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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244821/genotyping-of-mycobacterium-leprae-for-better-understanding-of-leprosy-transmission-in-fortaleza-northeastern-brazil
#1
Amanda N B Fontes, Luana N G C Lima, Rosa M S Mota, Rosa L F Almeida, Maria A Pontes, Heitor de S Gonçalves, Cristiane C Frota, Varalakshmi D Vissa, Patrick J Brennan, Ricardo J P S Guimaraes, Carl Kendall, Ligia R F S Kerr, Philip N Suffys
Leprosy is endemic in large part of Brazil with 28,761 new patients in 2015, the second largest number worldwide and reaches 9/10.000 in highly endemic regions and 2.7/10.000 in the city of Fortaleza, Ceará, Northeast Brazil. For better understanding of risk factors for leprosy transmission, we conducted an epidemiologic study supplemented by 17 locus VNTR and SNP 1-4 typing of Mycobacterium leprae in skin biopsy samples from new multibacillary (MB) patients diagnosed at a reference center in 2009 and 2010...
December 15, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244237/regional-susceptibility-in-vcd-spectra-to-dynamic-molecular-motions-the-case-of-a-benzyl-%C3%AE-hydroxysilane
#2
Yiyin Xia, Mark Koenis, Juan Collados, Pablo Ortiz, Syuzanna Harutyunyan, Luuk Visscher, Wybren Jan Buma, Paul Nicu
Experimental and theoretical studies of the vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectrum of 3-methyl-1-(methyldiphenlsilyl)-1-phenylbutan-1-ol, whose absolute configuration is key to elucidating the Brook rearrangement of tertiary benzylic-hydroxylsilanes, are presented. It is found that the entire OH-bending region in this spectrum -a region that provides important marker bands- cannot be reproduced at all by standard theoretical approaches even though other regions are well described. Using a novel approach to disentangle contributions to the rotational strength of these bands, internal coordinates are identfied that critically influence the appearance of this part of the spectrum...
December 15, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244142/an-autofluorescence-based-method-for-the-isolation-of-highly-purified-ventricular-cardiomyocytes
#3
Veronica Larcher, Paolo Kunderfranco, Marco Vacchiano, Pierluigi Carullo, Marco Erreni, Irene Salamon, Federico Simone Colombo, Enrico Lugli, Marta Mazzola, Achille Anselmo, Gianluigi Condorelli
Aims: The aim of our study was to set up a simple and reliable isolation method of living ventricular cardiomyocytes (vCMs) for molecular and biological studies. Methods: A standard technique for the retrograde perfusion of an enzymatic solution was used to isolate cardiac cells from adult mouse heart. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) on adult murine cardiac ventricle cells was performed, comparing the intrinsic autofluorescence in the FITC channel and the forward scatter (FSC) parameter in order to isolate highly fluorescent cells...
December 13, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244023/osteocalcin-expressing-cells-from-tendon-sheaths-in-mice-contribute-to-tendon-repair-by-activating-hedgehog-signaling
#4
Yi Wang, Xu Zhang, Huihui Huang, Yin Xia, YiFei Yao, Arthur Fuk-Tat Mak, Patrick Shu-Hang Yung, Kai-Ming Chan, Li Wang, Chenglin Zhang, Yu Huang, Kingston King-Lun Mak
Both extrinsic and intrinsic tissues contribute to tendon repair, but the origin and molecular functions of extrinsic tissues in tendon repair are not fully understood. Here we show that tendon sheath cells harbor stem/progenitor cell properties and contribute to tendon repair by activating Hedgehog signaling. We found that Osteocalcin (Bglap) can be used as an adult tendon-sheath-specific marker in mice. Lineage tracing experiments show that Bglap-expressing cells in adult sheath tissues possess clonogenic and multipotent properties comparable to those of stem/progenitor cells isolated from tendon fibers...
December 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243940/methods-and-practices-to-diversify-cell-based-products
#5
Alain A Vertès
Medicinal signaling cell (MSC)-based products represent emerging treatments in various therapeutic areas including cardiometabolic, inflammation, autoimmunity, orthopedics, wound healing and oncology. Exploring innovation beyond minimally manipulated plastic-adherent ex vivo expanded allogeneic MSCs enables product delineation. Product delineation is on the critical path to maximize clinical benefits and market access. An innovation framework is presented here along various innovation dimensions comprising composition-of-matter by means of positive cell surface markers, formulation varying for example the cell dose or the preservation mode and medium, manufacturing to adapt the secretome of MSCs to the condition of interest, the mode of delivery and corresponding delivery devices, as well as molecular engineering and biomarkers...
December 15, 2017: Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243835/diallyl-trisulfide-inhibits-breast-cancer-stem-cells-via-suppression-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway
#6
Xiaoting Li, Yu Meng, Chunfeng Xie, Jianyun Zhu, Xiaoqian Wang, Yuan Li, Shanshan Geng, Jieshu Wu, Caiyun Zhong, Min Li
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) play a central role in the development of breast cancer. The canonical Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway is critical for maintaining CSCs characteristics. Diallyl trisulfide (DATS), a natural organosulfur compound from the garlic, exhibits effective antitumor properties. However, the role of DATS in regulating breast CSCs activity and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain obscure. In the present study, we reported that DATS efficiently inhibited the viability of breast CSCs as evidenced by reducing turmorspheres formation, decreasing the expression of breast CSCs markers (CD44, ALDH1A1, Nanog and Oct4), as well as inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243243/shikonin-inhibits-myeloid-differentiation-protein-2-to-prevent-lipopolysaccharide-induced-acute-lung-injury
#7
Yali Zhang, Tingting Xu, Zheer Pan, Xiangting Ge, Chuchu Sun, Chun Lu, Hongjin Chen, Zhongxiang Xiao, Bing Zhang, Yuanrong Dai, Guang Liang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Acute lung injury (ALI) is a challenging clinical syndrome which manifests as an acute inflammatory response. Myeloid differentiation protein 2 (MD2) has an important role in mediating lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation. Currently, there are no effective molecular-based therapies for ALI or viable biomarkers for predicting the severity of disease. Recent preclinical studies have shown that shikonin (SHI), a natural naphthoquinone, prevents LPS-inflammation...
December 15, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243155/trends-in-plant-research-using-molecular-markers
#8
REVIEW
Jose Antonio Garrido-Cardenas, Concepción Mesa-Valle, Francisco Manzano-Agugliaro
A deep bibliometric analysis has been carried out, obtaining valuable parameters that facilitate the understanding around the research in plant using molecular markers. The evolution of the improvement in the field of agronomy is fundamental for its adaptation to the new exigencies that the current world context raises. In addition, within these improvements, this article focuses on those related to the biotechnology sector. More specifically, the use of DNA markers that allow the researcher to know the set of genes associated with a particular quantitative trait or QTL...
December 14, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243152/transgene-escape-and-persistence-in-an-agroecosystem-the-case-of-glyphosate-resistant-brassica-rapa-l-in-central-argentina
#9
Claudio E Pandolfo, Alejandro Presotto, Francisco Torres Carbonell, Soledad Ureta, Mónica Poverene, Miguel Cantamutto
Brassica rapa L. is an annual Brassicaceae species cultivated for oil and food production, whose wild form is a weed of crops worldwide. In temperate regions of South America and especially in the Argentine Pampas region, this species is widely distributed. During 2014, wild B. rapa populations that escaped control with glyphosate applications by farmers were found in this area. These plants were characterized by morphology and seed acidic profile, and all the characters agreed with B. rapa description. The dose-response assays showed that the biotypes were highly resistant to glyphosate...
December 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242581/il-33-is-induced-in-undifferentiated-non-dividing-esophageal-epithelial-cells-in-eosinophilic-esophagitis
#10
J Travers, M Rochman, J M Caldwell, J A Besse, C E Miracle, M E Rothenberg
The molecular and cellular etiology of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), an emerging tissue-specific allergic disease, involves dysregulated gene expression in esophageal epithelial cells. Herein, we assessed the esophageal expression of IL-33, an epithelium-derived alarmin cytokine, in patients with EoE. IL-33 protein was markedly overexpressed within the nuclei of a subpopulation of basal layer esophageal epithelial cells in patients with active EoE compared to control individuals. IL-33 exhibited dynamic expression as levels normalized upon EoE remission...
December 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242380/insights-into-the-proteome-of-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumors-derived-exosomes-reveals-new-potential-diagnostic-biomarkers
#11
Safinur Atay, Daniel W Wilkey, Mohammed M Milhem, Michael Merchant, Andrew K Godwin
Developing tumors continuously release nano-sized vesicles that represent circulating "fingerprints" of the tumor's identity.  In gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), we have previously reported that these tumors release "oncosomes" carrying the constitutively activated tyrosine kinase (TK) receptor KIT.  Despite the clinical utility of TK inhibitors, such as imatinib mesylate (IM), recurrence and metastasis are clinical problems that urge the need to identify new tumor-derived molecules.  To this aim, we performed the first high quality proteomic study of GIST-derived exosomes (GDEs) and identified 1,060 proteins composing the core GDE proteome (cGDEp)...
December 14, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242279/molecular-biomarkers-of-primary-and-acquired-resistance-to-t-cell-mediated-immunotherapy-in-cancer-landscape-clinical-implications-and-future-directions
#12
REVIEW
Young Kwang Chae, Michael S Oh, Francis J Giles
The emergence of immunotherapy has revolutionized cancer treatment in recent years. Inhibitors of immune checkpoints, including antibodies against cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4, programmed cell death protein 1, and programmed death ligand 1, have demonstrated notable efficacy in certain advanced cancers. Unfortunately, many patients do not benefit from these therapies and either exhibit primary resistance to treatment or develop acquired mechanisms of resistance after initially responding to therapy...
December 14, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241933/prenatal-diagnosis-and-molecular-cytogenetic-characterization-of-an-interstitial-deletion-of-18q12-1-q12-3-encompassing-dtna-celf4-and-setbp1
#13
Chih-Ping Chen, Chih-Heng Hsieh, Schu-Rern Chern, Peih-Shan Wu, Shin-Wen Chen, Shih-Ting Lai, Tzu-Yun Chuang, Chien-Wen Yang, Chen-Chi Lee, Wayseen Wang
OBJECTIVE: We present prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of an interstitial deletion of 18q12.1-q12.3. CASE REPORT: A 35-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 18 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 46,XX,del(18)(q12.1q12.3). The fetal ultrasound was unremarkable. The woman underwent repeat amniocentesis at 20 weeks of gestation. Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) using uncultured amniocytes revealed a 10...
December 2017: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241930/prenatal-diagnosis-and-molecular-cytogenetic-characterization-of-low-level-mosaicism-for-tetrasomy-18p-at-amniocentesis-in-a-pregnancy-with-a-favorable-outcome
#14
Chih-Ping Chen, Tsang-Ming Ko, Yi-Yung Chen, Schu-Rern Chern, Peih-Shan Wu, Shin-Wen Chen, Shih-Ting Lai, Tzu-Yun Chuang, Chien-Wen Yang, Chen-Wen Pan, Wayseen Wang
OBJECTIVE: We present prenatal diagnosis of low-level mosaicism for tetrasomy 18p at amniocentesis in a pregnancy with a favorable outcome. CASE REPORT: A 40-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. Amniocentesis revealed a de novo supernumerary isochromosome 18p in eight of 39 colonies of cultured amniocytes. The karyotype was 47,XX,+i(18)(p10)[8]/46,XX[31]. Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis using uncultured amniocytes revealed arr 18p11...
December 2017: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241714/morphological-molecular-characterization-and-phylogenetic-relationships-of-a-new-trichuris-species-nematoda-trichuridae-parasitic-on-holochilus-chacarius-cricetidae-sigmodontinae-from-the-chaco-ecoregion-argentina
#15
María Del Rosario Robles, Cristina Cutillas, Rocío Callejón
A new Trichuris species isolated from Holochilus chacarius (Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae) from the Chaco ecoregion in Argentina is described based on morphological characteristics and mitochondrial (cox1, cob) and nuclear (ITS2) markers. The new species is distinguished from 27 species of Trichuris from North and South American rodents based on morphological and biometrical features, such as the absence of a spicular tube, presence of a cylindrical spicular sheath, non-protrusive vulva, length of spicule, and proximal and distal cloacal tube...
December 11, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241687/mechanisms-of-carrier-formation-during-clathrin-independent-endocytosis
#16
REVIEW
Antonio P A Ferreira, Emmanuel Boucrot
Clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE) mediates the cellular uptake of many extracellular ligands, receptors, and pathogens, including several life-threatening bacterial toxins and viruses. So far, our understanding of CIE carrier formation has lagged behind that of clathrin-coated vesicles. Impediments have been the imprecise definition of some CIE pathways, the lack of specific cargoes being transported and of exclusive cytosolic markers and regulators. Notwithstanding these limitations, three distinct molecular mechanisms by which CIE carriers form can be defined...
December 11, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241664/distinguishing-three-subtypes-of-hematopoietic-cells-based-on-gene-expression-profiles-using-a-support-vector-machine
#17
Yu-Hang Zhang, Yu Hu, Yuchao Zhang, Lan-Dian Hu, Xiangyin Kong
Hematopoiesis is a complicated process involving a series of biological sub-processes that lead to the formation of various blood components. A widely accepted model of early hematopoiesis proceeds from long-term hematopoietic stem cells (LT-HSCs) to multipotent progenitors (MPPs) and then to lineage-committed progenitors. However, the molecular mechanisms of early hematopoiesis have not been fully characterized. In this study, we applied a computational strategy to identify the gene expression signatures distinguishing three types of closely related hematopoietic cells collected in recent studies: (1) hematopoietic stem cell/multipotent progenitor cells; (2) LT-HSCs; and (3) hematopoietic progenitor cells...
December 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241552/a-single-cell-rna-sequencing-study-reveals-cellular-and-molecular-dynamics-of-the-hippocampal-neurogenic-niche
#18
Benedetta Artegiani, Anna Lyubimova, Mauro Muraro, Johan H van Es, Alexander van Oudenaarden, Hans Clevers
Adult neurogenesis in the murine dentate gyrus occurs in a specialized microenvironment that sustains the generation of neurons during life. To fully understand adult neurogenesis, it is essential to determine the neural stem cell (NSC) and progenitor developmental stages, their molecular determinants, and the niche cellular and molecular composition. We report on a single-cell RNA sequencing study of the hippocampal niche, performed by isolating all the non-neuronal cell populations. Our analysis provides a comprehensive description of the dentate gyrus cells, and it allows the identification of exclusive cell-type-specific markers...
December 12, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241443/characterization-of-molecular-changes-in-endometrium-associated-with-chronic-use-of-progesterone-receptor-modulators-ulipristal-acetate-versus-mifepristone
#19
Athilakshmi Kannan, Arpita Bhurke, Regine Sitruk-Ware, Parameswaran G Lalitkumar, Kristina Gemzell-Danielsson, Alistair R W Williams, Robert N Taylor, Milan K Bagchi, Indrani C Bagchi
Ulipristal acetate (UPA) is a selective progesterone receptor modulator (PRM), which is used as an emergency contraceptive in women. Recent studies demonstrated the efficacy of an UPA contraceptive vaginal ring (UPA-CVR) as a blocker of ovulation. However, the endometrium of women exposed to UPA over a 6-month period display glandular changes, termed PRM-associated endometrial changes (PAECs). We, therefore, investigated whether UPA-induced PAECs are associated with altered expression of the transcription factor heart- and neural crest derivatives-expressed protein 2 (HAND2) whose downregulation is observed in endometrial epithelial hyperplasia and cancer...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240265/bone-mineral-density-and-its-serial-changes-are-associated-with-pth-levels-in-pseudohypoparathyroidism-type-1b-patients
#20
Xueying Chu, Yan Zhu, Ou Wang, Min Nie, Tingting Quan, Yu Xue, Wenbo Wang, Yan Jiang, Mei Li, Weibo Xia, Xiaoping Xing
BACKGROUND: Bone responsiveness to serum PTH in pseudohypoparathyroidism 1B (PHP1B) is controversial. OBJECTIVE: Forty-eight PHP1B patients diagnosed by molecular analysis were recruited from 2000 to 2016 from the Peking Union Medical College Hospital. Fifty-five gender-matched non-surgical hypoparathyroidism (NS-HP) patients were selected and included for comparison. METHODS: Basic information, laboratory test and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry results were collected...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
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