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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470527/value-of-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-laparoscopy-for-patients-with-blunt-abdominal-trauma-a-10-year-medical-center-experience
#1
Heng-Fu Lin, Ying-Da Chen, Shyr-Chyr Chen
Laparoscopy has been used for the diagnosis and treatment for hemodynamically stable patients with penetrating abdominal trauma. This study evaluated whether diagnostic and therapeutic laparoscopy can be used as effectively in select patients with blunt abdominal trauma. All hemodynamically stable patients undergoing operations for blunt abdominal trauma over a 10-year period (2006-2015) at a tertiary medical center were included. Patients undergoing laparotomy were categorized as group A. Patients who underwent laparoscopy were categorized as group B...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470319/splenic-rupture-in-children-with-portal-hypertension
#2
Orith Waisbourd-Zinman, Amit Shah, Henry C Lin, Elizabeth B Rand
INTRODUCTION: Massive splenomegaly from portal hypertension (PHTN) in children raises the specter of splenic rupture; however, the incidence, etiology, and risk of rupture have not been studied, nor have existing practices to reduce risk. We therefore performed an international survey to describe the splenic rupture cases in PHTN and to describe the existing empirical practice among hepatologists. METHODS: A questionnaire was constructed to elicit cases of splenic rupture and collect hepatologists' common practices for prevention of splenic rupture...
March 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468294/behavioral-phenotyping-and-dopamine-dynamics-in-mice-with-conditional-deletion-of-the-glutamate-transporter-glt-1-in-neurons-resistance-to-the-acute-locomotor-effects-of-amphetamine
#3
Kathryn D Fischer, Alex C W Houston, Rajeev I Desai, Michelle R Doyle, Jack Bergman, Maha Mian, Rebekah Mannix, David L Sulzer, Se Joon Choi, Eugene V Mosharov, Nathaniel W Hodgson, Anita Bechtholt, Klaus A Miczek, Paul A Rosenberg
RATIONALE: GLT-1 is the major glutamate transporter in the brain and is expressed predominantly in astrocytes but is also present in excitatory axon terminals. To understand the functional significance of GLT-1 expressed in neurons, we generated a conditional GLT-1 knockout mouse and inactivated GLT-1 in neurons using Cre-recombinase expressed under the synapsin 1 promoter, (synGLT-1 KO). OBJECTIVES: Abnormalities of glutamate homeostasis have been shown to affect hippocampal-related behaviors including learning and memory as well as responses to drugs of abuse...
February 22, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467663/ranolazine-attenuates-trastuzumab-induced-heart-dysfunction-by-modulating-ros-production
#4
Gennaro Riccio, Salvatore Antonucci, Carmela Coppola, Chiara D'Avino, Giovanna Piscopo, Danilo Fiore, Carlo Maurea, Michele Russo, Domenica Rea, Claudio Arra, Gerolama Condorelli, Fabio Di Lisa, Carlo G Tocchetti, Claudia De Lorenzo, Nicola Maurea
The ErbB2 blocker trastuzumab improves survival in oncologic patients, but can cause cardiotoxicity. The late Na+ current inhibitor ranolazine has been shown to counter experimental HF, including doxorubicin cardiotoxicity (a condition characterized by derangements in redox balance), by lowering the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Since ErbB2 can modulate ROS signaling, we tested whether trastuzumab cardiotoxicity could be blunted by ranolazine via redox-mediated mechanisms. Trastuzumab decreased fractional shortening and ejection fraction in mice, but ranolazine prevented heart dysfunction when co-administered with trastuzumab...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467272/cyclic-mechanical-stretch-up-regulates-hepatoma-derived-growth-factor-expression-in-cultured-rat-aortic-smooth-muscle-cells
#5
Ying-Hsien Kao, Po-Han Chen, Cheuk-Kwan Sun, Yo-Chen Chang, Yu-Chun Lin, Ming-Shian Tsai, Po-Huang Lee, Cheng-I Cheng
Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) is a potent mitogen for vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) during embryogenesis and injury repair of vessel walls. Whether mechanical stimuli modulate HDGF expression remains unknown. This study aimed at investigating whether cyclic mechanical stretch plays a regulatory role in HDGF expression and regenerative cytokine production in aortic SMCs. A SMC cell line was grown on a silicone-based elastomer chamber with extracellular matrix coatings (either type I collagen or fibronectin) and received cyclic and uni-axial mechanical stretches with 10% deformation at frequency 1 Hz...
February 21, 2018: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467020/insulin-like-growth-factor-1-mediated-regulation-of-mir-193a-expression-promotes-the-migration-and-proliferation-of-c-kit-positive-mouse-cardiac-stem-cells
#6
Yuning Sun, Rongfeng Xu, Jia Huang, Yuyu Yao, Xiaodong Pan, Zhongpu Chen, Genshan Ma
BACKGROUND: C-kit-positive cardiac stem cells (CSCs) have been shown to be a promising candidate treatment for myocardial infarction and heart failure. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 is an anabolic growth hormone that regulates cellular proliferation, differentiation, senescence, and death in various tissues. Although IGF-1 promotes the migration and proliferation of c-kit-positive mouse CSCs, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. METHODS: Cells were isolated from adult mouse hearts, and c-kit-positive CSCs were separated using magnetic beads...
February 21, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466763/discovery-and-characterization-of-conserved-and-novel-micrornas-from-blunt-snout-bream-megalobrama-amblycephala-by-deep-sequencing
#7
Yong Huang, Wangbao Gong, Jianli Xiong, Xiao Chan Gao, Hong Tao Ren
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, single stranded RNA molecules with approximately 22 nts in length, which regulate the stability and translation of messenger RNAs in several organisms. To increase the repertoire of miRNAs characterized in M. amblycephala, we used the deep sequencing technology to sequence a small RNA library using pooled RNA sample isolated from the 4 different tissues of M. amblycephala. A total of 309 conserved miRNAs that originated from 131 miRNA families were detected. 15 novel candidates miRNA were identified...
February 18, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466693/acute-extracellular-matrix-inflammatory-and-mapk-response-to-lengthening-contractions-in-elderly-human-skeletal-muscle
#8
Jacob R Sorensen, Caitlin Skousen, Alex Holland, Kyle Williams, Robert D Hyldahl
To uncover potential factors that may be involved in the impaired regenerative capacity of aged skeletal muscle, we comprehensively assessed the molecular stress response following muscle damage in old and young individuals. 10 young (22.7 ± 2.25 yrs) and 8 physically active old (70.9 ± 7.5 yrs) subjects completed a bout of 300 lengthening contractions (LC), and muscle biopsies were taken pre-exercise and at 3, 24, and 72 h post-LC. Both age groups performed the same amount of work during LC, with the old group displaying a resistance to LC-induced fatigue during the exercise...
February 18, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466442/soluble-adenylyl-cyclase-a-novel-player-in-cardiac-hypertrophy-induced-by-isoprenaline-or-pressure-overload
#9
Ilona Schirmer, Tippaporn Bualeong, Heidi Budde, Diana Cimiotti, Avinash Appukuttan, Nicole Klein, Philip Steinwascher, Peter Reusch, Andreas Mügge, Rainer Meyer, Yury Ladilov, Kornelia Jaquet
AIMS: In contrast to the membrane bound adenylyl cyclases, the soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is activated by bicarbonate and divalent ions including calcium. sAC is located in the cytosol, nuclei and mitochondria of several tissues including cardiac muscle. However, its role in cardiac pathology is poorly understood. Here we investigate whether sAC is involved in hypertrophic growth using two different model systems. METHODS AND RESULTS: In isolated adult rat cardiomyocytes hypertrophy was induced by 24 h β1-adrenoceptor stimulation using isoprenaline (ISO) and a β2-adrenoceptor antagonist (ICI118,551)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466430/cholinergic-signaling-mediates-the-effects-of-xenin-25-on-secretion-of-pancreatic-polypeptide-but-not-insulin-or-glucagon-in-humans-with-impaired-glucose-tolerance
#10
Songyan Wang, Lauren Z Oestricker, Michael J Wallendorf, Karin Sterl, Judit Dunai, C Rachel Kilpatrick, Bruce W Patterson, Dominic N Reeds, Burton M Wice
We previously demonstrated that infusion of an intestinal peptide called xenin-25 (Xen) amplifies the effects of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) on insulin secretion rates (ISRs) and plasma glucagon levels in humans. However, these effects of Xen, but not GIP, were blunted in humans with type 2 diabetes. Thus, Xen rather than GIP signaling to islets fails early during development of type 2 diabetes. The current crossover study determines if cholinergic signaling relays the effects of Xen on insulin and glucagon release in humans as in mice...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465479/ketamine-associated-brain-changes-a-review-of-the-neuroimaging-literature
#11
Dawn F Ionescu, Julia M Felicione, Aishwarya Gosai, Cristina Cusin, Philip Shin, Benjamin G Shapero, Thilo Deckersbach
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most prevalent conditions in psychiatry. Patients who do not respond to traditional monoaminergic antidepressant treatments have an especially difficult-to-treat type of MDD termed treatment-resistant depression. Subanesthetic doses of ketamine-a glutamatergic modulator-have shown great promise for rapidly treating patients with the most severe forms of depression. As such, ketamine represents a promising probe for understanding the pathophysiology of depression and treatment response...
February 20, 2018: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464867/blunted-cortisol-response-to-stress-in-patients-with-eating-disorders-its-association-to-bulimic-features
#12
Francisco J Vaz-Leal, María I Ramos-Fuentes, Laura Rodríguez-Santos, Carlos Chimpén-López, Nieves Fernández-Sánchez, Francisco J Zamora-Rodríguez, Luis Beato-Fernández, Luis Rojo-Moreno, Juan A Guisado-Macías
OBJECTIVE: Clinical research on cortisol response to stress in patients with eating disorders has provided controversial and even contradictory results. As this might be the consequence of the inclusion in the studies of heterogeneous clinical populations, 3 highly selected samples were studied. METHODS: Dexamethasone suppression test was performed on 15 restricting anorexia nervosa patients without history of bulimia nervosa (BN), 17 BN patients with normal weight and no history of anorexia nervosa, and 22 healthy controls...
February 21, 2018: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464700/septic-cavernous-sinus-thrombosis-following-a-minor-head-injury-a-rare-cause-of-medico-legal-death
#13
Supawon Srettabunjong
Septic cavernous sinus thrombosis (SCST) is an uncommon consequence of head and face infection, but a rare complication after craniofacial fracture. In this case, SCST developed in a 13-year-old girl following a minor fall during volleyball, with impact and resulting abrasive contusion of the left forehead. She developed watery rhinorrhea, progressive headache, fever, nausea, vomiting, and left proptosis with blurred vision, and was admitted to hospital 3 days after injury. Drowsiness, high-grade fever, severe headache, left ocular pain with marked periorbital swelling, and paralysis of extraocular eye movements developed...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464219/typical-pericarditis-ecg-findings-after-falling-from-height-the-pr-segment-depression-or-st-segment-elevation
#14
Murat Sucu, Gokhan Altunbas, Fatma Yilmaz Coskun
Acute pericarditis (AP) following blunt thoracic trauma is rare and difficult to diagnosis. A 43-year-old man with offered to the emergency department (ED) after falling from height before a week ago. The ECG performed in the ED was abnormal, ECG revealed PR segment depression in leads DII, DIII, aVF, and V3-6 and a preliminary diagnosis of acute inferolateral STEMI was presumed. Patients have evidence of systemic inflammation, including leukocytosis, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. We are reporting a case of post-traumatic acute pericarditis presenting with PR-segment depression and normal cardiac enzymes mimicking acute STEMI...
December 2017: Turkish Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464020/mmp2-a2m-interaction-increases-ecm-accumulation-in-aged-rat-kidney-and-its-modulation-by-calorie-restriction
#15
Kyung Mok Kim, Ki Wung Chung, Hyeong Oh Jeong, Bonggi Lee, Dae Hyun Kim, June Whoun Park, Seong Min Kim, Byung Pal Yu, Hae Young Chung
Age-associated renal fibrosis is related with renal function decline during aging. Imbalance between accumulation and degradation of extracellular matrix is key feature of fibrosis. In this study, RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) results based on next-generation sequencing (NGS) data were analyzed to identify key proteins that change during aging and calorie restriction (CR). Among the changed genes, A2M and MMP2, which are known to interact, exhibited the highest between centrality (BC) and degree values when analyzed by protein-protein interaction (PPI)...
January 19, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462784/transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-4-trpv4-activation-by-arachidonic-acid-requires-protein-kinase-a-mediated-phosphorylation
#16
Sheng Cao, Andriy Anishkin, Natalya S Zinkevich, Yoshinori Nishijima, Ankush Korishettar, Zhihao Wang, Juan Fang, David A Wilcox, David X Zhang
TRPV4 is a Ca2+-permeable channel of the transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily activated by diverse stimuli including warm temperature, mechanical forces, and lipid mediators such as arachidonic acid (AA) and its metabolites. This activation is tightly regulated by protein phosphorylation carried out by various serine/threonine or tyrosine kinases. It remains poorly understood how phosphorylation differentially regulates TRPV4 activation in response to different stimuli. We investigated how TRPV4 activation by AA, an important signaling process in the dilation of coronary arterioles, is affected by protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation at S824...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462113/use-of-open-and-endovascular-surgical-techniques-to-manage-vascular-injuries-in-the-trauma-setting-a-review-of-the-american-association-for-the-surgery-of-trauma-prospective-observational-vascular-injury-trial-registry
#17
Edwin R Faulconer, Bernardino C Branco, Melissa N Loja, Kevin Grayson, James Sampson, Timothy C Fabian, John B Holcomb, Thomas Scalea, David Skarupa, Kenji Inaba, Nathaniel Poulin, Todd E Rasmussen, Joseph J Dubose
BACKGROUND: Vascular trauma data have been submitted to the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma PROspective Observational Vascular Injury Trial (PROOVIT) database since 2013. We present data to describe current use of endovascular surgery in vascular trauma. METHODS: Registry data from March 2013 to December 2016 were reviewed. All trauma patients who had an injury to a named artery, except the forearm and lower leg, were included. Arteries were grouped into anatomic regions and by compressible and noncompressible region for analysis...
March 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461268/unnatural-deaths-of-the-elderly-population-of-sri-lanka-a-descriptive-analysis
#18
Amal Nishantha Vadysinghe, Prabath Senasinghe, Murugupillai Sivasubramanium, Pemasiri Jayasooriya, Bhatiya G Premarathna, Rathnayake Mudiyanselage Isuri Saumya D Rathnayake, Wickramasinghe Mudiyanselage Medhani Hasanthika P Wickramasinghe
As people age, they may become more vulnerable to injury because of frailty, ill health, or dependency on others. Data from medicolegal death investigation including autopsy and statements from cases reported to 3 medicolegal units in Sri Lanka were analyzed in this study under the strict ethical framework. Of the study population, 265 were male and 75 were female. Mean age was 71.14 years. Commonest manner of death was accidental (62.1%) followed by suicide (32.1%) and homicide (5.6%). Commonest types of incidents were road traffic accidents (26...
February 15, 2018: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461055/bidirectional-degradation-of-dna-cleavage-products-catalyzed-by-crispr-cas9
#19
Anthony A Stephenson, Austin T Raper, Zucai Suo
Since the initial characterization of Streptococcus pyogenes CRISPR/Cas9 as a powerful gene-editing tool, it has been widely accepted that Cas9 generates blunt-ended DNA products by concerted cleavage of the target (tDNA) and non-target (ntDNA) strands three nucleotides away from the protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) by HNH and RuvC nuclease active sites, respectively. Following initial DNA cleavage, RuvC catalyzes 3'→5' degradation of the ntDNA resulting in DNA products of various lengths. Here, we found that Cas9 selects multiple sites for initial ntDNA cleavage and preferentially generates staggered-ended DNA products containing single-nucleotide 5'-overhangs...
February 20, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458045/aldose-reductase-inhibitor-fidarestat-prevents-doxorubicin-induced-endothelial-cell-death-and-dysfunction
#20
Himangshu Sonowal, Pabitra Pal, Kirtikar Shukla, Ashish Saxena, Satish K Srivastava, Kota V Ramana
Despite doxorubicin (Dox) being one of the most widely used chemotherapy agents for breast, blood and lung cancers, its use in colon cancer is limited due to increased drug resistance and severe cardiotoxic side effects that increase mortality associated with its use at high doses. Therefore, better adjuvant therapies are warranted to improve the chemotherapeutic efficacy and to decrease cardiotoxicity. We have recently shown that aldose reductase inhibitor, fidarestat, increases the Dox-induced colon cancer cell death and reduces cardiomyopathy...
February 16, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
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