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Tyrosinase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644401/the-investigation-of-electrochemistry-behaviors-of-tyrosinase-based-on-directly-electrodeposited-grapheneon-choline-gold-nanoparticles
#1
Yaping He, Xiaohui Yang, Quan Han, Jianbin Zheng
A novel catechol (CA) biosensor was developed by embedding tyrosinase (Tyr) onto in situ electrochemical reduction graphene (EGR) on choline-functionalized gold nanoparticle (AuNPs-Ch) film. The results of UV-Vis spectra indicated that Tyr retained its original structure in the film, and an electrochemical investigation of the biosensor showed a pair of well-defined, quasi-reversible redox peaks with Epa = -0.0744 V and Epc = -0.114 V (vs. SCE) in 0.1 M, pH 7.0 sodium phosphate-buffered saline at a scan rate of 100 mV/s...
June 23, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640957/restoration-of-cutaneous-pigmentation-by-transplantation-to-mice-of-isogeneic-human-melanocytes-in-dermal-epidermal-engineered-skin-substitutes
#2
Steven T Boyce, Christopher M Lloyd, Mark C Kleiner, Viki B Swope, Zalfa Abdel-Malek, Dorothy M Supp
Autologous engineered skin substitutes (ESS) containing melanocytes (hM) may restore pigmentation, and photoprotection after grafting to full-thickness skin wounds. In the current study, normal hM were isolated from discard skin, propagated with or without tyrosinase inhibitors, cryopreserved, recovered into culture, and added to ESS (ESS-P) before transplantation. ESS-P were incubated in either UCMC160/161 or UCDM1 medium, scored for hM densities, and grafted to mice. The results showed that: sufficient hM can be propagated to expand donor tissue by 100-fold; incubation of hM in tyrosinase inhibitors reduced pigment levels but did not change hM recovery after cryopreservation; hM densities in ESS-P were greater after incubation in UCDM1 than UCMC160 medium; hM were localized to the dermal-epidermal junction of ESS-P; and UCDM1 medium promoted earlier pigment distribution and density...
June 22, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640309/computational-analysis-of-histidine-mutations-on-the-structural-stability-of-human-tyrosinases-leading-to-albinism-insurgence
#3
Mubashir Hassan, Qamar Abbas, Hussain Raza, Ahmed A Moustafa, Sung-Yum Seo
Misfolding and structural alteration in proteins lead to serious malfunctions and cause various diseases in humans. Mutations at the active binding site in tyrosinase impair structural stability and cause lethal albinism by abolishing copper binding. To evaluate the histidine mutational effect, all mutated structures were built using homology modelling. The protein sequence was retrieved from the UniProt database, and 3D models of original and mutated human tyrosinase sequences were predicted by changing the residual positions within the target sequence separately...
June 22, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638878/effect-of-fucoidan-on-b16-murine-melanoma-cell-melanin-formation-and-apoptosis
#4
Zhi-Jiang Wang, Wei Xu, Jian-Wen Liang, Cai-Sheng Wang, Yani Kang
BACKGROUND: Fucoidan is a complex sulfated polysaccharide extracted from brown seaweed and has a wide variety of biological activities. It not only inhibits cancer cell growth but also inhibits tyrosinase in vitro. Therefore, it is of interest to investigate the effect of fucoidan on B16 murine melanoma cells as the findings may provide new insights into the underlying mechanism regarding the inhibition of melanin formation by fucoidan. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the anti-melanogenic effect of fucoidan and its inhibitory effect on B16 cells...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636366/oxygenation-via-c-h-c-c-bond-activation-with-molecular-oxygen
#5
Yu-Feng Liang, Ning Jiao
The selective oxidation of organic molecules is a fundamentally important component of modern synthetic chemistry. In the past decades, direct oxidative C-H and C-C bond functionalization has proved to be one of the most efficient and straightforward methods to synthesize complex products from simple and readily available starting materials. Among these oxidative processes, the use of molecular oxygen as a green and sustainable oxidant has attracted considerable attention because of its highly atom-economical, abundant, and environmentally friendly characteristics...
June 21, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632878/identification-of-novel-g-protein-coupled-receptor-143-ligands-as-pharmacologic-tools-for-investigating-x-linked-ocular-albinism
#6
Elisabetta De Filippo, Prashiela Manga, Anke C Schiedel
Purpose: GPR143 regulates melanosome biogenesis and organelle size in pigment cells. The mechanisms underlying receptor function remain unclear. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are excellent pharmacologic targets; thus, we developed and applied a screening approach to identify potential GPR143 ligands and chemical modulators. Methods: GPR143 interacts with β-arrestin; we therefore established a β-arrestin recruitment assay to screen for compounds that modulate activity...
June 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630054/slc45a2-a-melanoma-antigen-with-high-tumor-selectivity-and-reduced-potential-for-autoimmune-toxicity
#7
Jungsun Park, Amjad H Talukder, Seonah Lim, Kwanghee Kim, Ke Pan, Brenda Melendez, Sherille D Bradley, Kyle Jackson, Jahan S Khalili, Junmei Wang, Caitlin Creasy, Bih-Fang Pan, Scott E Woodman, Chantale Bernatchez, David Hawke, Patrick Hwu, Kyung-Mi Lee, Jason Roszik, Gregory Lizee, Cassian Yee
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-based immunotherapies have had remarkable success at generating objective clinical responses in patients with advanced metastatic melanoma.  Although the melanocyte differentiation antigens (MDAs) MART-1, PMEL, and tyrosinase were among the first melanoma tumor-associated antigens identified and targeted with immunotherapy, expression within normal melanocytes of the eye and inner ear can elicit serious autoimmune side effects, thus limiting their clinical potential as CTL targets...
June 19, 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629701/a-polymethoxyflavone-mixture-extracted-from-orange-peels-mainly-containing-nobiletin-3-3-4-5-6-7-8-heptamethoxyflavone-and-tangeretin-suppresses-melanogenesis-through-the-acidification-of-cell-organelles-including-melanosomes
#8
Norihiro Yoshizaki, Ron Hashizume, Hitoshi Masaki
BACKGROUND: Skin color is determined by melanin contents and its distribution. Melanin is synthesized in melanosomes of melanocytes, catalyzed by tyrosinase, melanogenic enzymes. Regarding the process of melanin synthesis, melanosomal pH is considered to play an important role, because it has been reported to differ between Caucasian and Black melanocytes. OBJECTIVE: Although polymethoxyflavone (PMF) has many beneficial effects, it has not been reported which PMF suppresses melanogenesis...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628832/young-leaves-of-reed-phragmites-communis-suppress-melanogenesis-and-oxidative-stress-in-b16f10-melanoma-cells
#9
Mi-Ok Sim, Ju Ri Ham, Mi-Kyung Lee
This study investigated the effects young leaves of reed (Phragmites communis) water extract (YLR) on melanogenesis and oxidative stress using B16F10 cells. YLR decreased the intracellular melanin content, protein expression and enzyme activity of tyrosinase in a dose-dependent manner. YLR significantly decreased the gene and protein expression of melanogeneis-related proteins, such as microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), and tyrosinase-related protein-1 and -2. In addition, YLR up-regulated the melanogenesis inhibitory proteins, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and protein kinase B (AKT), while it dose-dependently down-regulated p38 and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB)...
June 16, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627081/arginase-2-a-mir-1299-target-enhances-pigmentation-in-melasma-by-reducing-melanosome-degradation-via-senescence-induced-autophagy-inhibition
#10
Nan-Hyung Kim, Soo-Hyun Choi, Nayoung Yi, Tae Ryong Lee, Ai-Young Lee
Expression profiles revealed miR-1299 downregulation concomitant with arginase-2 (ARG2) upregulation in hyperpigmented skin of melasma patients. Opposite regulation of tyrosinase and PMEL17 by miR-1299 and inverse relationship between miR-1299 and ARG2 expression denoted a role of miR-1299 in pigmentation with ARG2 as a miR-1299 target. ARG2 overexpression or knockdown in keratinocytes, the main source of ARG2 in epidermis, positively regulated tyrosinase and PMEL17 protein levels, but not mRNA levels or melanosome transfer...
June 19, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626485/isolation-and-characterization-of-isofraxidin-7-o-6-o-p-coumaroyl-%C3%AE-glucopyranoside-from-artemisia-capillaris-thunberg-a-novel-nontoxic-hyperpigmentation-agent-that-is-effective-in-vivo
#11
Soon-Ho Yim, Nadia Tabassum, Woong-Hee Kim, Haaglim Cho, Ji-Hyung Lee, Galzad J Batkhuu, Hyun Jung Kim, Won Keun Oh, Da-Woon Jung, Darren R Williams
Abnormalities in skin pigmentation can produce disorders such as albinism or melasma. There is a research need to discover novel compounds that safely and effectively regulate pigmentation. To identify novel modulators of pigmentation, we attempted to purify compounds from a bioactive fraction of the Korean medicinal plant Artemisia capillaris Thunberg. The novel compound isofraxidin 7-O-(6'-O-p-coumaroyl)-β-glucopyranoside (compound 1) was isolated and its pigmentation activity was characterized in mammalian melanocytes...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623131/fgf21-regulates-melanogenesis-in-alpaca-melanocytes-via-erk1-2-mediated-mitf-downregulation
#12
Ruiwei Wang, Tianzhi Chen, Bingling Zhao, Ruiwen Fan, Kaiyuan Ji, Xiuju Yu, Xianjun Wang, Changsheng Dong
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is known as a metabolic regulator to regulate the metabolism of glucose and lipids. However, the underlying mechanism of FGF21 on melanin synthesis remains unknown. Therefore, the current study investigates the effect of FGF21 on melanogenesis in alpaca melanocytes. We transfected the FGF21 into alpaca melanocytes, then detected the melanin contents, protein and mRNA levels of pigmentation-related genes in order to determine the melanogenesis-regulating pathway of FGF21. The results showed that FGF21 overexpression suppressed melanogenesis and decreased the expression of the major target genes termed microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and its downstream genes, including tyrosinase (TYR) and tyrosinase-related protein 2 (TRP2)...
June 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613450/chemical-composition-and-biological-studies-of-the-essential-oil-from-aerial-parts-of-beta-vulgaris-subsp-maritima-l-arcang-growing-in-tunisia
#13
Afifa Zardi-Bergaoui, Aymen Ben Nejma, Fethia Harzallah-Skhiri, Guido Flamini, Roberta Ascrizzi, Hichem Ben Jannet
The chemical composition, antioxidant, cytotoxic, anticholinesterase and anti-tyrosinase activities of the hydrodistilled essential oil of the aerial parts of Beta vulgaris subsp. Maritime (L.) Arcang. from Tunisia have been evaluated. The chemical composition of the oil (yield 0.037% (w/w)), determined by GC-FID and GC-MS is reported for the first time. Twenty five components, accounting for 98.1% of the total oil have been identified. The oil was characterized by a high proportion of oxygenated sesquiterpenes (39...
June 14, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607685/concurrent-braf-and-pten-mutations-in-melanoma-of-unknown-origin-presenting-as-a-breast-mass
#14
Emmanuel Agosto-Arroyo, Marilin Rosa, Alec Chau, Laila Khazai
BACKGROUND: Metastases represent a small percentage of the malignancies affecting the breast, and only 5% of melanomas originate from non-cutaneous sites. Multiple genetic aberrations have been associated with the development of melanocytic lesions, including BRAF V600E mutation. Mutations in PTEN gene have also been related to the pathogenesis of multiple malignancies. PURPOSE/METHOD: This is the case of a 28-year-old female who presented with a tender, palpable mass in the upper outer quadrant of the right breast...
2017: SAGE open medical case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605321/antioxidant-and-enzyme-inhibitory-activities-of-extracts-from-wild-mushroom-species-from-turkey
#15
Gokhan Zengin, Mehmet Cemil Uren, Mehmet Sefa Kocak, Halil Gungor, Marcello Locatelli, Abdurrahman Aktumsek, Cengiz Sarikurkcu
The antioxidant and inhibitory effects of methanol and aqueous extracts from Hymenogaster aromaticus, Ramaria aurea, and Rhizopogon luteolus against cholinesterase, tyrosinase, α-amylase, and α-glucosidase are reported here, to our knowledge for the first time. Antioxidant activities were investigated using different assays, including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), ferric ion-reducing antioxidant power, cupric ion-reducing antioxidant capacity, phosphomolybdenum, and metal-chelating assays...
2017: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605142/aberrant-expression-of-fli-1-in-melanoma
#16
Nisha Ramani, Phyu P Aung, Wen-Jen Hwu, Priyadharsini Nagarajan, Michael T Tetzlaff, Jonathan L Curry, Doina Ivan, Victor G Prieto, Carlos A Torres-Cabala
FLI-1 (Friend leukemia integration site 1) nuclear transcription factor has been proposed as a suitable tool in the differential diagnosis of small round cell sarcomas. It has also been described as nuclear marker of endothelial differentiation. Expression of FLI-1 has been demonstrated in Ewing's sarcoma/ primitive neuroectodermal tumor (ES/PNET) and vascular neoplasms. In the present study, we describe two cases of metastatic melanoma with small round blue cell morphology that showed strong nuclear expression of FLI-1...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602669/the-selective-cytotoxicity-of-new-triazene-compounds-to-human-melanoma-cells
#17
Ana Sousa, Fábio Santos, Maria Manuela Gaspar, Susana Calado, João D Pereira, Eduarda Mendes, Ana Paula Francisco, Maria Jesus Perry
Metastatic melanoma still remains one the most difficult cancers to overcome. The aim of our research was the design of anti-tumour triazene compounds 3 for application to a melanoma-specific therapy. The strategy exploits the unique enzyme pathway of melanin biosynthesis for conversion of non-toxic prodrugs into toxic drugs in the melanoma cell. The compounds 3 were designed by coupling two active moieties, the alkylating triazenes and different tyrosinase substrates. All compounds 3 revealed to be chemically stable in isotonic phosphate buffer (PBS) at physiologic pH (t½≥48h), and most of them showed to be slowly hydrolysed in human plasma (1...
May 31, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601556/cannabidiol-upregulates-melanogenesis-through-cb1-dependent-pathway-by-activating-p38-mapk-and-p42-44-mapk
#18
Young Sun Hwang, Youn-Jung Kim, Mi Ok Kim, Mingyeong Kang, Sae Woong Oh, Youn Hwa Nho, See-Hyoung Park, Jongsung Lee
Melanogenesis plays a critical role in the protection of skin against external stresses such as ultraviolet irradiation and oxidative stressors. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of cannabidiol on melanogenesis and its mechanisms of action in human epidermal melanocytes. We found that cannabidiol increased both melanin content and tyrosinase activity. The mRNA levels of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein (TRP) 1, and TRP2 were increased following cannabidiol treatment...
June 7, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599303/oleoylethanolamide-inhibits-%C3%AE-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone-stimulated-melanogenesis-via-erk-akt-and-creb-signaling-pathways-in-b16-melanoma-cells
#19
Juan Zhou, Tong Ren, Ying Li, Anran Cheng, Wanyi Xie, Lanxi Xu, Lu Peng, Jinbin Lin, Lianxiang Lian, Yong Diao, Xin Jin, Lichao Yang
The present study aimed to examine the potential inhibitory activity of oleoylethanolamide (OEA) on α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-stimulated melanogenesis and the molecular mechanism(s) involved in the process in B16 mouse melanoma cells. Our data demonstrated that OEA markedly inhibited melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in α-MSH-stimulated B16 cells. In addition, the expression of melanogenesis-related proteins, such as melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R), microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1) and tyrosinase, was suppressed in a concentration-dependent manner by OEA...
May 23, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598022/skin-resistance-to-uvb-induced-oxidative-stress-and-hyperpigmentation-by-the-topical-use-of-lactobacillus-helveticus-ns8-fermented-milk-supernatant
#20
Jingjing Rong, Chuang Shan, Shuzhan Liu, Houfeng Zheng, Chen Liu, Ming Liu, Feng Jin, Li Wang
AIMS: Here, we investigated the preventive properties of the supernatant of Lactobacillus helveticus NS8-fermented milk (NS8-FS) against UV light-induced skin oxidative damage and hyperpigmentation. METHODS AND RESULTS: NS8-FS exhibited significant radical scavenging activity in tests with ABST(+) and DPPH scavenging methods, and as well strongly inhibited 3-morpholinosydnonimine (Sin-1) induced ROS generation in HaCat keratinocytes. Unexpectedly, NS8-FS was found to inhibit melanin production in B16F10 melanoma cells, and to exhibit inhibitory effects both to the enzymatic activity of tyrosinase and the expression of proteins required for melanin synthesis...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
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