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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930639/50-years-of-research-in-ards-tidal-volume-selection-in-the-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#1
Sarina K Sahetya, Jordi Mancebo, Roy G Brower
Mechanical ventilation (MV) is critical in the management of many patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, MV can also cause ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). The selection of an appropriate tidal volume is an essential part of a lung-protective MV strategy. Since the publication of a large randomized clinical trial demonstrating the benefit of lower tidal volumes, the use of tidal volumes of 6 mL/kg predicted body weight (PBW, based on sex and height) has been recommended in clinical practice guidelines...
September 20, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929907/management-of-obesity-after-spinal-cord-injury-a-systematic-review
#2
M H Shojaei, S M Alaviniaa, B C Craven
CONTEXT: Individuals with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) are susceptible to central and visceral obesity and it's metabolic consequences; consensus based guidelines for obesity management after SCI have not yet been stablished. OBJECTIVES: To identify and compare effective means of obesity management among SCI individuals. METHODS: This systematic review included English and non-English articles, published prior to April 2017 found in the PubMed/Medline, Embase, CINAHL Psychinfo and Cochrane databases...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929740/use-of-mobile-device-data-to-better-estimate-dynamic-population-size-for-wastewater-based-epidemiology
#3
Kevin V Thomas, Arturo Amador, Jose Antonio Baz-Lomba, Malcolm Reid
Wastewater-based epidemiology is an established approach for quantifying community drug use and has recently been applied to estimate population exposure to contaminants such as pesticides and phthalate plasticizers. A major source of uncertainty in the population weighted biomarker loads generated is related to estimating the number of people present in a sewer catchment at the time of sample collection. Here, the population quantified from mobile device-based population activity patterns was used to provide dynamic population normalized loads of illicit drugs and pharmaceuticals during a known period of high net fluctuation in the catchment population...
September 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929525/diabetes-and-deficits-in-cortical-bone-density-microarchitecture-and-bone-size-framingham-hr-pqct-study
#4
Elizabeth J Samelson, Serkalem Demissie, L Adrienne Cupples, Xiaochun Zhang, Hanfei Xu, Ching-Ti Liu, Steven K Boyd, Robert R McLean, Kerry E Broe, Douglas P Kiel, Mary L Bouxsein
Older adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D) tend to have normal or greater areal bone mineral density (aBMD), as measured by DXA, than those who do not have diabetes (non-T2D). Yet risk of fracture is higher in T2D, including 40% to 50% increased hip fracture risk. We used HR-pQCT to investigate structural mechanisms underlying skeletal fragility in T2D. We compared cortical and trabecular bone microarchitecture, density, bone area, and strength in T2D and non-T2D. In secondary analyses we evaluated whether associations between T2D and bone measures differed according to prior fracture, sex, and obesity...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929336/melatonin-alters-amino-acid-metabolism-and-inflammatory-responses-in-colitis-mice
#5
Gang Liu, Qian Jiang, Shuai Chen, Jun Fang, Wenkai Ren, Jie Yin, Kang Yao, Yulong Yin
Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic inflammatory dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract. This study explored the hypothesis that melatonin has beneficial functions in the mouse model of colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS), with a specific focus on the expression of intestinal inflammatory cytokines and the serum levels of amino acids. The results revealed that mice with melatonin supplementation had a reduction in weight loss and disease index induced by DSS treatment. Melatonin stifled the expression of colonic IL-17 in mice with DSS-induced colitis...
September 19, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929111/monitoring-leiomyoma-response-to-uterine-artery-embolization-using-diffusion-and-perfusion-indices-from-diffusion-weighted-imaging
#6
Mengqiu Cao, Lijun Qian, Xuebin Zhang, Xinjun Suo, Qing Lu, Huilin Zhao, Jialin Liu, Jianxun Qu, Yan Zhou, Jianrong Xu, Shiteng Suo
PURPOSE: To investigate the potential of diffusion and perfusion indices (ADC and perfusion fraction f) from DWI at 3.0 T in monitoring treatment response to uterine artery embolization (UAE) at 6-month follow-up. METHODS: Twelve female patients with uterine fibroids who underwent 3.0-T pelvic DWI before and 6 months after UAE were included. ADC and perfusion fraction f were calculated from DWI. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test and Spearman rank correlation test were used for statistics...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928953/treatment-of-femoral-shaft-fractures-with-monoaxial-external-fixation-in-polytrauma-patients
#7
Gianluca Testa, Domenico Aloj, Alessandro Ghirri, Eraclite Petruccelli, Vito Pavone, Alessandro Massé
Background: Femoral shaft fractures, typical in younger people, are often associated with polytrauma followed by traumatic shock. In these situations, despite intramedullary nailing being the treatment of choice, external fixation could be used as the definitive treatment. The aim of this study is to report evidence regarding definitive treatment of femoral shaft fractures with monoaxial external fixation. Methods: Between January 2006 and December 2015, 83 patients with 87 fractures were treated at the Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology CTO of Turin, with a monoaxial external fixation device...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928671/aerobic-exercise-training-selectively-changes-oxysterol-levels-and-metabolism-reducing-cholesterol-accumulation-in-the-aorta-of-dyslipidemic-mice
#8
Guilherme Silva Ferreira, Paula R Pinto, Rodrigo T Iborra, Vanessa Del Bianco, Monique Fátima Mello Santana, Edna Regina Nakandakare, Valéria S Nunes, Carlos E Negrão, Sergio Catanozi, Marisa Passarelli
Background: Oxysterols are bioactive lipids that control cellular cholesterol synthesis, uptake, and exportation besides mediating inflammation and cytotoxicity that modulate the development of atherosclerosis. Aerobic exercise training (AET) prevents and regresses atherosclerosis by the improvement of lipid metabolism, reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) and antioxidant defenses in the arterial wall. We investigated in dyslipidemic mice the role of a 6-week AET program in the content of plasma and aortic arch cholesterol and oxysterols, the expression of genes related to cholesterol flux and the effect of the exercise-mimetic AICAR, an AMPK activator, in macrophage oxysterols concentration...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928536/reduction-of-salt-content-of-fish-sauce-by-ethanol-treatment
#9
Yu Liu, Ying Xu, Xiaoxia He, Dongfeng Wang, Shiwei Hu, Shijie Li, Wei Jiang
Fish sauce is a traditional condiment in Southeast Asia, normally containing high concentration of salt. The solubility of salt is lower in ethanol than in water. In the present study, fish sauce was desalted by ethanol treatment (including the processes of ethanol addition, mixing, standing and rotary evaporation). The salt concentration of fish sauce decreased significantly from 29.72 to 19.72 g/100 mL when the treated ethanol concentration was 21% (v/v). The addition of more than 12% (v/v) of ethanol significantly reduced dry weight, total soluble nitrogen content and amino acids nitrogen content...
August 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928491/freezing-of-gait-is-associated-with-cortical-thinning-in-mesial-frontal-cortex
#10
Miroslav Vastik, Pavel Hok, Jan Valosek, Petr Hlustik, Katerina Mensikova, Petr Kanovsky
AIMS: The relationship between freezing of gait (FOG) and regional brain atrophy has been intensively investigated, but it is still not clearly understood. The study objective was to test whether grey matter (GM) atrophy contributes to FOG in Parkinson´s disease (PD) using a surface-based algorithm. METHODS: We investigated 21 patients with PD, 11 with FOG and 10 without FOG. Both groups were assessed using a FOG questionnaire and Hoehn and Yahr staging. High resolution T1-weighted brain images were acquired for each subject using a 1...
September 13, 2017: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928178/trend-analysis-of-mortality-rates-and-causes-of-death-in-children-under-5-years-old-in-beijing-china-from-1992-to-2015-and-forecast-of-mortality-into-the-future-an-entire-population-based-epidemiological-study
#11
Han Cao, Jing Wang, Yichen Li, Dongyang Li, Jin Guo, Yifei Hu, Kai Meng, Dian He, Bin Liu, Zheng Liu, Han Qi, Ling Zhang
OBJECTIVES: To analyse trends in mortality and causes of death among children aged under 5 years in Beijing, China between 1992 and 2015 and to forecast under-5 mortality rates (U5MRs) for the period 2016-2020. METHODS: An entire population-based epidemiological study was conducted. Data collection was based on the Child Death Reporting Card of the Beijing Under-5 Mortality Rate Surveillance Network. Trends in mortality and leading causes of death were analysed using the χ(2) test and SPSS 19...
September 18, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928167/development-of-the-huddle-observation-tool-for-structured-case-management-discussions-to-improve-situation-awareness-on-inpatient-clinical-wards
#12
Julian Edbrooke-Childs, Jacqueline Hayes, Evelyn Sharples, Dawid Gondek, Emily Stapley, Nick Sevdalis, Peter Lachman, Jessica Deighton
BACKGROUND: 'Situation Awareness For Everyone' (SAFE) was a 3-year project which aimed to improve situation awareness in clinical teams in order to detect potential deterioration and other potential risks to children on hospital wards. The key intervention was the 'huddle', a structured case management discussion which is central to facilitating situation awareness. This study aimed to develop an observational assessment tool to assess the team processes occurring during huddles, including the effectiveness of the huddle...
September 19, 2017: BMJ Quality & Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928111/personalized-hypertension-management-using-patient-generated-health-data-integrated-with-electronic-health-records-empower-h-six-month-pre-post-study
#13
Nan Lv, Lan Xiao, Martha L Simmons, Lisa G Rosas, Albert Chan, Martin Entwistle
BACKGROUND: EMPOWER-H (Engaging and Motivating Patients Online With Enhanced Resources-Hypertension) is a personalized-care model facilitating engagement in hypertension self-management utilizing an interactive Web-based disease management system integrated with the electronic health record. The model is designed to support timely patient-provider interaction by incorporating decision support technology to individualize care and provide personalized feedback for patients with chronic disease...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928093/effect-of-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-sglt2-inhibition-on-weight-loss-is-partly-mediated-by-liver-brain-adipose-neurocircuitry
#14
Yoshikazu Sawada, Yoshihiko Izumida, Yoshinori Takeuchi, Yuichi Aita, Nobuhiro Wada, EnXu Li, Yuki Murayama, Xiaoying Piao, Akito Shikama, Yukari Masuda, Makiko Nishi-Tatsumi, Midori Kubota, Motohiro Sekiya, Takashi Matsuzaka, Yoshimi Nakagawa, Yoko Sugano, Hitoshi Iwasaki, Kazuto Kobayashi, Shigeru Yatoh, Hiroaki Suzuki, Hiroaki Yagyu, Yasushi Kawakami, Takashi Kadowaki, Hitoshi Shimano, Naoya Yahagi
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have both anti-diabetic and anti-obesity effects. However, the precise mechanism of the anti-obesity effect remains unclear. We previously demonstrated that the glycogen depletion signal triggers lipolysis in adipose tissue via liver-brain-adipose neurocircuitry. In this study, therefore, we investigated whether the anti-obesity mechanism of SGLT2 inhibitor is mediated by this mechanism. Diet-induced obese mice were subjected to hepatic vagotomy (HVx) or sham operation and loaded with high fat diet containing 0...
September 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927850/response-of-humic-reducing-microorganisms-to-the-redox-properties-of-humic-substance-during-composting
#15
Xinyu Zhao, Xiaosong He, Beidou Xi, Rutai Gao, Wenbing Tan, Hui Zhang, Caihong Huang, Dan Li, Meng Li
Humic substance (HS) could be utilized by humus-reducing microorganisms (HRMs) as the terminal acceptors. Meanwhile, the reduction of HS can support the microbial growth. This process would greatly affect the redox conversion of inorganic and organic pollutants. However, whether the redox properties of HS lined with HRMs community during composting still remain unclear. This study aimed to assess the relationships between the redox capability of HS [i.e. humic acids (HA) and fulvic acids (FA)] and HRMs during composting...
September 16, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927719/sex-dependent-behavioral-impairments-in-the-hdhq350-mouse-line
#16
Jessica K Cao, Peter J Detloff, Richard G Gardner, Nephi Stella
Huntington's Disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease characterized by gradual deterioration of motor and cognitive functions and development of psychiatric deficits. Animal models provide powerful means to study the pathological processes, molecular dysfunctions and symptoms associated with HD. We performed a longitudinal behavioral study of the newly developed HdhQ350/+ mouse line, a knock-in model that expresses a repeat of 350 glutamines. We found remarkable sex-dependent differences on symptom onset and severity...
September 16, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927090/downregulation-of-pdcd4-by-mir-21-suppresses-tumor-transformation-and-proliferation-in-a-nude-mouse-renal-cancer-model
#17
Haixin Yuan, Shiyong Xin, Yaoping Huang, Yingfan Bao, Hao Jiang, Liqing Zhou, Xiaoqiang Ren, Liang Li, Qian Wang, Jianguo Zhang
Programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) is known to suppress neoplastic transformation, cell proliferation and metastasis, and to be downregulated by microRNA-21 (miR-21) in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell lines and tissues. The aim of the present study was to investigate the roles of and association between PDCD4 and miR-21 in a nude mouse renal cancer model. A total of 24 BALB/c male nude mice were randomly assigned into the following three groups: Negative control (NC; n=8), miR-21 inhibitor (n=8) and miR-21 mimic (n=8)...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926985/linguistic-multi-attribute-group-decision-making-with-risk-preferences-and-its-use-in-low-carbon-tourism-destination-selection
#18
Hui Lin, Zhou-Jing Wang
Low-carbon tourism plays an important role in carbon emission reduction and environmental protection. Low-carbon tourism destination selection often involves multiple conflicting and incommensurate attributes or criteria and can be modelled as a multi-attribute decision-making problem. This paper develops a framework to solve multi-attribute group decision-making problems, where attribute evaluation values are provided as linguistic terms and the attribute weight information is incomplete. In order to obtain a group risk preference captured by a linguistic term set with triangular fuzzy semantic information, a nonlinear programming model is established on the basis of individual risk preferences...
September 17, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925570/first-trimester-screening-based-on-ultrasound-and-cfdna-vs-first-trimester-combined-screening-a-randomized-controlled-study
#19
Karl Oliver Kagan, Fabrina Sroka, Jiri Sonek, Harald Abele, Kai Lüthgens, Maximilian Schmid, Philipp Wagner, Sara Brucker, Diethelm Wallwiener, Markus Hoopmann
OBJECTIVE: Prospective randomized trial to compare the performance of first trimester combined screening (FTCS) with an approach that uses the combination of a detailed ultrasound examination and cfDNA analysis. METHODS: Pregnant women with a normal first-trimester ultrasound examination at 11 to 13 weeks' gestation (fetal NT ≤3.5 mm and no fetal defects) were randomized into two groups. In the first group, the risk of aneuploidy was assessed using FTCS based on the most recent FMF UK algorithm...
September 19, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925405/intermittent-energy-restriction-improves-weight-loss-efficiency-in-obese-men-the-matador-study
#20
N M Byrne, A Sainsbury, N A King, A P Hills, R E Wood
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The MATADOR (Minimising Adaptive Thermogenesis And Deactivating Obesity Rebound) study examined whether intermittent energy restriction (ER) improved weight loss efficiency compared with continuous ER and, if so, whether intermittent ER attenuated compensatory responses associated with ER. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Fifty-one men with obesity were randomised to 16 weeks of either: (1) continuous (CON), or (2) intermittent (INT) ER completed as 8 × 2-week blocks of ER alternating with 7 × 2-week blocks of energy balance (30 weeks total)...
August 17, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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