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Ueli Braun, Christian Gerspach, Sonja Warislohner, Karl Nuss, Stefanie Ohlerth
This study involved 503 cattle with traumatic reticuloperitonitis (TRP), 494 of which underwent ultrasonographic and 484 radiographic examination of the reticulum. Ultrasonography revealed changes in the reticulum and/or peritoneum suggestive of peritonitis in 403 (83%) cattle, a decrease in the amplitude of reticular contractions in 244 (54%) and reduced or absent reticular motility in 173 (37%). A total of 536 foreign bodies were seen on 465 (96%) radiographs and a magnet was seen on 311 (64%) radiographs...
May 26, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Florence Guignot, Dominique Fortini, Stéphane Grateau, Cécile Burette, Virginie Dreyfus, Carole Moreau-Vauzelle, Pierrick Aupinel, Elisabeth Blesbois
Honeybees, major providers of pollination, are endangered in many areas. Embryo cryopreservation may be a very useful tool to maintain their genetic diversity. However, it is complex in insects, because embryos are chill sensitive and are surrounded by two protectant membranes, the chorion and vitelline. These membranes prevent penetration of cryoprotectant in the embryos. This study aimed to test different conditions of embryo preparation before cryopreservation, including low-frequency sonophoresis, a physical method of permeabilization, and passages through cryoprotectant solutions...
June 20, 2018: Cryobiology
Anna Kokla, Charles W Melnyk
Parasitic plants are widespread pathogens that infect numerous plant species and cause devastating agricultural losses. They efficiently withdraw water, nutrients and sugars from their hosts by fusing tissues and connecting their vasculature to the host vasculature. This ability to parasitize is found in a wide range of species and has evolved at least eleven independent times, suggesting a recurring and flexible developmental strategy. Despite multiple independent origins, a common feature to parasitism is the formation of an invasive organ termed the haustorium...
June 20, 2018: Developmental Biology
Eun Joung Choi, Dongwook Jung, Jong-Seo Kim, Yan Lee, Byeong Moon Kim
A novel and selective tyrosine functionalization strategy through SuFEx (sulfur fluoride exchange) chemistry is presented. In this approach, we have discovered that free tyrosine (Tyr) reacts selectively with aryl fluorosulfate in the presence of various nucleophilic amino acid residues in bio-tolerable conditions. Chemoselectivity of this unique SuFEx reaction was confirmed in amino acid, peptide, and protein conjugations. The functions of peptides and proteins were well preserved as demonstrated from the Tyr-specific modification of cell-penetrating peptide and erythropoietin...
June 23, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Julian Borejdo, Zygmunt Gryczynski, Rafal Fudala, Chaitanya R Joshi, Kathleen Borgmann, Anuja Ghorpade, Ignacy Gryczynski
Total internal reflection microscopy (TIRF) has been a powerful tool in biological research. The most valuable feature of the method has been the ability to image 100- to 200-nm-thick layer of cell features adjacent to a coverslip, such as membrane lipids, membrane receptors, and structures proximal-to-basal membranes. Here, we demonstrate an alternative method of imaging thin-layer proximal-to-basal membranes by placing a sample on a high refractive index coverslip covered by a thin layer of gold. The sample is illuminated using the Kretschmann method (i...
June 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Lloyd Tanner, Paolo Denti, Lubbe Wiesner, Digby F Warner
Anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs possess diverse abilities to penetrate the different host tissues and cell types in which infecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli are located during active disease. This is important since there is increasing evidence that the respective "lesion-penetrating" properties of the front-line TB drugs appear to correlate well with their specific activity in standard combination therapy. In turn, these observations suggest that rational efforts to discover novel treatment-shortening drugs and drug combinations should incorporate knowledge about the comparative abilities of both existing and experimental anti-TB agents to access bacilli in defined physiological states at different sites of infection, as well as avoid elimination by efflux or inactivation by host or bacterial metabolism...
June 22, 2018: IUBMB Life
Brian Spencer, Sven Brüschweiler, Marco Sealey-Cardona, Edward Rockenstein, Anthony Adame, Jazmin Florio, Michael Mante, Ivy Trinh, Robert A Rissman, Robert Konrat, Eliezer Masliah
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly affecting more than 5 million people in the U.S. AD is characterized by the accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) and Tau in the brain, and is manifested by severe impairments in memory and cognition. Therefore, removing tau pathology has become one of the main therapeutic goals for the treatment of AD. Tau (tubulin-associated unit) is a major neuronal cytoskeletal protein found in the CNS encoded by the gene MAPT. Alternative splicing generates two major isoforms of tau containing either 3 or 4 repeat (R) segments...
July 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
Santosh Lohumi, Hoonsoo Lee, Moon S Kim, Jianwei Qin, Byoung-Kwan Cho
Spectroscopic techniques for food quality analysis are limited to surface inspections and are highly affected by the superficial layers (skin or packaging material) of the food samples. The ability of spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS) to obtain chemical information from below the surface of a sample makes it a promising candidate for the non-destructive analysis of the quality of packaged food. In the present study, we developed a line-scan SORS technique for obtaining the Raman spectra of packaged-food samples...
June 22, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Charlotte Rodrigues Neves, Susan Gibbs
Contact with the skin is inevitable or desirable for daily life products such as cosmetics, hair dyes, perfumes, drugs, household products, and industrial and agricultural products. Whereas the majority of these products are harmless, a number can become metabolized and/or activate the immunological defense via innate and adaptive mechanisms resulting in sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis upon following exposures to the same substance. Therefore, strict safety (hazard) assessment of actives and ingredients in products and drugs applied to the skin is essential to determine I) whether the chemical is a potential sensitizer and if so II) what is the safe concentration for human exposure to prevent sensitization from occurring...
June 23, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Aditya Kulkarni, Paola Caporali, Atul Dolas, Soniya Johny, Sandeep Goyal, Jessica Dragotto, Alberto Macone, Ramesh Jayaraman, Maria Teresa Fiorenza
Niemann-Pick Type C1 disorder (NPC) is a rare lysosomal storage disease characterized by the accumulation of cholesterol in lysosomes. NPC has no FDA approved treatments yet, however 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) has shown efficacy for treating the disease in both mouse and feline NPC models and is currently being investigated in late stage clinical trials. Despite promising results, therapeutic use of HPβCD is limited by the need for high doses, ototoxicity and intrathecal administration. These limitations can be attributed to its poor pharmacokinetic profile...
June 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kathryn Millar, Suha Patel, Meghan Munson, Linda Vesel, Shalini Subbiah, Rachel M Jones, Sarah Little, Aris T Papageorghiou, Jose Villar, Mary Nell Wegner, Nick Pearson, Faith Muigai, Catherine Ongeti, Ana Langer
BACKGROUND: The burden of preterm birth, fetal growth impairment, and associated neonatal deaths disproportionately falls on low- and middle-income countries where modern obstetric tools are not available to date pregnancies and monitor fetal growth accurately. The INTERGROWTH-21st gestational dating, fetal growth monitoring, and newborn size at birth standards make this possible. OBJECTIVE: To scale up the INTERGROWTH-21st standards, it is essential to assess the feasibility and acceptability of their implementation and their effect on clinical decision-making in a low-resource clinical setting...
June 22, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Daniel Ospina-Delgado, Laura Marcela Mosquera Salas, Alejandro Enríquez-Marulanda, Jaime Hernández-Morales, Robinson Pacheco, Javier Lobato-Polo
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to describe cases of traumatic brain injury due to gunshot wounds in civilian population over 18 years of age, treated at a referral hospital in Cali, Colombia and compare the clinical outcomes at discharge. METHODS: An observational, descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted by retrospectively collecting clinical data related to adult patients that presented traumatic brain injury due to civil gunshot-wounds and that consulted to the emergency room at Fundación Valle del Lili Hospital in Cali, Colombia between January 2010 and February of 2016...
June 19, 2018: Neurocirugía
Pengfei Jin, Haonan Wang, Weikang Huang, Wenbo Liu, Yongmei Fan, Weiguo Miao
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) has been a serious problem in recent years, because of large quantities of cyanobacterial in eutrophic water. We studied the effects of 3,4-Dihydroxybenzalacetone (DBL) and other four compounds (vanillic acid, ferulic acid, 3,5-Dichlorophenol and cupric sulfate) on Microcystis aeruginosa. The results showed that the growth of M. aeruginosa was significantly inhibited by all tested compounds with a half maximal effect concentration (EC50 ) of 5.2, 22.8, 54.7, 1.5, 0.3μg/mL, respectively...
May 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Dongkyoung Lee, Youngjin Seo, Sukhoon Pyo
The results of an experimental investigation on the physical and chemical characteristics of cement-based materials under laser interactions are presented. The laser cutting tests were conducted using a multi-mode continuous fiber laser with a laser power of 1 kW. The experimental variables were laser speed, water to cement ratio, and material compositions including cement paste, cement mortar, and ultra high-performance concrete (UHPC). In order to evaluate the mass removal mechanisms of cement-based materials under laser interactions, the effect of laser cutting was evaluated in terms of kerf width, penetration depth, and chemical composition changes before and after the interaction with laser using EDX analysis...
June 21, 2018: Materials
Marina Cabrini, Flaviana Calignano, Paolo Fino, Sergio Lorenzi, Massimo Lorusso, Diego Manfredi, Cristian Testa, Tommaso Pastore
This experimental work is aimed at studying the effect of microstructural modifications induced by post-processing heat treatments on the corrosion behavior of silicon-aluminum alloys produced by means of laser powder bed fusion (LPBF). The manufacturing technique leads to microstructures characterized by the presence of melt pools, which are quite different compared to casting alloys. In this study, the behavior of an AlSi10Mg alloy was evaluated by means of intergranular corrosion tests according to ISO 11846 standard on heat-treated samples ranging from 200 to 500 °C as well as on untreated samples...
June 21, 2018: Materials
Xiaofei Li, Sarah Zito, Michelle Sinclair, Clive J C Phillips
China is the world's biggest livestock producer, and has a rapidly expanding intensive livestock production in response to growing demand. The large size of the country and geographical dispersion of the livestock production systems means that animals are often transported long distances to slaughter. This study investigated perceptions of animal welfare issues by stakeholders in the Chinese transport and slaughter industry using utility scores and adaptive conjoint analysis. An initial workshop for experts in this field identified key concerns; these were then included in a questionnaire, which was distributed electronically to stakeholders...
2018: PloS One
Arash Mirzahosseini, Tamás Pálla, Gábor Orgován, Gergő Tóth, Béla Noszál
Dopamine and 4 related compounds were studied by 1 H NMR-pH titrations and a case-tailored evaluation method. The resulting acid-base properties of dopamine are quantified in terms of 3 macroscopic and 12 microscopic protonation constants and the concomitant 3 interactivity parameters. The species- and site-specific basicities are interpreted by means of inductive and shielding effects through various intra- and intermolecular comparisons. The site-specific basicities determined this way are key parameters for the prediction of pharmacokinetic behavior and receptor-binding at the molecular level...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Roberto S P King, Lloyd W L Davis, Daniel A Skros
Longwave ultraviolet reflection (LWUVR) imaging is reported as a simple, safe and non-invasive technique that significantly aids in the visualisation of cyanoacrylate developed latent fingermarks. The process can precede traditional cyanoacrylate dye staining and often removes the necessity to use these chemical contrast reagents, saving time, cost and eliminating mess. The non-destructive nature of the process and high resolution images that are obtained, builds upon issues that surround shorter-wavelength UV imaging...
June 8, 2018: Forensic Science International
Marco Giovannini, Huaqing Ren, Jian Cao, Kornel Ehmann
Core needle biopsies are widely adopted medical procedures that consist in the removal of biological tissue to better identify a lesion or an abnormality observed through a physical exam or a radiology scan. These procedures can provide significantly more information than most medical tests and they are usually performed on bone lesions, breast masses, lymph nodes and the prostate. The quality of the samples mainly depends on the forces exerted by the needle during the cutting process. The reduction of these forces is critical to extract high-quality tissue samples...
June 15, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Asima Farooq, Ali Shukur, Cai Astley, Lubomira Tosheva, Peter Kelly, Debra Whitehead, May Azzawi
Blood vessel disease is a major contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and is hallmarked by dysfunction of the lining endothelial cells (ECs). These cells play a significant role in vascular homeostasis, through the release of mediators to control vessel diameter, hence tissue perfusion. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) can be used as potential drug delivery platforms for vasodilator drugs. Here, using an ex vivo model of vascular function, we examine the use of titania coating for improved biocompatibility and release dynamics of MSN loaded sodium nitroprusside (SNP)...
June 19, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
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