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Kathryn Potter, Sailesh Konda, Vicky Zhen Ren, Apphia Lihan Wang, Aditya Srinivasan, Suneel Chilukuri
Surgical management of benign or malignant cutaneous tumors may result in noticeable scars that are of great concern to patients, regardless of sex, age, or ethnicity. Techniques to optimize surgical scars are discussed in this three-part review. Part 3 focuses on scar revision for erythema, hyperpigmentation, and hypopigmentation. Scar revision options for erythematous scars include moist exposed burn ointment (MEBO), onion extract, silicone, methyl aminolevulinate-photodynamic therapy (MAL-PDT), pulsed dye laser, intense pulsed light (IPL), and nonablative fractional lasers...
2018: Skinmed
Nihong Guo, Cailian Wang, Chao Shang, Xue You, Liuyang Zhang, Wenbin Liu
Controlling the activity of tyrosinase, which plays an important role in melanin synthesis, is essential endeavor in the field of medicine, food, cosmetics, and agriculture. Baicalein is a widely available inhibitor of tyrosinase. The mechanism of this inhibition was studied through an integrated approach coupling enzyme kinetics, multiple types of spectroscopy and computational simulation. Baicalein conspicuously inhibited the diphenolase activity with an IC50 value of 0.11 mM. The inhibtion kinetics indicated that baicalein was a mix-type tight binding inhibitor with a Ki of 0...
June 13, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Su Jeong Kim, Jungho Yang, Sanggwon Lee, Chaeun Park, Dongwan Kang, Jinia Akter, Sultan Ullah, Yeon-Jeong Kim, Pusoon Chun, Hyung Ryong Moon
Thirteen (Z)-4-(substituted benzylidene)-3-phenylisoxazol-5(4H)-ones were designed to confirm the geometric effect of the double bond of the β-phenyl-α, β-unsaturated carbonyl scaffold on tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Compounds 1a-1m, which all possessed the (Z)-β-phenyl-α, β-unsaturated carbonyl scaffold, were synthesized using a tandem reaction consisting of an isoxazolone ring formation and a Knoevenagel condensation, and three starting materials, ethyl benzoylacetate, hydroxylamine and benzaldehydes...
May 31, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Mareike Grees, Adi Sharbi-Yunger, Christos Evangelou, Daniel Baumann, Gal Cafri, Esther Tzehoval, Stefan B Eichmüller, Rienk Offringa, Jochen Utikal, Lea Eisenbach, Viktor Umansky
Despite melanoma immunogenicity and remarkable therapeutic effects of negative immune checkpoint inhibitors, a significant fraction of patients does not respond to current treatments. This could be due to limitations in tumor immunogenicity and profound immunosuppression in the melanoma microenvironment. Moreover, insufficient tumor antigen processing and presentation by dendritic cells (DC) may hamper the development of tumor-specific T cells. Using two genetically engineered mouse melanoma models ( RET and BRAFV600E transgenic mice), in which checkpoint inhibitor therapy alone is not efficacious, we performed proof-of-concept studies with an improved, multivalent DC vaccination strategy based on our recently developed genetic mRNA cancer vaccines...
2018: Oncoimmunology
Hee Jin Jung, A Kyoung Lee, Yeo Jin Park, Sanggwon Lee, Dongwan Kang, Young Suk Jung, Hae Young Chung, Hyung Ryong Moon
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure is the primary cause of extrinsic skin aging, which results in skin hyperpigmentation and wrinkling. In this study, we investigated the whitening effect of (2 E ,5 E )-2,5-bis(3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzylidene)cyclopentanone (BHCP) on B16F10 melanoma and its anti-wrinkle activity on Hs27 fibroblasts cells. BHCP was found to potently inhibit tyrosinase, with 50% inhibition concentration (IC50 ) values of 1.10 µM and 8.18 µM for monophenolase (l-tyrosine) and diphenolase (l-DOPA), and the enzyme kinetics study revealed that BHCP is a competitive-type tyrosinase inhibitor...
June 11, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Prashamsa Koirala, Su Hui Seong, Yajuan Zhou, Srijan Shrestha, Hyun Ah Jung, Jae Sue Choi
Kuwanon G (KG) and benzofuran flavonoids such as mulberrofuran G (MG) and albanol B (AB) isolated from Morus sp. are reported to exhibit anti-Alzheimer’s disease, anti-inflammatory, fungicidal, anti-cancer, anti-bacterial, and anti-tyrosinase properties. We investigated the inhibition of mono- and diphenolase activity of mushroom tyrosinase by KG, MG, and AB. KG and MG displayed acceptable inhibition activity compared to kojic acid. AB did not show any activity up to 350 µM. MG displayed six-fold higher inhibition of l -tyrosine oxidation (IC50 = 6...
June 11, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Yi-Wei Geng, Ya-Lan Wang, Rong Deng, Kai-Li Fu, Yan Deng
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of autophagy in the regulatory effect of Shufeng Huoxue Fumula (SFHXF) on the proliferation and melanin metabolism in cultured murine B16 melanoma cells. METHODS: B16 cells were treated with solutions containing 0.12, 0.25, 0.49, 0.98, or 1.96 mg/mL SFHXF preparations, rapamycin (an autophagy inducer), or rapamycin+SFHXF. The changes in the proliferation of B16 cells were assessed using MTT assay, and tyrosinase activity and melanin content in the cells were determined...
May 20, 2018: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
Worrawat Promden, Wittawat Viriyabancha, Orawan Monthakantirat, Kaoru Umehara, Hiroshi Noguchi, Wanchai De-Eknamkul
Twenty-seven flavonoids isolated from Dalbergia parviflora with vast structural diversity were screened for inhibitory activity against mushroom and murine tyrosinases using l-DOPA as the substrate. Among the flavonoids tested, only four—khrinone ( 5 ), cajanin ( 9 ), (3 RS )-3′-hydroxy-8-methoxy vestitol ( 21 ), and (6a R ,11a R )-3,8-dihydroxy-9-methoxy pterocarpan ( 27 )—reacted with mushroom tyrosinase, with IC50 values of 54.0, 67.9, 67.8, and 16.7 μM, respectively, and only compound 27 showed inhibitory activity against murine tyrosinase...
June 9, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Pan Soo Kim, Ji Hyun Shin, Doo Sin Jo, Dong Woon Shin, Dong-Hwa Choi, Woo Jung Kim, Kyuhee Park, Jin Kyu Kim, Chul Gue Joo, Jong Suk Lee, Yongmun Choi, Yong Won Shin, Joong Jin Shin, Hong Bae Jeon, Jin-Ho Seo, Dong-Hyung Cho
Skin pigmentation involves multiple processes, including melanin synthesis, transport, and melanosome release. Melanin content determines skin color and protects against UV radiation-induced damage. Autophagy is a cooperative process between autophagosomes and lysosomes that degrades cellular components and organelles. In the present study, B16F1 cells were treated with Rhizoma Arisaematis extract (RA) and assessed for pigmentation and autophagy regulation. RA treatment suppressed the α-MSH-stimulated increase of melanogenesis and down-regulated the expression of tyrosinase and TRP1 proteins in B16F1 cells...
June 8, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Gisela Ibáñez-Redín, Tiago Almeida Silva, Fernando Campanhã Vicentini, Orlando Fatibello-Filho
Carbon Black (CB) has acquired a prominent position as a carbon nanomaterial for the development of electrochemical sensors and biosensors due to its low price and extraordinary electrochemical and physical properties. These properties are highly dependent on the surface chemistry and thus, the effect of functionalization has been widely studied for different applications. Meanwhile, the influence of CB functionalization over its properties for electroanalytical applications is still being poorly explored. In this study, we describe the use of chemically functionalized CB Vulcan XC 72R for the development of sensitive electrochemical biosensors...
September 2018: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Jian Song, Xueming Liu, Jiada Li, Huadie Liu, Zhen Peng, Hongsheng Chen, Lingyun Mei, Chufeng He, Yong Feng
To investigate the mechanism for the synergistic effect of interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) on tyrosinase (TYR) promoter.
 Methods: The synergistic transcriptional effect, subcellular localization, and protein-protein interaction for IRF4 and MITF were observed by luciferase assay, immunofluorescence, GST-pull down, and co-immunoprecipitation, respectively.
 Results: IRF4 and MITF proteins were co-expressed in the cell nucleus. IRF4 augmented the transcriptional function of MITF (but not the mutant MITF) to activate the expression of the TYR promoter, but with no effect on other MITF-specific target promoters...
May 28, 2018: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
Jang Hoon Kim, In Sook Cho, Yang Kang So, Hyeong-Hwan Kim, Young Ho Kim
Tyrosinase is known for an enzyme that plays a key role in producing the initial precursor of melanin biosynthesis. Inhibition of the catalytic reaction of this enzyme led to some advantage such as skin-whitening and anti-insect agents. To find a natural compound with inhibitory activity towards tyrosinase, the five flavonoids of kushenol A (1), 8-prenylkaempferol (2), kushenol C (3), formononetin (4) and 8-prenylnaringenin (5) were isolated by column chromatography from a 95% methanol extract of Sophora flavescens...
December 2018: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
Nicole J Kus, Monika B Dolinska, Kenneth L Young, Emilios K Dimitriadis, Paul T Wingfield, Yuri V Sergeev
Human tyrosinase (hTyr) is a Type 1 membrane bound glycoenzyme that catalyzes the initial and rate-limiting steps of melanin production in the melanosome. Mutations in the Tyr gene are linked to oculocutaneous albinism type 1 (OCA1), an autosomal recessive disorder. Currently, the application of enzyme replacement therapy for a treatment of OCA1 is hampered by the absence of pure hTyr. Here, full-length hTyr (residues 1-529) was overexpressed in Trichoplusia ni larvae infected with a baculovirus, solubilized with detergent and purified using chromatography...
2018: PloS One
Ji Hye Kim, Dong Hyun Kim, Kyung Mun Cho, Kyoung Heon Kim, Nam Joo Kang
3,6-Anhydro-l-galactose (l-AHG) is a bioactive sugar that is a major component of agarose. Recently, l-AHG was reported to have anti-melanogenic potential in human epidermal melanocytes (HEMs) and B16F10 melanoma cells; however, its underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. At noncytotoxic concentrations, l-AHG has been shown to inhibit alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone-induced melanin synthesis in various cell models, including HEMs, melan-a cells, and B16F10 cells. Although l-AHG did not inhibit tyrosinase activity in vitro, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction results demonstrated that the anti-melanogenic effect of l-AHG was mediated by transcriptional repression of melanogenesis-related genes, including tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1), tyrosinase-related protein-2 (TRP-2), and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) in HEMs...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Sudeshna Datta, Baishali Kanjilal, Priyabrata Sarkar
In this paper a simple electrochemical sensing of dopamine by a new effective immobilization of tyrosinase (Tyr) enzyme on eggshell membrane (ESM) along with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is reported. The modified membrane was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDAX), X-Ray diffraction (XRD). A simple solution based approach was used to prepare AgNPs on biomembrane followed by glutaraldehyde activation to immobilize Tyr on the nanoparticles decorated ESM. The direct electrochemistry of DA oxidation was performed through cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV)...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Da Hyun Lee, Sung Shin Ahn, Jung-Bong Kim, Yoongho Lim, Young Han Lee, Soon Young Shin
Ultraviolet irradiation-induced hyperpigmentation of the skin is associated with excessive melanin production in melanocytes. Tyrosinase (TYR) is a key enzyme catalyzing the rate-limiting step in melanogenesis. TYR expression is controlled by microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) expression. Sorghum is a cereal crop widely used in a variety of foods worldwide. Sorghum contains many bioactive compounds and is beneficial to human health. However, the effects of sorghum in anti-melanogenesis have not been well characterized...
June 1, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Onur Bender, Eulogio J Llorent-Martínez, Gokhan Zengin, Adriano Mollica, Ramazan Ceylan, Lucia Molina-García, Maria Luisa Fernández-de Córdova, Arzu Atalay
The genus Hypericum is one of the most popular genera in both traditional medicine and scientific platform. This study is designed to provide conceptual insights on the biological potential and chemical characterization of H. salsugineum, which is endemic to Turkey. The qualitative and quantitative phenolic content of the extracts was characterized by HPLC-ESI-MSn. Biological efficiency was investigated by enzyme inhibitory assays (cholinesterases, tyrosinase, amylase, and glucosidase) and anti-cancer efficacy tests (anti-proliferative activities with the iCELLigence technology, colony formation and wound healing scratch assays)...
2018: PloS One
Ya-Li Wang, Guang Hu, Qian Zhang, Yu-Xiu Yang, Qiao-Qiao Li, Yuan-Jia Hu, Hua Chen, Feng-Qing Yang
Tyrosinase (TYR) is a rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of melanin, while direct TYR inhibitors are a class of important clinical antimelanoma drugs. This study established a spectrum-effect relationship analysis method and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis method to screen and identify the active ingredients that inhibited TYR in Salvia miltiorrhiza - Carthamus tinctorius (Danshen-Honghua, DH) herbal pair. Seventeen potential active compounds (peaks) in the extract of DH herbal pair were predicted, and thirteen of them were tentatively identified by LC-MS analysis...
2018: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
Anuprita D Watharkar, Suhas K Kadam, Rahul V Khandare, Parag D Kolekar, Byong-Hun Jeon, Jyoti P Jadhav, Sanjay P Govindwar
This study explores the potential of Asparagus densiflorus to treat disperse Rubin GFL (RGFL) dye and a real textile effluent in constructed vertical subsurface flow (VSbF) phytoreactor; its field cultivation for soil remediation offers a real green and economic way of environmental management. A. densiflorus decolorized RGFL (40 gm L-1 ) up to 91% within 48 h. VSbF phytoreactor successfully reduced American dye manufacture institute (ADMI), BOD, COD, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and Total Suspended Solids (TSS) of real textile effluent by 65%, 61%, 66%, 48% and 66%, respectively within 6 d...
May 30, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Ming Zhang, Lily Vervoort, Mohamed Moalin, Alex Mommers, Caroline Douny, Gertjan J M den Hartog, Guido R M M Haenen
As one of the important dietary antioxidants, (-)-epicatechin is a potent reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger involved in the redox modulation of the cell. When scavenging ROS, (-)-epicatechin will donate two electrons and become (-)-epicatechin quinone, and thus take over part of the oxidative potential of the ROS. The aim of the study is to determine where this chemical reactivity resides in (-)-epicatechin quinone. When this reactivity is spread out over the entire molecule, i.e. over the AC-ring and B-ring, this will lead to partialepimerization of (-)-epicatechin quinone to (-)-catechin quinone...
May 30, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
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