale for clinical diagnosis and treatment. METHODS: A single-center retrospective analysis was conducted. 7 497 patients with respiratory tract infection admitted to Hebei Chest Hospital from January 2013 to December 2016 were enrolled. Deep sputum was collected, and the bacterial cultures and susceptibility analysis was conducted in sputum and upper respiratory secretions were collected by fiberoptic bronchoscopy...
September 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934952/post-market-outcome-of-an-extract-of-traditional-cretan-herbs-on-upper-respiratory-tract-infections-a-pragmatic-prospective-observational-study
#3
Marilena Anastasaki, Antonios Bertsias, Stergios A Pirintsos, Elias Castanas, Christos Lionis
BACKGROUND: The beneficial effects of traditional herbs of Crete, Greece for the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections have been reported in observational and laboratory studies. Following a published, double blind, randomized, placebo controlled trial, this study aimed to assess the effectiveness of an extract of three Cretan herbs on the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections, upon its market release. METHODS: An observational study was conducted in Heraklion, Crete, Greece...
September 21, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934933/medicine-use-practices-in-management-of-symptoms-of-acute-upper-respiratory-tract-infections-in-children-%C3%A2-12%C3%A2-years-in-kampala-city-uganda
#4
Moses Ocan, Mary Aono, Clare Bukirwa, Emmanuel Luyinda, Cathy Ochwo, Elastus Nsambu, Stella Namugonza, Joseph Makoba, Enock Kandaruku, Hannington Muyende, Aida Nakawunde
BACKGROUND: Medicines are commonly accessed and used for management of illness in children without a prescription. This potentially increases the risk of unwanted treatment outcomes. We investigated medicine use practices in management of symptoms of acute upper respiratory tract infections among children (≤12 years) in households in Nakawa division, Kampala city. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 390 randomly selected children. Data on use of medicines in children (≤12 years) during recent episode of acute upper respiratory tract infection was collected from their care takers using an interviewer administered questionnaire...
September 21, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933281/influenza-virus-small-molecule-therapeutics-and-mechanisms-of-antiviral
#5
Julianna Han, Jasmine Perez, Adam Schafer, Han Cheng, Norton Peet, Lijun Rong, Balaji Manicassamy
Influenza viruses cause severe upper respiratory illness in young children and the elderly during seasonal epidemics. Influenza viruses also have the potential to cause pandemics with significant loss of life in all age groups. Although vaccination is one of the most effective methods to protect against seasonal epidemics, seasonal vaccines afford lowered protection against emerging variant strains and no protection against novel strains. Moreover, the efficacy of influenza virus vaccines is considerably lower in the elderly population...
September 20, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933178/-nosocomial-pneumonia
#6
Jana Skřičková
Nosocomial pneumonia (hospital-acquired pneumonia - HAP) is the form of pneumonia the symptoms of which present after more than 2 days (> 48 hours) of admission to hospital or as late as 14 days of discharge from hospital. The HAP pneumonias represent 13-18 % of all nosocomial infections. Incidence of HAP is the most frequent in mechanically ventilated patients. The type and representation of HAP agents primarily depends on the length of a patients stay in hospital and on their condition and character of treatment...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931801/elizabethkingia-meningoseptica-in-a-case-of-biliary-tract-infection-following-liver-transplantation
#7
Hebah M Musalem, Yazan N Honjol, Lin M Tuleimat, Saleh I Al Abbad, Fahad I Alsohaibani
BACKGROUND Elizabethkingia meningoseptica (E. meningoseptica) is an aerobic Gram-negative bacillus known to thrive in moist environments, and is now recognized as a hospital-acquired infection, being found to contaminate hospital equipment, respiratory apparatus, hospital solutions, water, and drainage systems. Nosocomial infection with E. meningoseptica occurs in immunocompromised patients, requires specialized identification methods, and is resistant to conventional antibiotics. We report a case of E. meningoseptica infection arising from a percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) tube...
September 21, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931649/sequencing-of-the-variable-region-of-rpsb-to-discriminate-between-streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-other-streptococcal-species
#8
Anne L Wyllie, Yvonne Pannekoek, Sandra Bovenkerk, Jody van Engelsdorp Gastelaars, Bart Ferwerda, Diederik van de Beek, Elisabeth A M Sanders, Krzysztof Trzciński, Arie van der Ende
The vast majority of streptococci colonizing the human upper respiratory tract are commensals, only sporadically implicated in disease. Of these, the most pathogenic is Mitis group member, Streptococcus pneumoniae Phenotypic and genetic similarities between streptococci can cause difficulties in species identification. Using ribosomal S2-gene sequences extracted from whole-genome sequences published from 501 streptococci, we developed a method to identify streptococcal species. We validated this method on non-pneumococcal isolates cultured from cases of severe streptococcal disease (n = 101) and from carriage (n = 103), and on non-typeable pneumococci from asymptomatic individuals (n = 17) and on whole-genome sequences of 1157 pneumococcal isolates from meningitis in the Netherlands...
September 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930978/influenza-a-virus-studies-in-a-mouse-model-of-infection
#9
Laura Rodriguez, Aitor Nogales, Luis Martínez-Sobrido
Influenza viruses cause over 500,000 deaths worldwide(1) and are associated with an annual cost of 12 - 14 billion USD in the United States alone considering direct medical and hospitalization expenses and work absenteeism(2). Animal models are crucial in Influenza A virus (IAV) studies to evaluate viral pathogenesis, host-pathogen interactions, immune responses, and the efficacy of current and/or novel vaccine approaches as well as antivirals. Mice are an advantageous small animal model because their immune system is evolutionarily similar to that found in humans, they are available from commercial vendors as genetically identical subjects, there are multiple strains that can be exploited to evaluate the genetic basis of infections, and they are relatively inexpensive and easy to manipulate...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929958/-screening-of-corynebacterium-diphtheriae-corynebacterium-ulcerans-and-corynebacterium-pseudotuberculosis-in-throat-swab-specimens-of-children-with-upper-respiratory-tract-infections
#10
Zeynep Gökçe Gayretli Aydın, Gönül Tanır, Selin Nar Ötgün, Meral Turan, Türkan Aydın Teke, Ayşe Kaman, Selçuk Kılıç
Although a significant decrease has been reported in the incidence of diphteria in many regions of the world following the routine diphtheria immunization programs, the emergence of new cases indicated that toxigenic strains are still circulating in the community. Diphtheria vaccine does not provide protection against asymptomatic carriage and colonization of non-toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It is a known fact that invasive infections may arise from non-toxigenic C.diphtheriae strains that the non-toxigenic strains can become toxigenic strains leading to diphteria...
July 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929588/bioactive-compounds-of-shuang-huang-lian-prescription-and-an-insight-into-its-binding-mechanism-by-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptor-chromatography-coupled-with-site-directed-molecular-docking
#11
Jing Wang, Fengwu Li, Kaizhu Zeng, Qian Li, Xinfeng Zhao, Xiaohui Zheng
Owing to the promising clinical efficacy and relatively simple composition, Shuang-Huang-Lian prescription is widely prescribed for the treatment of acute upper respiratory tract infection and acute bronchitis in practice. This necessitates the understanding of the bioactive compounds of the prescription and their binding mechanism to β2-adrenoceptor, which mediates the aforementioned ailments. In this work, a column containing immobilized β2-adrenoceptor was prepared using a diazonium salt reaction. The bioactive compound collected from the β2-adrenoceptor column was identified as chlorogenic acid by using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap mass spectrometry...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929060/laser-assisted-double-layer-endoscopic-repair-of-laryngeal-clefts-our-experience-in-11-cases
#12
Danah Aljomah, Jaber Alshammari
Laryngeal cleft is a rare congenital malformation of the respiratory tract leading to a high level of morbidity and mortality, recently being diagnosed with increased frequency. Management throughout the years included medical and surgical. The open surgical technique is more commonly used although it has higher risk and need longer post-operative care. Recently surgical endoscopic repair was introduced using different techniques. To evaluate the clinical features of infants and children presenting with laryngeal clefts, and review endoscopic management modality especially the technique and results of repair using double-layer (2 layers) technique...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928418/novel-and-classical-human-astroviruses-in-stool-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-comprehensive-screening-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-switzerland
#13
Samuel Cordey, Diem-Lan Vu, Marie-Celine Zanella, Lara Turin, Aline Mamin, Laurent Kaiser
Classical human astroviruses (HAstV) are the third most common cause of non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis. Due to the lack of routine molecular assays, novel HAstV are underdiagnosed and the magnitude of their contribution to clinical disease remains unknown. To better understand their prevalence and the susceptible patient profile, we conducted a comprehensive screening of novel and classical HAstV in stool and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples collected for clinical care in a tertiary care hospital using a specially designed rRT-PCR panel for the detection of novel (MLB1-3 and VA1-4) and classical HAstV...
September 20, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928207/a-perfect-storm-increased-colonization-and-failure-of-vaccination-leads-to-severe-secondary-bacterial-infection-in-influenza-virus-infected-obese-mice
#14
Erik A Karlsson, Victoria A Meliopoulos, Nicholas C van de Velde, Lee-Ann van de Velde, Beth Mann, Geli Gao, Jason Rosch, Elaine Tuomanen, Jon McCullers, Peter Vogel, Stacey Schultz-Cherry
Obesity is a risk factor for developing severe disease following influenza virus infection; however, the comorbidity of obesity and secondary bacterial infection, a serious complication of influenza virus infections, is unknown. To fill this gap in knowledge, lean and obese C57BL/6 mice were infected with a nonlethal dose of influenza virus followed by a nonlethal dose of Streptococcus pneumoniae Strikingly, not only did significantly enhanced death occur in obese coinfected mice compared to lean controls, but also high mortality was seen irrespective of influenza virus strain, bacterial strain, or timing of coinfection...
September 19, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928078/a-nationwide-study-on-the-impact-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccination-on-antibiotic-use-and-ventilation-tube-insertion-in-denmark-2000-2014
#15
Michael Frantz Howitz, Zitta Barrella Harboe, Helene Ingels, Palle Valentiner-Branth, Kåre Mølbak, Bjarki Ditlev Djurhuus
Introduction of Pneumococcal Conjugated Vaccines (PCV) in national immunization programs have been successful in reducing the number of invasive and lower respiratory pneumococcal infections. The impact of the vaccines on upper respiratory infections caused by pneumococci is less clear although these account for most pneumococcal infections. In this study, we used likely proxies for respiratory infections in children, such as antibiotic use and ventilation tube insertions (VTI), to estimate the impact of the vaccine on a national level...
September 16, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926170/efficacy-and-safety-of-saxagliptin-in-combination-with-metformin-as-initial-therapy-in-chinese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-results-from-the-start-study-a-multicenter-randomized-double-blind-active-controlled-phase-3-trial
#16
Jingtao Dou, Jianhua Ma, Jun Liu, Changjiang Wang, Eva Johnsson, Hui Yao, June Zhao, Changyu Pan
OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of saxagliptin plus metformin over 24 weeks in pharmacotherapy-naïve Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and inadequate glycemic control (HbA1c 8.0-12.0%). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In this multicenter, double-blind, active-controlled study (The START study: NCT02273050), patients were randomized (1:1:1) to saxagliptin 5 mg plus metformin, saxagliptin 5 mg plus placebo, or metformin plus placebo. Saxagliptin was taken once daily; metformin was taken once/twice daily and was titrated from 500 mg to a maximum of 2000 mg/day over 8 weeks...
September 19, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925377/applied-upper-airway-resistance-instantly-affects-breath-components-a-unique-insight-into-pulmonary-medicine
#17
Pritam Sukul, Jochen Schubert, Svend Kamysek, Phillip Trefz, Wolfram Miekisch
Respiratory parameters such as flow or rate have complex effects onto exhalation of volatile substances and can hamper clinical interpretation of breath biomarkers. We investigated effects of progressively applied upper-airway resistances onto exhalation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in healthy humans. We performed real-time mass-spectrometric determination of breath volatiles in 50 subjects with parallel non-invasive hemodynamic monitoring, breath-resolved spirometry and capnometry during controlled tidal breathing (12 breaths/min)...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924942/exploring-the-anti-proliferative-activity-of-pelargonium-sidoides-dc-with-in-silico-target-identification-and-network-pharmacology
#18
A S P Pereira, M J Bester, Z Apostolides
Pelargonium sidoides DC (Geraniaceae) is a medicinal plant indigenous to Southern Africa that has been widely evaluated for its use in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections. In recent studies, the anti-proliferative potential of P. sidoides was shown, and several phenolic compounds were identified as the bioactive compounds. Little, however, is known regarding their anti-proliferative protein targets. In this study, the anti-proliferative mechanisms of P. sidoides through in silico target identification and network pharmacology methodologies were evaluated...
September 18, 2017: Molecular Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924449/outcomes-after-sofosbuvir-containing-regimens-for-hepatitis-c-virus-in-patients-with-decompensated-cirrhosis-a-real-world-study
#19
Fanpu Ji, Wenjun Wang, Shuangsuo Dang, Shengbang Wang, Burong Li, Dan Bai, Wenxue Zhao, Hong Deng, Changyin Tian, Zongfang Li
BACKGROUND: Direct-acting antivirals have been used for decompensated cirrhotic patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. However, the benefits in Chinese patients with decompensated cirrhosis are unclear. METHODS: Thirty patients with HCV infection and decompensated cirrhosis were administered sofosbuvir-containing regimens at our hospital between April and December 2015. The efficacy and safety of the treatments was determined by sustained virological response at week 12 (SVR 12), change of liver function and adverse events...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924280/antibiotics-use-and-misuse-in-upper-respiratory-tract-infection-patients-knowledge-attitude-and-practice-analysis-in-university-hospital-saudi-arabia
#20
Waseem Hajjar, Sami Alnassar, Sara Al-Khelb, Sarah Al-Mutairi, Norah Al-Refayi, Sultan Ayoub Meo
OBJECTIVE: To assess the awareness and causes of antibiotics use and misuse in patients with upper respiratory tract infections. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted at King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from January 2014 to December 2015, and comprised patients suffering from upper respiratory tract infections. A well-established, self-administrated questionnaire was randomly distributed to the patients. The questionnaire consisted of 3 parts: demographic variables, knowledge, and beliefs, and behaviour towards antibiotic use and misuse...
September 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
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