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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346622/future-of-family-medicine-faculty-development-in-sub-saharan-africa
#1
Paul R Larson, Patrick Chege, Bruce Dahlman, Christine Gibson, Ann Evensen, Maria C Colon-Gonzalez, Stephanie Onguka, Roberta Lamptey, William E Cayley, Bich-May Nguyen, Brian Johnson, Sawra Getnet, Memoona Hasnain
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: High-quality family medicine education is needed in sub-Saharan Africa to facilitate the future growth of primary care health systems. Current faculty educators recognize the value of dedicated teacher training and ongoing faculty development. However, they are constrained by inadequate faculty development program availability and institutional support. METHODS: A cross-sectional study design was used to conduct a qualitative needs assessment comprised of 37 in-depth, semi-structured interviews of individual faculty trainers from postgraduate family medicine training programs in eight sub-Saharan African countries...
March 2017: Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346270/repair-of-partly-misspecified-causal-diagrams
#2
Chris J Oates, Jessica Kasza, Julie A Simpson, Andrew B Forbes
Errors in causal diagrams elicited from experts can lead to the omission of important confounding variables from adjustment sets and render causal inferences invalid. In this report a novel method is presented that repairs a misspecified causal diagram through the addition of edges. These edges are determined using a data-driven approach designed to provide improved statistical efficiency relative to de novo structure learning methods. Our main assumption is that the expert is "directionally informed", meaning that "false" edges provided by the expert would not create cycles if added to the "true" causal diagram...
March 23, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346203/u-s-food-and-drug-administration-inspections-guide-to-a-successful-outcome-for-503a-sterile-compounding-pharmacies
#3
Doug Yoch
The reasons for which pharmaceutical compounding is the focus of intense state and federal scrutiny are now well known. Compounders are faced with an ever-increasing need to prove, by objective standards, the safety, purity, and potency of the formulations they dispense. They must also demonstrate their compliance with regulations often based on current good compounding practices designed for the pharmaceutical industry. In the U.S. today, rigorous unannounced state and federal inspections of compounding facilities are occurring more and more frequently...
March 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345988/the-experiences-of-students-in-interprofessional-learning
#4
Mark Telford, Emma Senior
This article explores the experiences of undergraduate healthcare students within interprofessional education (IPE) using a qualitative research study. The motive to undertake this study was as a result of mixed evaluations of IPE sessions. The study aimed to analyse student experiences of IPE, and as a result provide greater insight into how this type of education could be enhanced. Participants were selected through voluntary recruitment and data were collected using a focus group involving 12 participants who responded...
March 23, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345687/recent-advances-in-high-performance-fluorescent-and-bioluminescent-rna-imaging-probes
#5
REVIEW
Yuqiong Xia, Ruili Zhang, Zhongliang Wang, Jie Tian, Xiaoyuan Chen
RNA plays an important role in life processes. Imaging of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and micro-RNAs (miRNAs) not only allows us to learn the formation and transcription of mRNAs and the biogenesis of miRNAs involved in various life processes, but also helps in detecting cancer. High-performance RNA imaging probes greatly expand our view of life processes and enhance the cancer detection accuracy. In this review, we summarize the state-of-the-art high-performance RNA imaging probes, including exogenous probes that can image RNA sequences with special modification and endogeneous probes that can directly image endogenous RNAs without special treatment...
March 27, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345437/clinical-profile-dosing-and-quality-of-life-outcomes-in-primary-immune-deficiency-patients-treated-at-home-with-immunoglobulin-g-data-from-the-ideal-patient-registry
#6
Sean Kearns, Loretta Kristofek, William Bolgar, Luqman Seidu, Samantha Kile
BACKGROUND: Patients with primary immune deficiency (PID) often require immunoglobulin G (IgG, commonly referred to as Ig) replacement therapy to prevent infections and associated comorbidities. Ig therapy can be given either through intravenous or subcutaneous routes, and both can be done in the home setting. There is limited information available on the real-world diagnosis, management, and outcomes of this patient population, given the variable disease presentation and treatment options...
April 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344719/residents-perceptions-of-simulation-as-a-clinical-learning-approach
#7
Catharine M Walsh, Ankit Garg, Stella L Ng, Fenny Goyal, Samir C Grover
BACKGROUND: Simulation is increasingly being integrated into medical education; however, there is little research into trainees' perceptions of this learning modality. We elicited trainees' perceptions of simulation-based learning, to inform how simulation is developed and applied to support training. METHODS: We conducted an instrumental qualitative case study entailing 36 semi-structured one-hour interviews with 12 residents enrolled in an introductory simulation-based course...
February 2017: Canadian Medical Education Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344110/toward-a-systematic-exploration-of-nano-bio-interactions
#8
REVIEW
Xue Bai, Fang Liu, Yin Liu, Cong Li, Shenqing Wang, Hongyu Zhou, Wenyi Wang, Hao Zhu, Dave Winkler, Bing Yan
Many studies of nanomaterials make non-systematic alterations of nanoparticle physicochemical properties. Given the immense size of the property space for nanomaterials, such approaches are not very useful in elucidating fundamental relationships between inherent physicochemical properties of these materials and their interactions with, and effects on, biological systems. Data driven artificial intelligence methods such as machine learning algorithms have proven highly effective in generating models with good predictivity and some degree of interpretability...
March 24, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343021/application-of-mixed-methods-design-in-community-engaged-research-lessons-learned-from-an-evidence-based-intervention-for-latinos-with-chronic-illness-and-minor-depression
#9
Claudia X Aguado Loi, Moya L Alfonso, Isabella Chan, Kelsey Anderson, Dinorah Dina Martinez Tyson, Junius Gonzales, Jaime Corvin
The purpose of this paper is to share lessons learned from a collaborative, community-informed mixed-methods approach to adapting an evidence-based intervention to meet the needs of Latinos with chronic disease and minor depression and their family members. Mixed-methods informed by community-based participatory research (CBPR) were employed to triangulate multiple stakeholders' perceptions of facilitators and barriers of implementing the adapted intervention in community settings. Community partners provided an insider perspective to overcome methodological challenges...
December 24, 2016: Evaluation and Program Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342724/a-hypergraph-and-arithmetic-residue-based-probabilistic-neural-network-for-classification-in-intrusion-detection-systems
#10
M R Gauthama Raman, Nivethitha Somu, Kannan Kirthivasan, V S Shankar Sriram
Over the past few decades, the design of an intelligent Intrusion Detection System (IDS) remains an open challenge to the research community. Continuous efforts by the researchers have resulted in the development of several learning models based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to improve the performance of the IDSs. However, there exists a tradeoff with respect to the stability of ANN architecture and the detection rate for less frequent attacks. This paper presents a novel approach based on Helly property of Hypergraph and Arithmetic Residue-based Probabilistic Neural Network (HG AR-PNN) to address the classification problem in IDS...
February 17, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342697/recent-publications-from-the-alzheimer-s-disease-neuroimaging-initiative-reviewing-progress-toward-improved-ad-clinical-trials
#11
REVIEW
Michael W Weiner, Dallas P Veitch, Paul S Aisen, Laurel A Beckett, Nigel J Cairns, Robert C Green, Danielle Harvey, Clifford R Jack, William Jagust, John C Morris, Ronald C Petersen, Andrew J Saykin, Leslie M Shaw, Arthur W Toga, John Q Trojanowski
INTRODUCTION: The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) has continued development and standardization of methodologies for biomarkers and has provided an increased depth and breadth of data available to qualified researchers. This review summarizes the 450+ publications using ADNI data during 2014 and 2015. METHODS: We used standard searches to find publications using ADNI data. RESULTS: (1) Structural and functional changes, including subtle changes to hippocampal shape and texture, atrophy in areas outside of hippocampus, and disruption to functional networks, are detectable in presymptomatic subjects before hippocampal atrophy; (2) In subjects with abnormal β-amyloid deposition (Aβ+), biomarkers become abnormal in the order predicted by the amyloid cascade hypothesis; (3) Cognitive decline is more closely linked to tau than Aβ deposition; (4) Cerebrovascular risk factors may interact with Aβ to increase white-matter (WM) abnormalities which may accelerate Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression in conjunction with tau abnormalities; (5) Different patterns of atrophy are associated with impairment of memory and executive function and may underlie psychiatric symptoms; (6) Structural, functional, and metabolic network connectivities are disrupted as AD progresses...
March 22, 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342674/mindfulness-predicts-student-nurses-communication-self-efficacy-a-cross-national-comparative-study
#12
Vibeke Sundling, Annelie J Sundler, Inger K Holmström, Dorte Vesterager Kristensen, Hilde Eide
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare student nurses' communication self-efficacy, empathy, and mindfulness across two countries, and to analyse the relationship between these qualities. METHODS: The study had a cross-sectional design. Data was collected from final year student nurses in Norway and Sweden. Communication self-efficacy, empathy, and mindfulness were reported by questionnaires; Clear-cut communication with patients, Jefferson Scale of Empathy, and Langer 14 items mindfulness scale...
March 11, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342523/early-experience-with-a-modified-preloaded-system-for-fenestrated-endovascular-aortic-repair
#13
Blandine Maurel, Tim Resch, Rafaelle Spear, Blayne Roeder, Umberto M Bracale, Stephan Haulon, Tara M Mastracci
OBJECTIVE: Preloaded endovascular delivery systems expand the anatomic eligibility for complex aortic repair by requiring only one iliac access vessel and providing a stable platform for guiding sheaths into challenging target vessels. This article reports the lessons learned and early clinical outcomes using a modified preloaded delivery system for fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair (FEVAR) in three aortic centers in Europe. METHODS: From October 2015 to March 2016, consecutive patients presenting with extensive aortic aneurysm treated with a modified preloaded FEVAR were prospectively enrolled from three high volume European aortic centers...
April 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342339/a-novel-hybrid-strategy-for-pm2-5-concentration-analysis-and-prediction
#14
Ping Jiang, Qingli Dong, Peizhi Li
The analysis and prediction of air pollutants are of great significance in environmental research today since airborne pollution is a substantial threat, especially in urban agglomerations of China. To develop more effective warning systems and management advice, the authorities and city dwellers need more accurate forecasts of the air pollution. Most previous analysis systems were based on costly observation apparatus at fixed sites, forecasting models were usually built on observations within a certain range, and some observations contained biases...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342029/self-awareness-and-cultural-identity-as-an-effort-to-reduce-bias-in-medicine
#15
Augustus A White, Heather J Logghe, Dan A Goodenough, Linda L Barnes, Anne Hallward, Irving M Allen, David W Green, Edward Krupat, Roxana Llerena-Quinn
In response to persistently documented health disparities based on race and other demographic factors, medical schools have implemented "cultural competency" coursework. While many of these courses have focused on strategies for treating patients of different cultural backgrounds, very few have addressed the impact of the physician's own cultural background and offered methods to overcome his or her own unconscious biases. In hopes of training physicians to contextualize the impact of their own cultural background on their ability to provide optimal patient care, the authors created a 14-session course on culture, self-reflection, and medicine...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341723/supervisor-descriptions-of-veterinary-student-performance-in-the-clinical-workplace-a-qualitative-interview-study
#16
E J Norman
This qualitative study investigated the qualities of veterinary student performance that inform a supervisor's impression of their competency. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 15 supervisors from different veterinary subdisciplines, to elicit descriptions of excellent, weak and marginal students. Thematic analysis of transcriptions revealed 12 themes, of which engagement was frequently discussed and of stated importance, and trustworthiness was a differentiator of weak and marginal students from excellent students...
March 24, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341615/design-and-usability-of-a-heart-failure-mhealth-system-a-pilot-study
#17
Nagla Alnosayan, Samir Chatterjee, Ala Alluhaidan, Edward Lee, Linda Houston Feenstra
BACKGROUND: Despite the advances in mobile health (mHealth) systems, little is known about patients' and providers' experiences using a new mHealth system design. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to understand challenges and provide design considerations for a personalized mHealth system that could effectively support heart failure (HF) patients after they transition into the home environment. METHODS: Following exploratory interviews with nurses and preventive care physicians, an mHealth system was developed...
March 24, 2017: JMIR Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341268/social-is-special-a-normative-framework-for-teaching-with-and-learning-from-evaluative-feedback
#18
Mark K Ho, James MacGlashan, Michael L Littman, Fiery Cushman
Humans often attempt to influence one another's behavior using rewards and punishments. How does this work? Psychologists have often assumed that "evaluative feedback" influences behavior via standard learning mechanisms that learn from environmental contingencies. On this view, teaching with evaluative feedback involves leveraging learning systems designed to maximize an organism's positive outcomes. Yet, despite its parsimony, programs of research predicated on this assumption, such as ones in developmental psychology, animal behavior, and human-robot interaction, have had limited success...
March 21, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340955/a-practical-framework-toward-prediction-of-breaking-force-and-disintegration-of-tablet-formulations-using-machine-learning-tools
#19
Ilgaz Akseli, Jingjin Xie, Leon Schultz, Nadia Ladyzhynsky, Tommasina Bramante, Xiaorong He, Rich Deanne, Keith R Horspool, Robert Schwabe
Enabling the paradigm of quality by design requires the ability to quantitatively correlate material properties and process variables to measureable product performance attributes. Conventional, quality-by-test methods for determining tablet breaking force and disintegration time usually involve destructive tests, which consume significant amount of time and labor and provide limited information. Recent advances in material characterization, statistical analysis, and machine learning have provided multiple tools that have the potential to develop nondestructive, fast, and accurate approaches in drug product development...
January 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340482/the-effect-of-interprofessional-team-based-learning-among-nursing-students-a-quasi-experimental-study
#20
Arkers Kwan Ching Wong, Frances Kam Yuet Wong, Lap Ki Chan, Namkiu Chan, Fraide A Ganotice, Jacqueline Ho
BACKGROUND: Although interprofessional education has received attention in recent years as a means of providing opportunities for health-care professionals to learn with, from and about other disciplines and enhance the quality of patient care, evidence of its effectiveness is limited. Interprofessional team-based learning was introduced to make it possible for students in different healthcare disciplines to interact with each other, and to prepare them to function effectively within a team in their future career...
March 9, 2017: Nurse Education Today
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