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Alexandre Fisette, Stephanie Tobin, Léa Décarie-Spain, Khalil Bouyakdan, Marie-Line Peyot, S R Murthy Madiraju, Marc Prentki, Stephanie Fulton, Thierry Alquier
α/β-Hydrolase domain 6 (ABHD6) is a monoacylglycerol hydrolase that degrades the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). Although complete or peripheral ABHD6 loss of function is protective against diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance, the role of ABHD6 in the central control of energy balance is unknown. Using a viral-mediated knockout approach, targeted endocannabinoid measures, and pharmacology, we discovered that mice lacking ABHD6 from neurons of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH(KO)) have higher VMH 2-AG levels in conditions of endocannabinoid recruitment and fail to physiologically adapt to key metabolic challenges...
October 25, 2016: Cell Reports
Keryn Walshe, Brian Brophy, Brian Cornish, Roger W Byard
The skeletal remains of eight Australian Aboriginals with healed depressed skull fractures were examined. Male:female ratio 5:3; age range 20-60 yrs. Burial dates by (14) C dating in three cases were 500 years BP (n = 2) and 1300 BP. There were 13 healed depressed skull fractures manifested by shallow indentations of cortical bone and thinning of diploe, with no significant disturbance of the inner skull tables. Nine (69%) were located within 35 mm of the sagittal suture/midline. These lesions represent another acquired feature that might be helpful in suggesting that a skull is from a tribal Aboriginal individual and may be particularly useful if the remains are represented by only fragments of calvarium...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Jasmina Bakic, Gilles Pourtois, Marieke Jepma, Romain Duprat, Rudi De Raedt, Chris Baeken
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) creates debilitating effects on a wide range of cognitive functions, including reinforcement learning (RL). In this study, we sought to assess whether reward processing as such, or alternatively the complex interplay between motivation and reward might potentially account for the abnormal reward-based learning in MDD. METHODS: A total of 35 treatment resistant MDD patients and 44 age matched healthy controls (HCs) performed a standard probabilistic learning task...
October 26, 2016: Depression and Anxiety
Gregory Grabowski, Ryan N Robertson, Blair M Barton, Mark A Cairns, Sharon W Webb
Study Design Retrospective comparative study. Objective To compare strict Biffl criteria to more-liberal criteria for computed tomography angiography (CTA) when screening for blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI). Methods All CTAs performed for blunt injury between 2009 and 2011 at our institution were reviewed. All patients with cervical spine fractures who were evaluated with CTA were included; patients with penetrating trauma and atraumatic reasons for imaging were excluded. We then categorized the patients' fractures based on the indications for CTA as either within or outside Biffl criteria...
November 2016: Global Spine Journal
Simin Liang, Jie Li, Xin Gou, Daihui Chen
BACKGROUND: Bladder disorders associated with interstitial cystitis are frequently characterized by increased contractility and pain. The purposes of this study were to examine (1) the effects of blocking mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) on the exaggerated bladder activity and pain evoked by cystitis and (2) the underlying mechanisms responsible for the role of mTOR in regulating cystic sensory activity. RESULTS: The expression of p-mTOR, mTOR-mediated phosphorylation of p70 ribosomal S6 protein kinase 1 (p-S6K1), 4 E-binding protein 4 (p-4 E-BP1), as well as phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (p-PI3K) pathway were amplified in cyclophosphamide rats as compared with control rats...
2016: Molecular Pain
Michael P O'Leary, Jessica A Keeley, Arthur Yule, Caitlyn Suruki, David S Plurad, Ashkan Moazzez, Angela L Neville, Brant A Putnam, Dennis Y Kim
BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to examine the incidence and severity of early acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) according to the Berlin Definition and to identify risk factors associated with the development of early post-traumatic ARDS. METHODS: A 2.5-year retrospective database of adult trauma patients who required mechanical ventilation for greater than 48 hours at a level 1 trauma center was analyzed for variables predictive of early (<48 hours after injury), mild, moderate, and severe ARDS and in-hospital mortality...
September 30, 2016: American Journal of Surgery
Kuan-Ho Lin, Chien-Liang Liu, Wei-Wen Kuo, Catherine Reena Paul, Wei-Kung Chen, Su-Ying Wen, Cecilia Hsuan Day, Hsi-Chin Wu, Vijaya Padma Viswanadha, Chih-Yang Huang
Cardiac trauma has been recognized as a complication associated with blunt chest trauma involving coronary artery injury, myocardium contusion and myocardial rupture. Secondary cardiac injuries after trauma supposed to be a critical factor in trauma patients, but the mechanism is not fully explored. Overproduction of TNF-alpha had been reported in multiple trauma animals, this induces oxidative stress resulting in cardiac apoptosis. Apoptosis gradually increases after trauma and reaches to a maximum level in 12 h time...
2016: PloS One
Megan Johnson, Kenji Inaba, Saskya Byerly, Erika Falsgraf, Lydia Lam, Elizabeth Benjamin, Aaron Strumwasser, Jean-Stephane David, Demetrios Demetriades
Intraosseous (IO) needle placement is an alternative for patients with difficult venous access. The purpose of this retrospective study was to examine indications and outcomes associated with IO use at a Level 1 trauma center (January 2008-May 2015). Data points included demographics, time to insertion, intravenous (IV) access points, indications, infusions, hospital and intensive care unit length of stay, and mortality. Of 68 patients with IO insertion analyzed (63.2% blunt trauma, 29.4% penetrating trauma, and 7...
October 2016: American Surgeon
Naoto Fujii, Brendan D McNeely, Glen P Kenny
β-adrenergic receptor agonists such as isoproterenol can induce cutaneous vasodilatation and sweating in humans, however, the mechanisms underpinning this response remains unresolved. We evaluated the hypotheses that 1) nitric oxide synthase (NOS) contributes to β-adrenergic cutaneous vasodilatation, whereas cyclooxygenase (COX) limits the vasodilatation, and 2) COX contributes to β-adrenergic sweating. In 10 young males (25 ± 5 years), cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) and sweat rate were evaluated at four intradermal forearm skin sites infused with 1) lactated Ringer's (control), 2) 10 mm L -NNA, a non-specific NOS inhibitor, 3) 10 mM ketorolac, a non-specific COX inhibitor, or 4) a combination of L -NNA and ketorolac...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Physiology
M Rincón-Cortés, R M Sullivan
Disrupted social behavior is a core symptom of multiple psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders. Many of these disorders are exacerbated by adverse infant experiences, including maltreatment and abuse, which negatively affect amygdala development. Although a link between impaired social behavior, abnormal amygdala function and depressive-like behavior following early adversity has been demonstrated in humans and animal models, the developmental emergence of maltreatment-related social deficits and associated amygdala neural activity are unknown...
October 25, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
Jeremy S Juern, David Milia, Panna Codner, Marshall Beckman, Lewis Somberg, Travis Webb, John A Weigelt
INTRODUCTION: Blunt pelvic fractures can be associated with major pelvic bleeding. The significance of contrast extravasation (CE) on computed tomography (CT) is debated. We sought to update our experience with CE on CT scan for the years 2009-2014 to determine the accuracy of CE in predicting the need for angioembolization. METHODS: This is a retrospective review of the trauma registry and our electronic medical record from a Level I trauma center. Patients seen from July 1, 2009 to September 7, 2014 with blunt pelvic fractures and contrast enhanced CT were included...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Christine M Leeper, Matthew D Neal, Christine McKenna, Jason Sperry, Barbara A Gaines
BACKGROUND: Abnormalities in fibrinolysis are common and associated with increased mortality in injured adults. While hyperfibrinolysis (HF) and fibrinolysis shutdown (SD) are potential prognostic indicators and treatment targets in adults, these derangements are not well-described in a pediatric trauma cohort. METHODS: Prospective analysis of highest level trauma activations age 0-18 presenting to our academic center between 6/1/2015-7/31/2016 with admission rapid thromboelastogram (TEG)...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Sisse R Ostrowski, Hanne H Henriksen, Jakob Stensballe, Mikkel Gybel-Brask, Jessica C Cardenas, Lisa A Baer, Bryan A Cotton, John B Holcomb, Charles E Wade, Pär I Johansson
BACKGROUND: One third of severely injured patients present with a laboratory based diagnosis of coagulopathy. This study investigated clinical and biomarker profile of patients with rapid TEG (rTEG) coagulopathy hypothesizing that sympathoadrenal activation and endothelial damage were drivers of this condition. METHODS: Prospective observational study of 404 trauma patients admitted to a Level 1 US Trauma Center. Patients with admission rTEG and plasma measurements of catecholamines (adrenaline, noradrenaline) and biomarkers reflecting endothelial activation/damage (syndecan-1, thrombomodulin, sE-selectin, sVE-cadherin, nucleosomes) were included...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
C Patrick Shahan, Louis J Magnotti, Timothy C Fabian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 25, 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Jung Ii Lee, Duk Hee Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Singapore Medical Journal
Ygal Rotenstreich, Adi Tzameret, Sapir E Kalish, Ettel Bubis, Michael Belkin, Iris Moroz, Mordechai Rosner, Itay Levy, Shlomo Margel, Ifat Sher
PURPOSE: To investigate the feasibility and safety of a novel minimally invasive adjustable-depth blunt injector for pharmaceuticals delivery into the posterior segment. METHODS: Indocyanine green (ICG), sodium fluorescein and iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) were injected using the new injector into the extravascular spaces of the choroid (EVSC) compartment of rabbits and cadaver pig eyes. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), fundus imaging and histology analysis were performed for assessment of injection safety and efficacy...
October 25, 2016: Acta Ophthalmologica
Toshimitsu Tsugu, Mitsushige Murata, Keitaro Mahara, Shiro Iwanaga, Keiichi Fukuda
Aortic regurgitation resulting from blunt chest trauma has been reported only 95 times, to our knowledge. The noncoronary and right coronary cusps are the cardiac structures most often injured. Although the aortic leaflets can appear to be undamaged after nonpenetrating trauma, they can have pathologic abnormalities and insufficient function. Some cases of posttraumatic aortic regurgitation progress slowly. Aortic valve replacement is the optimal treatment. We present the case of a then-62-year-old man who has lived more than 5 years after blunt-trauma aortic regurgitation...
October 2016: Texas Heart Institute Journal
Ibrahim M Salman, Cara M Hildreth, Jacqueline K Phillips
We investigated age- and sex-related changes in reflex renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and haemodynamic responses to vagal afferent stimulation in a rodent model of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Using anaesthetised juvenile (7-8weeks) and adult (12-13weeks) Lewis Polycystic Kidney (LPK) and Lewis control rats of either sex (n=63 total), reflex changes in RSNA, heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) to vagal afferent stimulation (5-s train, 4.0V, 2.0-ms pulses, 1-16Hz) were measured. In all groups, stimulation of the vagal afferents below 16Hz produced frequency-dependent reductions in RSNA, HR and MAP, while a 16Hz stimulus produced an initial sympathoinhibition followed by sympathoexcitation...
October 11, 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Kathleen E Morrison, C Neill Epperson, Mary D Sammel, Grace Ewing, Jessica S Podcasy, Liisa Hantsoo, Deborah R Kim, Tracy L Bale
BACKGROUND: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are one of the greatest predictors of affective disorders for women. Periods of dynamic hormonal flux, including pregnancy, exacerbate the risk for affective disturbance and promote hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation, a key feature of affective disorders. Little is understood as to how stress experienced in late childhood, defined as preadolescence, alters the programming unique to this period of brain maturation and its interaction with the hormonal changes of pregnancy and postpartum...
August 26, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
S Santiago-Martínez, A Laín, G Guillén, R Gander, S López-Fernández, F Pumarola, L Seidler, J Lloret
INTRODUCTION: Paediatric LTI is associated with significant morbid-mortality. Although historically first line treatment was surgical, conservative management is making headway. The purpose of this study was to analyze the management and surgical indications of LTI treated at our institution. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective study of patients with LTI treated between 2007 and 2014. RESULTS: Six out of seven patients, with a median age of 4 years (2-15), had blunt traumas and one had an open trauma...
October 10, 2016: Cirugía Pediátrica: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
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