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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454226/dysphagia-and-laryngeal-pathology-in-post-surgical-cardiothoracic-patients
#1
Anna Miles, Naomi McLellan, Rochelle Machan, David Vokes, Alexandra Hunting, Mary McFarlane, Jennifer Holmes, Kelly Lynn
PURPOSE: Cardiothoracic surgery is known to result in dysphagia and laryngeal injury. While prevalence has been explored, extent, trajectory and longevity of symptoms are poorly understood. This retrospective, observational study explored dysphagia and laryngeal injury in patients following cardiothoracic surgery referred for instrumental swallowing assessment. METHODS: Clinical notes and endoscopic recordings of 106 patients (age range 18-87yrs; mean 63yrs; SD 15yrs) (including 190 endoscopes) at one large tertiary centre were reviewed by two speech-language pathologists and a laryngologist...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454148/-68-ga-galmydar-biodistribution-and-radiation-dosimetry-studies-in-rodents
#2
Jothilingam Sivapackiam, Richard Laforest, Vijay Sharma
INTRODUCTION: 68 Ga-Galmydar is an avid transport substrate of ABCB1 (P-Glycoprotein; 170kDa plasma membrane protein), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP; ABCG2; 72kDa), penetrates human epidermal carcinoma (KB3-1), breast cancer (MCF7), embryonic kidney (HEK 293) tumor cells and rat cardiomyoblasts, and localizes within the mitochondria of tumor and myocardium cells. 68 Ga-Galmydar excretes from blood pool quickly, and shows stable retention within rat myocardium in vivo for extended periods, therefore, the agent shows potential to enable myocardial perfusion imaging...
December 1, 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454062/laser-assisted-delivery-of-synergistic-combination-chemotherapy-in-in-vivo-skin
#3
Emily Wenande, Joshua Tam, Brijesh Bhayana, Steven Kyle Schlosser, Emily Ishak, William A Farinelli, Agata Chlopik, Mai P Hoang, Omar R Pinkhasov, Peter Caravan, R Rox Anderson, Merete Haedersdal
The effectiveness of topical drugs for treatment of non-melanoma skin cancer is greatly reduced by insufficient penetration to deep skin layers. Ablative fractional lasers (AFLs) are known to enhance topical drug uptake by generating narrow microchannels through the skin, but information on AFL-drug delivery in in vivo conditions is limited. In this study, we examined pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and toxicity of two synergistic chemotherapy agents, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), following AFL-assisted delivery alone or in combination in in vivo porcine skin...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453990/atp-activated-p2x7-receptor-in-the-pathophysiology-of-mood-disorders-and-as-an-emerging-target-for-the-development-of-novel-antidepressant-therapeutics
#4
REVIEW
Linyu Wei, Sharifah A Syed Mortadza, Jing Yan, Libin Zhang, Lu Wang, Yaling Yin, Chaokun Li, Sylvie Chalon, Patrick Emond, Catherine Belzung, Dongliang Li, Chengbiao Lu, Sebastien Roger, Lin-Hua Jiang
Mood disorders are a group of psychiatric conditions that represent leading global disease burdens. Increasing evidence from clinical and preclinical studies supports that innate immune system dysfunction plays an important part in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. P2X7 receptor, belonging to the ligand-gated ion channel P2X subfamily of purinergic P2 receptors for extracellular ATP, is highly expressed in immune cells including microglia in the central nervous system (CNS) and has a vital role in mediating innate immune response...
February 14, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453848/postoperative-recurrence-of-crohn-s-disease-pathophysiology-diagnosis-and-treatment
#5
Antonio Di Sario, Paola Sassaroli, Luigi Daretti, Giulia Annulli, Laura Schiada, Giorgia Falcioni, Emanuele Bendia, Simone Antuono, Antonio Benedetti
BACKGROUND: Up to 80% of Crohn`s disease (CD) patients require at least one surgical intervention in their lifetime and up to 70% of these patients develop postoperative endoscopic recurrence within 1 year. The most important predictors of early postoperative recurrence are represented by smoking, prior intestinal surgery, penetrating disease and perianal location. Genetic factors, gut microbiota structure and immunological alterations may be involved in the pathogenesis of postoperative recurrence of CD, although their specific roles have to be determined yet...
February 16, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453801/regional-deposition-of-nasal-sprays-in-adults-a-wide-ranging-computational-study
#6
Milad Kiaee, Herbert Wachtel, Michelle L Noga, Andrew R Martin, Warren H Finlay
The present work examines regional deposition within the nose for nasal sprays over a large and wide ranging parameter space by using numerical simulation. A set of seven realistic adult nasal airway geometries was defined based on Computed Tomography (CT) images. Deposition in six regions of each nasal airway geometry (the vestibule, valve, anterior turbinate, posterior turbinate, olfactory, and nasopharynx) was determined for varying particle diameter, spray cone angle, spray release direction, particle injection speed, and particle injection location...
February 17, 2018: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453661/maize-water-status-and-physiological-traits-as-affected-by-root-endophytic-fungus-piriformospora-indica-under-combined-drought-and-mechanical-stresses
#7
Fatemeh Hosseini, Mohammad Reza Mosaddeghi, Anthony Roger Dexter, Mozhgan Sepehri
Under combined drought and mechanical stresses, mechanical stress primarily controlled physiological responses of maize. Piriformospora indica mitigated the adverse effects of stresses, and inoculated maize experienced less oxidative damage and had better adaptation to stressful conditions. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of maize root colonization by an endophytic fungus P. indica on plant water status, physiological traits and root morphology under combined drought and mechanical stresses...
February 16, 2018: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453547/using-of-quantum-dots-in-biology-and-medicine
#8
Svetlana Pleskova, Elza Mikheeva, Ekaterina Gornostaeva
Quantum dots are nanoparticles, which due to their unique physical and chemical (first of all optical) properties, are promising in biology and medicine. There are many ways for quantum dots synthesis, both in the form of nanoislands self-forming on the surfaces, which can be used as single-photon emitters in electronics for storing information, and in the form of colloidal quantum dots for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in living systems. The paper describes the main methods of quantum dots synthesis and summarizes medical and biological ways of their use...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453513/simultaneous-cell-disruption-and-lipid-extraction-of-wet-aurantiochytrium-sp-krs101-using-a-high-shear-mixer
#9
Minsoo Kwak, Seul Gi Kang, Won-Kyung Hong, Jong-In Han, Yong Keun Chang
Microalgae are regarded as a promising source of biofuels, and the concept of a microalgae-based biorefinery has attracted increasing attention in recent years. From an economic perspective, however, the process remains far from competitive with fossil fuels. This is particularly true of lipid extraction, due in part to the energy-intensive drying step. As a result, wet extraction methods have been studied as an economic alternative. In the present study, a novel extraction approach which utilizes high shear stress mixing was adopted and demonstrated for simultaneous lipid extraction and cell disruption to enable the retrieval of lipids directly from concentrated wet biomass...
February 16, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453335/high-definition-and-low-noise-muography-of-the-sakurajima-volcano-with-gaseous-tracking-detectors
#10
László Oláh, Hiroyuki K M Tanaka, Takao Ohminato, Dezső Varga
Muography is a novel method to highly resolve the internal structure of active volcanoes by taking advantage of the cosmic muon's strong penetration power. In this paper, we present the first high-definition image in the vicinity of craters of an erupting volcano called Sakurajima, Kyushu, Japan. The muography observation system based on the technique of multi-wire proportional chamber (mMOS) has been operated reliably during the data taking period of 157 days. The mMOS measured precisely the flux of muons up to the thickness of 5,000 meter-water-equivalent...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453210/polymicrobial-bacterial-pericarditis-and-cardiac-tamponade-caused-by-pericardial-penetration-of-an-adjustable-gastric-band
#11
Ype de Jong, Rhiannon B van Loenhout, Dingeman J Swank, Casper L Jansen, Bastiaan J Sorgdrager
We describe a case of polymicrobial bacterial pericarditis with Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis , caused by pericardial penetration of the tip of the catheter of a laparoscopic adjustable gastric band (LAGB). The patient developed a cardiac tamponade, and subsequently emergency pericardiocentesis was performed. Analysis of earlier CT scans showed that the tip of the catheter had migrated through the liver and through the diaphragm into the pericardium, and was in contact with the myocardium. After stabilisation he was operated to remove the LAGB...
February 16, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452992/activity-of-ceftobiprole-against-staphylococcus-spec-isolates-derived-from-foreign-body-associated-infections
#12
Gunnar T R Hischebeth, Sascha Gravius, Ernst Molitor, Hendrik Kohlhof, Achim Hoerauf, Caecilia Hilgers, Thomas M Randau
Antibiotic therapy is essential in foreign body associated infections. The treatment regime should aim at high tissue concentrations, high bioavailability, high biofilm penetration and good tolerance. We investigated whether the new cephalosporin ceftobiprole is active against clinical isolates from musculoskeletal foreign body associated infections. One hundred ninety-six staphylococci isolates (coagulase negative staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus) derived from foreign body associated infections were tested towards susceptibility to ceftobiprole, using a test strip assay and broth microdilution...
January 31, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452958/brca1-mutation-spectrum-functions-and-therapeutic-strategies-the-story-so-far
#13
REVIEW
Babita Sharma, Raman Preet Kaur, Sonali Raut, Anjana Munshi
BRCA1 gene mutations account for about 25-28% of hereditary Breast Cancer as BRCA1 is included in the category of high penetrance genes. Except for few commonmutations, there is a heterogenous spectrum of BRCA1 mutations in various ethnic groups. 185AGdel and 5382ins Care the most common BRCA1 alterations (founder mutations) which have been identified in most of the population. This review has been compiled with an aim to consolidate the information on genetic variants reported in BRCA1 found in various ethnic groups, their functional implications if known; involvement of BRCA1 in various cellular pathways/processes and potential BRCA1 targeted therapies...
January 8, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452943/effect-of-episiotomy-training-with-beef-tongue-and-sponge-simulators-on-the-self-confidence-building-of-midwifery-students
#14
Handan Guler, Perihan Cetin, Zeliha Burcu Yurtsal, Busra Cesur, Mine Bekar, Tuba Uçar, Funda Evcili, Ali Cetin
This study assesses the efficacy of simulation-based episiotomy training (SBET) with beef tongue and sponge models in terms of the self confidence of midwifery students while performing episiotomy. Third-year midwifery students from Cumhuriyet University in the fall semesters of 2011 and 2012 were enrolled in the sponge and beef tongue model groups (n = 36 and n = 37, respectively). A checklist was prepared on the required skills for performing episiotomy which can be broken into three main parts, namely preparation, cutting and repairing and completion...
February 9, 2018: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452422/asynchronous-and-pathological-windows-of-implantation-two-causes-of-recurrent-implantation-failure
#15
P Sebastian-Leon, N Garrido, J Remohí, A Pellicer, P Diaz-Gimeno
STUDY QUESTION: Is endometrial recurrent implantation failure (RIF) only a matter of an asynchronous (displaced) window of implantation (WOI), or could it also be a pathological (disrupted) WOI? SUMMARY ANSWER: Our predictive results demonstrate that both displaced and disrupted WOIs exist and can present independently or together in the same RIF patient. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Since 2002, many gene expression signatures associated with endometrial receptivity and RIF have been described...
February 14, 2018: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452131/synergism-between-a-cell-penetrating-peptide-and-a-ph-sensitive-cationic-lipid-in-efficient-gene-delivery-based-on-double-coated-nanoparticles
#16
Ikramy A Khalil, Seigo Kimura, Yusuke Sato, Hideyoshi Harashima
We report on the development of a highly efficient gene delivery system based on synergism between octaarginine (R8), a representative cell penetrating peptide, and YSK05, a recently developed pH-sensitive cationic lipid. Attaching a high density of R8 on the surface of YSK05 nanoparticles (NPs) that contained encapsulated plasmid DNA resulted in the formation of positively charged NPs with improved transfection efficiency. To avoid the development of a net positive charge, we controlled the density and topology of the R8 peptide through the use of a two-step coating methodology, in which the inner lipid coat was modified with a low density of R8 which was then covered with an outer neutral YSK05 lipid layer...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452017/fractional-non-ablative-laser-assisted-drug-delivery-leads-to-improvement-in-male-and-female-pattern-hair-loss
#17
Ana Carina Junqueira Bertin, Adriana Vilarinho, Ana Lúcia Ariano Junqueira
Androgenetic alopecia, also known as male and female pattern hair loss, is a very prevalent condition; however, approved therapeutic options are limited. Fractionated laser has been proposed to assist in penetration of topical medications to the cutaneous tissue. We present four cases of androgenetic alopecia that underwent treatment with a non-ablative erbium glass fractional laser followed by the application of topical finasteride 0,05% and growth factors including basic fibroblast growth factor, insulin-like growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, and copper peptide 1%...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Cosmetic and Laser Therapy: Official Publication of the European Society for Laser Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451817/the-impact-of-pulse-pressure-on-cerebrovascular-events-leading-to-age-related-cognitive-decline
#18
Nathalie Thorin-Trescases, Olivia de Montgolfier, Anthony Pinçon, Adeline Raignault, Laurie Caland, Pauline Labbé, Eric Thorin
Aging is a modern concept: human life expectancy has more than doubled in less than 150 years in Western countries. Longer lifespan, however, reveals age-related diseases, including cerebrovascular diseases. The vascular system is a prime target of aging: the "wear and tear" of large elastic arteries exposed to a life-long pulsatile pressure causes arterial stiffening by fragmentation of elastin fibers and replacement by stiffer collagen. This arterial stiffening increases in return the amplitude of the pulse pressure (PP), its wave penetrating deeper into the microcirculation of low resistance, high flow organs such as the brain...
February 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451774/organic-semiconducting-photoacoustic-nanodroplets-for-laser-activatable-ultrasound-imaging-and-combinational-cancer-therapy
#19
Wei Tang, Zhen Yang, Sheng Wang, Zhantong Wang, Jibin Song, Guocan Yu, Wenpei Fan, Yunlu Dai, Jingjing Wang, Lingling Shan, Gang Niu, Quli Fan, Xiaoyuan Chen
Combination of photoacoustic (PA) and ultrasound (US) imaging offers high spatial resolution images with deep tissue penetration, which shows great potentials in applications in medical imaging. Development of PA/US dual-contrast agents with high contrast and excellent biocompatible is of great interest. Herein, an organic semiconducting photoacoustic nanodroplet, PS-PDI-PAnD, is developed by stabilizing low-boiling-point perfluorocarbon (PFC) droplet with a photoabsorber and photoacoustic agent of perylene diimide (PDI) molecules and co-encapsulating the droplet with photosensitizers of ZnF16Pc molecules...
February 16, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451568/upconversion-in-photodynamic-therapy-plumbing-the-depths
#20
Michael R Hamblin
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves the combination of non-toxic dyes called photosensitizers (PS) and harmless visible light that interact with ambient oxygen to give reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can damage biomolecules and kill cells. PDT has mostly been developed as a cancer therapy but can also be used as an antimicrobial approach against localized infections. However even the longest wavelength used for exciting PS (in the 700 nm region) has relatively poor tissue penetration, and many PS are much better excited by blue and green light...
February 16, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
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