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Small animal practise

Seema Ramakrishnan, Prabu Baskaran, Romana Fazal, Syed Mohammad Sulaiman, Tiruvengada Krishnan, Rengaraj Venkatesh
Achieving a formed and firm eyeball which is stably fixed in a holding device is a major challenge of surgical wet-lab training. Our innovation, the 'Spring-action Apparatus for Fixation of Eyeball (SAFE)' is a robust, simple and economical device to solve this problem. It consists of a hollow iron cylinder to which a spring-action syringe is attached. The spring-action syringe generates vacuum and enables reliable fixation of a human or animal cadaveric eye on the iron cylinder. The rise in intraocular pressure due to vacuum fixation can be varied as per need or nature of surgery being practised...
October 2016: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Fiona Hollinshead, Natali Krekeler
PRACTICAL RELEVANCE: Pyometra is a commonly occurring uterine disease in cats that often leads to loss of breeding potential and, in some cases, can be life threatening. An increased incidence of cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH) and pyometra is seen with age. Most queens present with uterine lesions after 5-7 years of age (average 7.6 years, range 1-20 years). Clinical signs most commonly occur within 4 weeks of the onset of oestrus in queens that are either mated, spontaneously ovulate or are induced to ovulate (mechanical stimulation or hormone induction)...
January 2016: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Kathryn E Kemper, Coralie M Reich, Philip J Bowman, Christy J Vander Jagt, Amanda J Chamberlain, Brett A Mason, Benjamin J Hayes, Michael E Goddard
BACKGROUND: Genomic selection is increasingly widely practised, particularly in dairy cattle. However, the accuracy of current predictions using GBLUP (genomic best linear unbiased prediction) decays rapidly across generations, and also as selection candidates become less related to the reference population. This is likely caused by the effects of causative mutations being dispersed across many SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) that span large genomic intervals. In this paper, we hypothesise that the use of a nonlinear method (BayesR), combined with a multi-breed (Holstein/Jersey) reference population will map causative mutations with more precision than GBLUP and this, in turn, will increase the accuracy of genomic predictions for selection candidates that are less related to the reference animals...
2015: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
J R Hunt, T G Knowles, B D X Lascelles, J C Murrell
Data from a survey conducted in 1996-1997 suggested a low level of perioperative analgesic administration to cats and dogs in the UK. In order to evaluate current practice and attitudes with regards to perioperative analgesic prescription, a cross-sectional survey of UK practising small animal veterinary surgeons was undertaken in spring 2013. Four thousand one hundred paper questionnaires were distributed and the survey was made available online. Seven hundred and twenty valid responses were received and analysed...
May 9, 2015: Veterinary Record
Julie A Williamson, Robin M Fio Rito
Training veterinary students to perform emergency procedures, such as thoracocentesis and chest tube thoracostomy, poses challenges in terms of providing adequate hands-on experience without compromising animal welfare. A small animal thoracocentesis and chest tube thoracostomy model has been developed, that allows repetitive practice in a safe, standardised environment. The model has been incorporated into a clinical skills laboratory, where students work through computerised case studies in small groups, performing thoracocentesis or chest tube thoracostomy where indicated during the case...
June 2014: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
Sofie Nissen, Lan Anh Thi Nguyen, Stig Milan Thamsborg, Anders Dalsgaard, Maria Vang Johansen
BACKGROUND: Fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) infections including liver- and minute intestinal flukes are common in Southeast Asia in both humans and domestic animals eating raw fish and since 2010, the liver flukes are recognised as neglected tropical diseases by WHO. Mass drug treatment with praziquantel is advised for humans, but no recommendations for control of the FZT in the reservoir hosts exist. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A study was conducted to assess the ability of praziquantel treatment for control of FZT in farm dogs in an endemic area in Northern Vietnam...
2014: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
E Yüksel, W G Hill, R C Roberts
Selection was practised for improved feed efficiency (gain/feed intake) of mice on two alternative feeding regimes. In one set of lines animals were fed ad libitum, in the other set they were individually fed a fixed amount of feed (about 10% below the control ad libitum intake) which was not changed over generations. For each treatment, a pair of replicate lines (E) were selected on efficiency from 3-5 weeks of age for 8 generations and another pair (L) from 5-7 weeks for 7 generations. A control line was maintained for both E and L lines...
March 1981: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Dan Doherty, Kathleen J Millen, A James Barkovich
Historically, the midbrain and hindbrain have been considered of secondary importance to the cerebrum, which has typically been acknowledged as the most important part of the brain. In the past, radiologists and pathologists did not regularly examine these structures-also known as the brainstem and cerebellum-because they are small and difficult to remove without damage. With recent developments in neuroimaging, neuropathology, and neurogenetics, many developmental disorders of the midbrain and hindbrain have emerged as causes of neurodevelopmental dysfunction...
April 2013: Lancet Neurology
A L Roshier, E A McBride
The veterinary profession recently acknowledged its responsibility to provide behaviour support, following criticism for focussing on the physiological aspects of welfare and overlooking the psychological. To further understand the practising of behavioural medicine, a 'fly-on-the-wall' approach was used to investigate welfare discussions during dog booster vaccinations. Seventeen consultations involving six veterinarians in two UK small-animal practices were videoed. Qualitative methods were used to analyse themes discussed and questionnaires completed to obtain participant information and perceptions...
March 2, 2013: Veterinary Record
Nitin K Singh, Britto C Pakkkianathan, Manish Kumar, Jayssima R Daddam, Sridhar Jayavel, Mani Kannan, Girinath G Pillai, Muthukalingan Krishnan
Dormant endospores of Bacillus anthracis are the causative agent of anthrax, which is an acute disease for both human and animals. Anthrax has been practised as biological weapon because of two attributes: i) short duration of spore germination, and ii) lethal toxaemia of the vegetative stage. Pathogenesis is caused by the activity of edema toxin and lethal toxin. Protective antigen (PA), is an essential component of both complexes, binds to Anthrax Toxin Receptor (ATR) and mediates the lethality in mammals...
September 2012: Interdisciplinary Sciences, Computational Life Sciences
E A Courcier, D J Mellor, E Pendlebury, C Evans, P S Yam
Previous epidemiological studies of feline obesity have been restricted to small geographical areas of Great Britain. This study represents the first published description of the prevalence and risk factors for obesity from a nationally distributed population of cats. Data were gathered from 3227 cats through 47 primary companion animal veterinary practises. The overall prevalence of overweight/obesity was 11.5 per cent (95% confidence interval 10.4 per cent to 12.6 per cent) in cats attending the charity's clinics...
December 1, 2012: Veterinary Record
H Martojo
Livestock husbandry is essential for Indonesia. This study reviews cattle characteristics and husbandry methods in the country with special interest in describing the importance of indigenous breeds of cattle. As a conclusion, the Bali cattle ought to be considered the most suitable indigenous cattle breed for the low-input, high stress production system still practised by millions of families in Indonesia.
January 2012: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Catherine Buckley, Alison Colyer, Michal Skrzywanek, Katarzyna Jodkowska, Grzegorz Kurski, Jerzy Gawor, Michal Ceregrzyn
Many factors influence the oral health status of cats and dogs. The present study aimed to elucidate the influence of feeding home-prepared (HP) food v. commercial pet food on oral health parameters in these animals and to investigate the effect of home oral hygiene on oral health. The study surveyed 17,184 dogs and 6371 cats visiting over 700 Polish veterinary surgeries in 2006-7 during a Pet Smile activity organised by the Polish Small Animal Veterinary Association. All animals underwent conscious examinations to assess dental deposits, size of mandibular lymph nodes and gingival health...
October 2011: British Journal of Nutrition
Tobias O Okeno, Alexander K Kahi, Kurt J Peters
Indigenous chicken (IC) and their production systems were characterized to understand how the whole system operates for purposes of identifying threats and opportunities for holistic improvement. A survey involving 594 households was conducted in six counties with the highest population of IC in Kenya using structured questionnaires. Data on IC farmers' management practices were collected and analysed and inbreeding levels calculated based on the effective population size. Indigenous chicken were ranked highest as a source of livestock income by households in medium- to high-potential agricultural areas, but trailed goats in arid and semi-arid areas...
March 2012: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Frank Essmann, Klaus Schulze-Osthoff
The p53 tumour suppressor blocks cancer development by triggering apoptosis or cellular senescence in response to oncogenic stress or DNA damage. Consequently, the p53 signalling pathway is virtually always inactivated in human cancer cells. This unifying feature has commenced tremendous efforts to develop p53-based anti-cancer therapies. Different strategies exist that are adapted to the mechanisms of p53 inactivation. In p53-mutated tumours, delivery of wild-type p53 by adenovirus-based gene therapy is now practised in China...
January 2012: British Journal of Pharmacology
S Gibson-Kueh, N T N Thuy, A Elliot, J B Jones, P K Nicholls, R C A Thompson
This is the first report of an intestinal Eimeria infection in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) at the histopathological and ultrastructural levels. The Eimeria infection was often associated with severe pathology and significant mortality in the absence of other pathogens. This showed that it is an important disease of juvenile L. calcarifer in small scale nurseries in Vietnam. Heavy infection and high prevalence levels of the Eimeria infection are suspected to be linked to the low daily water exchange rates practised in these nurseries...
September 27, 2011: Veterinary Parasitology
R Roehe, J Krieter, E Kalm
A simulation study was conducted to examine the influence of population size and number of boars in service per year on overall economic response which was predicted under an BLUP-animal model. The simulated populations should resemble a closed nucleus herd of a pig breeding company. With extension of the sow populations from 60 to 180 sows the overall economic response increased by 32% and the discounted net economic response increased by 53%. The main reason for the higher response in larger populations was the higher realized selection intensity which increased by 17% (24 boars/60 sows versus 24 boars/180 sows)...
January 12, 1993: Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Zeitschrift Für Tierzüchtung und Züchtungsbiologie
L Novello, B Carobbi
Veterinary surgeons in Italy were surveyed about their current practice with regard to the use of propofol and intravenous opioids during anaesthesia and for treatment of acute pain in small animals. Questionnaires were e-mailed to all 171 members of the Italian Society of Veterinary Regional Anaesthesia and Pain Medicine. Information was requested on the type of practice the veterinarians worked in, the administration techniques used and the perceived benefit of pumps with target-controlled infusion (TCI) capability implementing small animal pharmacokinetic models...
November 13, 2010: Veterinary Record
Dominic Barfield, Sophie Adamantos
PRACTICAL RELEVANCE: blood transfusions are a potentially life-saving procedure that are within the reach of most small animal practitioners. Only minimal equipment is required. PATIENT GROUP: any cat with clinical signs attributable to a reduced red blood cell mass that is affecting oxygen transport (as a result of reduced packed cell volume or acute blood loss) is a potential candidate for a transfusion. CLINICAL CHALLENGES: although the principles of transfusion medicine are not complicated, there can be fatal consequences if certain steps are omitted...
January 2011: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
J G Jago, J E McGowan, J H Williamson
AIM: To examine the effect of setting a maximum milking time, from peak lactation until drying-off, on production, duration of milking, and udder health of dairy cows. METHODS: Forty cows were assigned in twin-pairs to be either milked until cups were removed at a milk flow-rate threshold of 0.35 kg/minute (Control), or until cups were removed at a milk flow-rate threshold of 0.35 kg/minute, or maximum time, whichever came first (MaxT). The maximum time was set by determining the milking time of the 70th percentile cow when ranked from fastest to slowest, irrespective of yield...
October 2010: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
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