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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679713/molecular-phylogenetics-of-the-genus-costularia-schoeneae-cyperaceae-reveals-multiple-distinct-evolutionary-lineages
#1
Isabel Larridon, Kenneth Bauters, Ilias Semmouri, Jan-Adriaan Viljoen, Christina J Prychid, A Muthama Muasya, Jeremy J Bruhl, Karen L Wilson, Bruno Senterre, Paul Goetghebeur
We investigated the monophyly of Costularia (25 species), a genus of tribe Schoeneae (Cyperaceae) that illustrates a remarkable distribution pattern from southeastern Africa, over Madagascar, the Mascarenes and Seychelles, to Malesia and New Caledonia. A further species, Tetraria borneensis, has been suggested to belong to Costularia. Relationships and divergence times were inferred using an existing four marker phylogeny of Cyperaceae tribe Schoeneae expanded with newly generated sequence data mainly for Costularia s...
April 18, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679616/early-detection-of-diabetic-retinopathy
#2
REVIEW
Hamid Safi, Sare Safi, Ali Hafezi-Moghadam, Hamid Ahmadieh
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a primary cause of visual impairment worldwide. Diabetes mellitus may be associated with ophthalmoscopically nonvisible neurovascular damage that progresses before the first clinical signs of DR appear. Reduction of the inner neuroretinal layer thickness on macular optical coherence tomography (OCT), reduced contrast sensitivity primarily at low spatial frequencies, abnormal results in color vision and microperimetry tests, and a prolonged implicit time recorded by multifocal electroretinography have been proposed for detection of early functional and nonvisible structural neuroretinal changes...
April 18, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679559/foxd1-is-required-for-terminal-differentiation-of-anterior-hypothalamic-neuronal-subtypes
#3
Elizabeth A Newman, Dong Won Kim, Jun Wan, Jie Wang, Jiang Qian, Seth Blackshaw
Although the hypothalamus functions as a master homeostat for many behaviors, little is known about the transcriptional networks that control its development. To investigate this question, we analyzed mice deficient for the Forkhead domain transcription factor Foxd1. Foxd1 is selectively expressed in neuroepithelial cells of the prethalamus and hypothalamus prior to the onset of neurogenesis, and is later restricted to neural progenitors of the prethalamus and anterior hypothalamus. During early stages of neurogenesis, we observed that Foxd1-deficient mice showed reduced expression of Six3 and Vax1 in anterior hypothalamus, but overall patterning of the prethalamus and hypothalamus is unaffected...
April 18, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679510/molecular-characteristics-of-multifocal-brain-histiocytic-sarcoma
#4
Florent Marguet, Nicolas Piton, Homa Adle-Biassette, Florence Renaud, Elodie Bohers, Thomas Boyer, Aline Zarea, Stéphane Derrey, Jean Christophe Sabourin, Annie Laquerrière
Histiocytic sarcoma (HS) is a very uncommon malignant proliferation accounting for less than 1% of all neoplasms of hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues. According to the 2008 WHO classification of haematological and lymphoid tumours, diagnosis of HS requires histological and immunohistochemical evidence of histiocytic differentiation [1]. The 2016 Central nervous system (CNS) WHO classification parallels the categories of the corresponding WHO classification of hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues. By definition, diagnosis of HS relies on the expression of at least two of the histiocytic markers, e...
April 21, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679204/efficacy-of-curcumin-for-age-associated-cognitive-decline-a-narrative-review-of-preclinical-and-clinical-studies
#5
REVIEW
Marjana Rahman Sarker, Susan F Franks
Processes such as aberrant redox signaling and chronic low-grade systemic inflammation have been reported to modulate age-associated pathologies such as cognitive impairment. Curcumin, the primary therapeutic component of the Indian spice, Turmeric (Curcuma longa), has long been known for its strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity attributable to its unique molecular structure. Recently, an interest in this polyphenol as a cognitive therapeutic for the elderly has emerged. The purpose of this paper is to critically review preclinical and clinical studies that have evaluated the efficacy of curcumin in ameliorating and preventing age-associated cognitive decline and address the translational progress of preclinical to clinical efficacy...
April 21, 2018: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678882/mesenchyme-homeobox-1-mediates-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-tgf-%C3%AE-induced-smooth-muscle-cell-differentiation-from-mouse-mesenchymal-progenitors
#6
Kun Dong, Xia Guo, Weiping Chen, Amanda C Hsu, Qiang Shao, Jian-Fu Chen, Shi-You Chen
Differentiation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) is critical for proper vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling SMC differentiation are not completely understood. During embryogenesis, the transcription factor mesenchyme homeobox 1 (Meox1) is expressed in the early developing somite, which is one of the origins of SMCs. In the present study, we identified Meox1 as a positive regulator of SMC differentiation. We found that transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) induces Meox1 expression in the initial phase of SMC differentiation of pluripotent murine C3H10T1/2 cells...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678786/fetal-bovine-serum-induces-sustained-but-reversible-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-the-beas-2b-cell-line
#7
S W Malm, E A Amouzougan, W T Klimecki
BEAS-2B is a non-malignant, immortalized human cell line that has been used extensively as a model of lung epithelium. Despite ATCC recommendations to culture BEAS-2B in defined, serum-free media, many publications describe culturing BEAS-2B in fetal bovine serum (FBS)-containing media. The objective of this study was to define the effects of FBS on BEAS-2B cells. FBS exposure resulted in increased nuclear levels of transcription factors responsible for regulating epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), increased cell invasiveness and increased anchorage-independent growth...
April 17, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678645/gene-tree-discordance-and-coalescent-methods-support-ancient-intergeneric-hybridisation-between-dasymaschalon-and-friesodielsia-annonaceae
#8
Xing Guo, Daniel C Thomas, Richard M K Saunders
Although hybridisation between closely related species is common and known to be important in plant evolution, hybridisation at the generic level or above is comparatively rare. We address ancient intergeneric hybridisation in the early-divergent angiosperm family Annonaceae by phylogenetic reconstruction, divergence time estimation and coalescent simulation of the genus Dasymaschalon using a multi-locus approach based on molecular data from five chloroplast (matK, psbA-trnH, ndhF, rbcL, and trnL-F) and five nuclear (ITS, ETS, AP3, PhyA, and PhyC) DNA markers...
April 17, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678641/liver-directed-microrna-7a-depletion-induces-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-by-stabilizing-yy1-mediated-lipogenic-pathways-in-zebrafish
#9
Chi-Yu Lai, Chiu-Ya Lin, Chia-Chun Hsu, Kun-Yun Yeh, Guor Mour Her
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been associated with the function and changes in expression levels of microRNAs (miRs). MiR-7 has been proven to play an important role in many cellular processes; however, its functions in the context of liver lipogenesis remain unknown. We applied the microRNA-sponge (miR-SP) technology and generated transgenic miR-7a-SP models (hC7aSP and bC7aSP), which disrupted the activities of hepatic miR-7a and induced the early onset of NAFLD and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in zebrafish...
April 17, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678621/activation-of-the-non-canonical-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-p52-pathway-in-vascular-endothelial-cells-by-rankl-elicits-pro-calcific-signalling-in-co-cultured-smooth-muscle-cells
#10
Emma Harper, Keith D Rochfort, Hannah Forde, Colin Davenport, Diarmuid Smith, Philip M Cummins
BACKGROUND: The intimal endothelium is known to condition the underlying medial smooth muscle cell (SMC) layer of the vessel wall, and is highly responsive to receptor-activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) and tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), pro-calcific and anti-calcific agents, respectively. In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that RANKL-induced activation of endothelial NF-κB signalling is essential for pro-calcific activation of the underlying SMCs...
April 17, 2018: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678581/molecular-and-histological-study-on-the-effects-of-non-thermal-irreversible-electroporation-on-the-liver
#11
Yanfang Zhang, Chenang Lyu, Yu Liu, Yanpeng Lv, Tammy T Chang, Boris Rubinsky
Non-thermal irreversible electroporation (NTIRE) is a biophysical phenomenon in which certain electric fields delivered across the cell membrane in tissue, cause cell death, without affecting the extracellular matrix. "Minimally invasive regenerative surgery" is a new medical modality for treatment of end-stage organ or tissue failure in which exogenous cells are implanted in a decellularized niche in tissue, formed by the delivery of NTIRE electric fields across a targeted volume of tissue. We anticipate that the success of the procedure will depend on the time of implantation relative to the application of NTIRE...
April 17, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677637/the-prevalence-of-molecular-markers-of-drug-resistance-in-plasmodium-vivax-from-the-border-regions-of-thailand-in-2008-and-2014
#12
Kritpaphat Tantiamornkul, Tepanata Pumpaibool, Jittima Piriyapongsa, Richard Culleton, Usa Lek-Uthai
The prevalence of Plasmodium vivax is increasing in the border regions of Thailand; one potential problem confounding the control of malaria in these regions is the emergence and spread of drug resistance. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic diversity in genes potentially linked to drug resistance in P. vivax parasites isolated from four different border regions of Thailand; Thai-Myanmar (Tak, Mae Hong Son and Prachuap Khiri Khan Provinces), and Thai-Cambodian borders (Chanthaburi Province). Isolates were collected from 345 P...
April 12, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677546/bacitracin-promotes-osteogenic-differentiation-of-human-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-by-stimulating-the-bone-morphogenetic-protein-2-smad-axis
#13
Hui Li, Bin'en Nie, Zhe Du, Shutao Zhang, Teng Long, Bing Yue
Bacitracin, a widely used metallopeptide antibiotic, has been reported to be locally used in treating wounds without systemic adverse reactions. Our preliminary study showed that bacitracin might enhance the osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (HBMSCs). The present study investigated whether bacitracin affects the osteogenic differentiation of HBMSCs and the molecular mechanisms involved. The proliferation of HBMSCs in the presence of bacitracin was examined using a cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay...
April 17, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676695/huge-heterogeneity-in-survival-in-a-subset-of-adult-patients-with-resected-wild-type-isocitrate-dehydrogenase-status-who-grade-ii-astrocytomas
#14
Gaëtan Poulen, Catherine Gozé, Valérie Rigau, Hugues Duffau
OBJECTIVE World Health Organization grade II gliomas are infiltrating tumors that inexorably progress to a higher grade of malignancy. However, the time to malignant transformation is quite unpredictable at the individual patient level. A wild-type isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH-wt) molecular profile has been reported as a poor prognostic factor, with more rapid progression and a shorter survival compared with IDH-mutant tumors. Here, the oncological outcomes of a series of adult patients with IDH-wt, diffuse, WHO grade II astrocytomas (AII) who underwent resection without early adjuvant therapy were investigated...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676228/glaucoma-pathogenesis-and-neurotrophins-focus-on-the-molecular-and-genetic-basis-for-therapeutic-prospects
#15
Nitin Chitranshi, Yogita Dheer, Mojdeh Abbasi, Yuyi You, Stuart L Graham, Vivek Gupta
BACKGROUND: Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration is a major feature of glaucoma pathology. Neuroprotective approaches that delay or halt the progression of RGC loss are needed to prevent vision loss which can occur even after conventional medical or surgical treatments to lower intraocular pressure. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to examine the progress in genetics and cellular mechanisms associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, RGC dysfunction and cell death pathways in glaucoma...
April 19, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676051/genetic-dissection-of-photosynthetic-efficiency-traits-for-enhancing-seed-yield-in-chickpea
#16
Udita Basu, Deepak Bajaj, Akash Sharma, Naveen Malik, Anurag Daware, Laxmi Narnoliya, Virevol Thakro, Hari D Upadhyaya, Rajendra Kumar, Shailesh Tripathi, Chellapilla Bharadwaj, Akhilesh K Tyagi, Swarup K Parida
Understanding the genetic basis of photosynthetic efficiency (PE) contributing to enhanced seed yield per plant (SYP) is vital for genomics-assisted crop improvement of chickpea. The current study employed an integrated genomic strategy involving photosynthesis pathway gene-based association mapping, genome-wide association study, QTL mapping and expression profiling. This identified 16 potential SNP loci linked to major QTLs underlying 16 candidate genes significantly associated with PE and SYP traits in chickpea...
April 20, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676027/phylogenetic-analyses-of-the-genus-aeromonas-based-on-housekeeping-gene-sequencing-and-its-influence-on-systematics
#17
Aaron Navarro, Antonio Martínez-Murcia
The phylogenies derived from housekeeping gene sequence alignments, although mere evolutionary hypotheses, have increased our knowledge about the Aeromonas genetic diversity, providing a robust species delineation framework invaluable for reliable, easy and fast species identification. Previous classifications of Aeromonas, have been fully surpassed by recently developed phylogenetic (natural) classification obtained from the analysis of so-called "molecular chronometers". Despite ribosomal RNAs cannot split all known Aeromonas species, the conserved nature of 16S rRNA offers reliable alignments containing mosaics of sequence signatures which may serve as targets of genus-specific oligonucleotides for subsequent identification/detection tests in samples without culturing...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675939/markers-in-time-and-space-a-review-of-the-last-decade-of-plant-phylogeographic-approaches
#18
Ashley B Morris, Joey Shaw
Plant studies comprise a relatively small proportion of the phylogeographic literature, likely as a consequence of the fundamental challenges posed by the complex genomic structures and life history strategies of these organisms. Comparative plastomics (i.e., comparisons of mutation rates within and among regions of the chloroplast genome) across plant lineages has led to an increased understanding of which markers are likely to provide the most information at low taxonomic levels. However, the extent to which the results of such work have influenced the literature have not been fully assessed, nor has the extent to which plant phylogeographers explicitly analyze markers in time and space, both of which are integral components of the field...
April 19, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675314/first-principles-calculations-of-raman-vibrational-modes-in-the-fingerprint-region-for-connective-tissue
#19
E T Sato, H Martinho
Vibrational spectroscopy has been widely employed to unravel the physical-chemical properties of biological systems. Due to its high sensitivity to monitoring real time " in situ " changes, Raman spectroscopy has been successfully employed, e.g., in biomedicine, metabolomics, and biomedical engineering. The interpretation of Raman spectra in these cases is based on the isolated macromolecules constituent vibrational assignment. Due to this, probing the anharmonic or the mutual interactions among specific moieties/side chains is a challenge...
April 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675023/increased-plasma-levels-of-danger-associated-molecular-patterns-are-associated-with-immune-suppression-and-postoperative-infections-in-patients-undergoing-cytoreductive-surgery-and-hyperthermic-intraperitoneal-chemotherapy
#20
Guus P Leijte, Hettie Custers, Jelle Gerretsen, Amon Heijne, Johannes Roth, Thomas Vogl, Gert J Scheffer, Peter Pickkers, Matthijs Kox
Introduction: Danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) can elicit immune responses and may subsequently induce an immune-suppressed state. Previous work showed that increased plasma levels of DAMPs are associated with immune suppression and increased susceptibility toward infections in trauma patients. Like trauma, major surgical procedures, such as cytoreductive surgery (CRS) combined with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), are also thought to cause profound DAMP release...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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