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Small animal practise

S G H Sapp, B Murray, E R Hoover, G T Green, M J Yabsley
Baylisascaris procyonis, the raccoon roundworm, is a zoonotic ascarid of importance to human and animal health. Wildlife rehabilitators who care for raccoons may be at an increased risk for exposure to the parasite, especially if proper precautions are not taken. In a wider effort to evaluate awareness regarding B. procyonis in the wildlife rehabilitation community, an online survey (38-39 questions) including questions about B. procyonis knowledge and attitudes was developed and administered to wildlife rehabilitators...
March 30, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
M E Prendergast, E M Quintana Morales, A Crowther, M C Horton, N L Boivin
Occupants of coastal and island eastern Africa-now known as the 'Swahili coast'-were involved in long-distance trade with the Indian Ocean world during the later first millennium CE. Such exchanges may be traced via the appearance of non-native animals in the archaeofaunal record; additionally, this record reveals daily culinary practises of the members of trading communities and can thus shed light on subsistence technologies and social organisation. Yet despite the potential contributions of faunal data to Swahili coast archaeology, few detailed zooarchaeological studies have been conducted...
July 2017: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology
P I Monau, C Visser, S J Nsoso, E Van Marle-Köster
A total of 153 communal farmers in four agro-ecological regions of Botswana were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The aims of the survey were to characterise existing communal goat production systems, evaluate the importance of goats to farmers and identify breeding practices and constraints encountered in goat production in Botswana. Data was collected on socio-economic parameters, general and breeding management practices and major constraints limiting goat production in Botswana. All respondents were small-scale communal farmers with 63% respondents practising mixed crop-livestock farming and 37% keeping livestock as their primary activity...
August 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
S V Kondrup, K P Anhøj, C Rødsgaard-Rosenbeck, T B Lund, M H Nissen, P Sandøe
This study examined the extent to which Danish veterinary practices encounter financially limited clients and how different factors relating to the animal, the client and the veterinarian affect decisions to provide treatment for these clients. 300 small animal practices were invited to participate in an online survey. 195 participated, giving a response rate of 65 per cent. The results show that Danish small animal veterinary practices encounter clients with limited finances regularly: 33.8 per cent of them 3-4 times, 24...
December 10, 2016: Veterinary Record
H Fowler, M A Davis, A Perkins, S Trufan, C Joy, M Buswell, T F McElwain, D Moore, R Worhle, P M Rabinowitz
Antimicrobial resistance is a growing global health issue. It is also a recognised problem in veterinary medicine. Between September and December 2015 the authors administered a cross-sectional survey to licensed veterinarians in Washington State to assess factors affecting antimicrobial prescribing practices among veterinarians in Washington State. Two hundred and three veterinarians completed the survey. The majority of respondents (166, 82 per cent) were engaged in small animal or exotic animal practice...
December 24, 2016: Veterinary Record
Seema Ramakrishnan, Prabu Baskaran, Romana Fazal, Syed Mohammad Sulaiman, Tiruvengada Krishnan, Rengaraj Venkatesh
Achieving a formed and firm eyeball which is stably fixed in a holding device is a major challenge of surgical wet-lab training. Our innovation, the 'Spring-action Apparatus for Fixation of Eyeball (SAFE)' is a robust, simple and economical device to solve this problem. It consists of a hollow iron cylinder to which a spring-action syringe is attached. The spring-action syringe generates vacuum and enables reliable fixation of a human or animal cadaveric eye on the iron cylinder. The rise in intraocular pressure due to vacuum fixation can be varied as per need or nature of surgery being practised...
October 2016: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Fiona Hollinshead, Natali Krekeler
PRACTICAL RELEVANCE: Pyometra is a commonly occurring uterine disease in cats that often leads to loss of breeding potential and, in some cases, can be life threatening. An increased incidence of cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH) and pyometra is seen with age. Most queens present with uterine lesions after 5-7 years of age (average 7.6 years, range 1-20 years). Clinical signs most commonly occur within 4 weeks of the onset of oestrus in queens that are either mated, spontaneously ovulate or are induced to ovulate (mechanical stimulation or hormone induction)...
January 2016: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Kathryn E Kemper, Coralie M Reich, Philip J Bowman, Christy J Vander Jagt, Amanda J Chamberlain, Brett A Mason, Benjamin J Hayes, Michael E Goddard
BACKGROUND: Genomic selection is increasingly widely practised, particularly in dairy cattle. However, the accuracy of current predictions using GBLUP (genomic best linear unbiased prediction) decays rapidly across generations, and also as selection candidates become less related to the reference population. This is likely caused by the effects of causative mutations being dispersed across many SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) that span large genomic intervals. In this paper, we hypothesise that the use of a nonlinear method (BayesR), combined with a multi-breed (Holstein/Jersey) reference population will map causative mutations with more precision than GBLUP and this, in turn, will increase the accuracy of genomic predictions for selection candidates that are less related to the reference animals...
2015: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
J R Hunt, T G Knowles, B D X Lascelles, J C Murrell
Data from a survey conducted in 1996-1997 suggested a low level of perioperative analgesic administration to cats and dogs in the UK. In order to evaluate current practice and attitudes with regards to perioperative analgesic prescription, a cross-sectional survey of UK practising small animal veterinary surgeons was undertaken in spring 2013. Four thousand one hundred paper questionnaires were distributed and the survey was made available online. Seven hundred and twenty valid responses were received and analysed...
May 9, 2015: Veterinary Record
Julie A Williamson, Robin M Fio Rito
Training veterinary students to perform emergency procedures, such as thoracocentesis and chest tube thoracostomy, poses challenges in terms of providing adequate hands-on experience without compromising animal welfare. A small animal thoracocentesis and chest tube thoracostomy model has been developed, that allows repetitive practice in a safe, standardised environment. The model has been incorporated into a clinical skills laboratory, where students work through computerised case studies in small groups, performing thoracocentesis or chest tube thoracostomy where indicated during the case...
June 2014: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
Sofie Nissen, Lan Anh Thi Nguyen, Stig Milan Thamsborg, Anders Dalsgaard, Maria Vang Johansen
BACKGROUND: Fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) infections including liver- and minute intestinal flukes are common in Southeast Asia in both humans and domestic animals eating raw fish and since 2010, the liver flukes are recognised as neglected tropical diseases by WHO. Mass drug treatment with praziquantel is advised for humans, but no recommendations for control of the FZT in the reservoir hosts exist. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A study was conducted to assess the ability of praziquantel treatment for control of FZT in farm dogs in an endemic area in Northern Vietnam...
2014: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
E Yüksel, W G Hill, R C Roberts
Selection was practised for improved feed efficiency (gain/feed intake) of mice on two alternative feeding regimes. In one set of lines animals were fed ad libitum, in the other set they were individually fed a fixed amount of feed (about 10% below the control ad libitum intake) which was not changed over generations. For each treatment, a pair of replicate lines (E) were selected on efficiency from 3-5 weeks of age for 8 generations and another pair (L) from 5-7 weeks for 7 generations. A control line was maintained for both E and L lines...
March 1981: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Dan Doherty, Kathleen J Millen, A James Barkovich
Historically, the midbrain and hindbrain have been considered of secondary importance to the cerebrum, which has typically been acknowledged as the most important part of the brain. In the past, radiologists and pathologists did not regularly examine these structures-also known as the brainstem and cerebellum-because they are small and difficult to remove without damage. With recent developments in neuroimaging, neuropathology, and neurogenetics, many developmental disorders of the midbrain and hindbrain have emerged as causes of neurodevelopmental dysfunction...
April 2013: Lancet Neurology
A L Roshier, E A McBride
The veterinary profession recently acknowledged its responsibility to provide behaviour support, following criticism for focussing on the physiological aspects of welfare and overlooking the psychological. To further understand the practising of behavioural medicine, a 'fly-on-the-wall' approach was used to investigate welfare discussions during dog booster vaccinations. Seventeen consultations involving six veterinarians in two UK small-animal practices were videoed. Qualitative methods were used to analyse themes discussed and questionnaires completed to obtain participant information and perceptions...
March 2, 2013: Veterinary Record
Nitin K Singh, Britto C Pakkkianathan, Manish Kumar, Jayssima R Daddam, Sridhar Jayavel, Mani Kannan, Girinath G Pillai, Muthukalingan Krishnan
Dormant endospores of Bacillus anthracis are the causative agent of anthrax, which is an acute disease for both human and animals. Anthrax has been practised as biological weapon because of two attributes: i) short duration of spore germination, and ii) lethal toxaemia of the vegetative stage. Pathogenesis is caused by the activity of edema toxin and lethal toxin. Protective antigen (PA), is an essential component of both complexes, binds to Anthrax Toxin Receptor (ATR) and mediates the lethality in mammals...
September 2012: Interdisciplinary Sciences, Computational Life Sciences
E A Courcier, D J Mellor, E Pendlebury, C Evans, P S Yam
Previous epidemiological studies of feline obesity have been restricted to small geographical areas of Great Britain. This study represents the first published description of the prevalence and risk factors for obesity from a nationally distributed population of cats. Data were gathered from 3227 cats through 47 primary companion animal veterinary practises. The overall prevalence of overweight/obesity was 11.5 per cent (95% confidence interval 10.4 per cent to 12.6 per cent) in cats attending the charity's clinics...
December 1, 2012: Veterinary Record
H Martojo
Livestock husbandry is essential for Indonesia. This study reviews cattle characteristics and husbandry methods in the country with special interest in describing the importance of indigenous breeds of cattle. As a conclusion, the Bali cattle ought to be considered the most suitable indigenous cattle breed for the low-input, high stress production system still practised by millions of families in Indonesia.
January 2012: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Catherine Buckley, Alison Colyer, Michal Skrzywanek, Katarzyna Jodkowska, Grzegorz Kurski, Jerzy Gawor, Michal Ceregrzyn
Many factors influence the oral health status of cats and dogs. The present study aimed to elucidate the influence of feeding home-prepared (HP) food v. commercial pet food on oral health parameters in these animals and to investigate the effect of home oral hygiene on oral health. The study surveyed 17,184 dogs and 6371 cats visiting over 700 Polish veterinary surgeries in 2006-7 during a Pet Smile activity organised by the Polish Small Animal Veterinary Association. All animals underwent conscious examinations to assess dental deposits, size of mandibular lymph nodes and gingival health...
October 2011: British Journal of Nutrition
Tobias O Okeno, Alexander K Kahi, Kurt J Peters
Indigenous chicken (IC) and their production systems were characterized to understand how the whole system operates for purposes of identifying threats and opportunities for holistic improvement. A survey involving 594 households was conducted in six counties with the highest population of IC in Kenya using structured questionnaires. Data on IC farmers' management practices were collected and analysed and inbreeding levels calculated based on the effective population size. Indigenous chicken were ranked highest as a source of livestock income by households in medium- to high-potential agricultural areas, but trailed goats in arid and semi-arid areas...
March 2012: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Frank Essmann, Klaus Schulze-Osthoff
The p53 tumour suppressor blocks cancer development by triggering apoptosis or cellular senescence in response to oncogenic stress or DNA damage. Consequently, the p53 signalling pathway is virtually always inactivated in human cancer cells. This unifying feature has commenced tremendous efforts to develop p53-based anti-cancer therapies. Different strategies exist that are adapted to the mechanisms of p53 inactivation. In p53-mutated tumours, delivery of wild-type p53 by adenovirus-based gene therapy is now practised in China...
January 2012: British Journal of Pharmacology
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