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Catherine R Linnen, Claire T O'Quin, Taylor Shackleford, Connor R Sears, Carita Lindstedt
Pigmentation has emerged as a premier model for understanding the genetic basis of phenotypic evolution, and a growing catalog of color loci is starting to reveal biases in the mutations, genes, and genetic architectures underlying color variation in the wild. However, existing studies have sampled a limited subset of taxa, color traits, and developmental stages. To expand the existing sample of color loci, we performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping analyses on two types of larval pigmentation traits that vary among populations of the redheaded pine sawfly ( Neodiprion lecontei ): carotenoid-based yellow body color and melanin-based spotting pattern...
March 1, 2018: Genetics
Xiao Miao, Shuyang Chen, Bo Zhu, Chengqian Yin, Xin Li, Changpeng Han, Rutao Cui, Bin Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 10, 2018: Future Oncology
Ben A Woodcock, Lucy Ridding, Stephen N Freeman, M Gloria Pereira, Darren Sleep, John Redhead, David Aston, Norman L Carreck, Richard F Shore, James M Bullock, Matthew S Heard, Richard F Pywell
Due to concerns over negative impacts on insect pollinators, the European Union has implemented a moratorium on the use of three neonicotinoid pesticide seed dressings for mass-flowering crops. We assessed the effectiveness of this policy in reducing the exposure risk to honeybees by collecting 130 samples of honey from bee keepers across the UK before (2014: N = 21) and after the moratorium was in effect (2015: N = 109). Neonicotinoids were present in about half of the honey samples taken before the moratorium, and they were present in over a fifth of honey samples following the moratorium...
2018: PloS One
Peter Frost, Karel Kleisner, Jaroslav Flegr
Red hair is associated in women with pain sensitivity. This medical condition, and perhaps others, seems facilitated by the combination of being red-haired and female. We tested this hypothesis by questioning a large sample of Czech and Slovak respondents about the natural redness and darkness of their hair, their natural eye color, their physical and mental health (24 categories), and other personal attributes (height, weight, number of children, lifelong number of sexual partners, frequency of smoking). Red-haired women did worse than other women in ten health categories and better in only three, being particularly prone to colorectal, cervical, uterine, and ovarian cancer...
2017: PloS One
David L Hawksworth, Tom W May, Scott A Redhead
This article summarizes the key changes in the rules relating to the nomenclature of fungi made at the XIX International Botanical Congress in Shenzhen, China, in July 2017. Most significant was the decision to transfer decision-making on matters related only to the naming of fungi from International Botanical to International Mycological Congresses (IMCs). The rules relating to fungi are to be grouped together in a separate section of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN)...
December 2017: IMA Fungus
A K Redhead, N Siew, N Lambie, D Carnarvon, R Ramgattie, M Knights
The relationship between circulating concentration of anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) and the LH content of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) preparation on follicular growth and ovulatory response in water buffaloes was evaluated. A single blood sample was taken from cows (N=31; age: 9.06±0.98years) to determine systemic AMH. Animals with concentrations higher or lower than 194±30pg/ml were placed into LOW and HIGH AMH groups and were assigned randomly to be superovulated FSH containing either a high (FSHp, HLH) or low (FolltropinV, LLH) LH content...
January 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Daniel A Potter, Nicholas Wroe, Helen Redhead, Andrew Jp Lewington
Introduction: This study investigated outcomes in critically unwell acute kidney injury patients and the role of the National Early Warning Score and other factors in identifying patients who experience negative outcomes. Methods: Retrospective cohort study investigating 64 patients seen by Critical Care Outreach between November 2014 and February 2015. Mortality at one year was analysed using multivariate regression; all other statistical tests were non-parametric...
November 2017: Journal of the Intensive Care Society
Martin Redhead, Rupert Satchell, Ciara McCarthy, Scott Pollack, John Unitt
Thermal shift assays (TSAs) are among the most commonly used biophysical approaches in drug discovery in both academic and industrial settings. However, the most common interpretation of the data generated by a TSA is purely qualitative, using only the change in melting temperature (ΔTm ) as a metric. This has left many questions surrounding the interpretation of the data as well as whether the TSA truly correlates with other assays. TSAs also lack theoretical descriptions of the melt behavior of proteins in the presence of multiple ligands...
November 28, 2017: Biochemistry
Sarah Crunkhorn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 30, 2017: Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery
Anny Devoy, Bernadett Kalmar, Michelle Stewart, Heesoon Park, Beverley Burke, Suzanna J Noy, Yushi Redhead, Jack Humphrey, Kitty Lo, Julian Jaeger, Alan Mejia Maza, Prasanth Sivakumar, Cinzia Bertolin, Gianni Soraru, Vincent Plagnol, Linda Greensmith, Abraham Acevedo Arozena, Adrian M Isaacs, Benjamin Davies, Pietro Fratta, Elizabeth M C Fisher
Mutations in FUS are causative for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with a dominant mode of inheritance. In trying to model FUS-amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in mouse it is clear that FUS is dosage-sensitive and effects arise from overexpression per se in transgenic strains. Novel models are required that maintain physiological levels of FUS expression and that recapitulate the human disease-with progressive loss of motor neurons in heterozygous animals. Here, we describe a new humanized FUS-ALS mouse with a frameshift mutation, which fulfils both criteria: the FUS Delta14 mouse...
November 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
A Reignier, J Lammers, C Splingart, D Redhead, J J Labat, S Mirallié, P Barrière, T Fréour
This study aimed to describe spinal cord injured patients' semen characteristics before and after cryopreservation, and assisted reproductive technology cycles outcome compared to the infertile population. Data about sperm analysis and assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles outcomes for 78 men with spinal cord injury referred for sperm cryopreservation between 1998 and 2013 were retrospectively analysed and compared with a reference group consisting of every Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) cycle performed in our in vitro fertilization unit over the 2009-2014 period...
July 18, 2017: Andrologia
Eugene P Magennis, Nora Francini, Francesca Mastrotto, Rosa Catania, Martin Redhead, Francisco Fernandez-Trillo, David Bradshaw, David Churchley, Klaus Winzer, Cameron Alexander, Giuseppe Mantovani
Streptococcus mutans is the most significant pathogenic bacterium implicated in the formation of dental caries and, both directly and indirectly, has been associated with severe conditions such as multiple sclerosis, cerebrovascular and peripheral artery disease. Polymers able to selectively bind S. mutans and/or inhibit its adhesion to oral tissue in a non-lethal manner would offer possibilities for addressing pathogenicity without selecting for populations resistant against bactericidal agents. In the present work two libraries of 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (pDMAEMA)-based polymers were synthesized with various proportions of either N,N,N-trimethylethanaminium cationic- or sulfobetaine zwitterionic groups...
2017: PloS One
B A Woodcock, J M Bullock, R F Shore, M S Heard, M G Pereira, J Redhead, L Ridding, H Dean, D Sleep, P Henrys, J Peyton, S Hulmes, L Hulmes, M Sárospataki, C Saure, M Edwards, E Genersch, S Knäbe, R F Pywell
Neonicotinoid seed dressings have caused concern world-wide. We use large field experiments to assess the effects of neonicotinoid-treated crops on three bee species across three countries (Hungary, Germany, and the United Kingdom). Winter-sown oilseed rape was grown commercially with either seed coatings containing neonicotinoids (clothianidin or thiamethoxam) or no seed treatment (control). For honey bees, we found both negative (Hungary and United Kingdom) and positive (Germany) effects during crop flowering...
June 30, 2017: Science
John W Terbot, Ryan L Gaynor, Catherine R Linnen
Aggregations are widespread across the animal kingdom, yet the underlying proximate and ultimate causes are still largely unknown. An ideal system to investigate this simple, social behavior is the pine sawfly genus Neodiprion, which is experimentally tractable and exhibits interspecific variation in larval gregariousness. To assess intraspecific variation in this trait, we characterized aggregative tendency within a single widespread species, the redheaded pine sawfly (N. lecontei). To do so, we developed a quantitative assay in which we measured interindividual distances over a 90-min video...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
W G Mackay, S Whitehead, N Purdue, M Smith, N Redhead, C Williams, S Wilson
There is a lack of published studies on laundering in ambulance services. We performed bacterial culture on soiled and unsoiled uniforms and reusable mop heads artificially contaminated with Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Clostridium difficile spores. Current laundering processes used for routine cleans in the ambulances appears, from our simulations, to be effective at reducing vegetative pathogenic bacteria to undetectable levels, <3.398log10 colony-forming units (S. aureus and E. coli)...
May 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
Claire Carvell, Andrew F G Bourke, Stephanie Dreier, Stephen N Freeman, Sarah Hulmes, William C Jordan, John W Redhead, Seirian Sumner, Jinliang Wang, Matthew S Heard
Insect pollinators such as bumblebees (Bombus spp.) are in global decline. A major cause of this decline is habitat loss due to agricultural intensification. A range of global and national initiatives aimed at restoring pollinator habitats and populations have been developed. However, the success of these initiatives depends critically upon understanding how landscape change affects key population-level parameters, such as survival between lifecycle stages, in target species. This knowledge is lacking for bumblebees, because of the difficulty of systematically finding and monitoring colonies in the wild...
March 23, 2017: Nature
Gordon W Rattray
The Camas National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) in eastern Idaho, established in 1937, contains wetlands, ponds, and wet meadows that are essential resting and feeding habitat for migratory birds and nesting habitat for waterfowl. Initially, natural sources of water supported these habitats. However, during the past few decades, changes in climate and surrounding land use have altered and reduced natural groundwater and surface-water inflows, resulting in a 5-meter decline in the water table and an earlier, and more frequent, occurrence of no flow in Camas Creek at the Refuge...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Daniel F Hicks, Nicolas Goossens, Ana Blas-García, Takuma Tsuchida, Benjamin Wooden, Michael C Wallace, Natalia Nieto, Abigale Lade, Benjamin Redhead, Arthur I Cederbaum, Joel T Dudley, Bryan C Fuchs, Youngmin A Lee, Yujin Hoshida, Scott L Friedman
We have used a computational approach to identify anti-fibrotic therapies by querying a transcriptome. A transcriptome signature of activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), the primary collagen-secreting cell in liver, and queried against a transcriptomic database that quantifies changes in gene expression in response to 1,309 FDA-approved drugs and bioactives (CMap). The flavonoid apigenin was among 9 top-ranked compounds predicted to have anti-fibrotic activity; indeed, apigenin dose-dependently reduced collagen I in the human HSC line, TWNT-4...
March 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
David C Ackland, Dale Robinson, Michael Redhead, Peter Vee Sin Lee, Adrian Moskaljuk, George Dimitroulis
Personalized prosthetic joint replacements have important applications in cases of complex bone and joint conditions where the shape and size of off-the-shelf components may not be adequate. The objective of this study was to design, test and fabricate a personalized 3D-printed prosthesis for a patient requiring total joint replacement surgery of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). The new 'Melbourne' prosthetic TMJ design featured a condylar component sized specifically to the patient and fixation screw positions that avoid potential intra-operative damage to the mandibular nerve...
May 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Katrina Sharps, Dario Masante, Amy Thomas, Bethanna Jackson, John Redhead, Linda May, Havard Prosser, Bernard Cosby, Bridget Emmett, Laurence Jones
Ecosystem services modelling tools can help land managers and policy makers evaluate the impacts of alternative management options or changes in land use on the delivery of ecosystem services. As the variety and complexity of these tools increases, there is a need for comparative studies across a range of settings, allowing users to make an informed choice. Using examples of provisioning and regulating services (water supply, carbon storage and nutrient retention), we compare three spatially explicit tools - LUCI (Land Utilisation and Capability Indicator), ARIES (Artificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services) and InVEST (Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs)...
April 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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