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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167757/amino-acid-catabolism-directed-biofuel-production-in-clostridium-sticklandii-an-insight-into-model-driven-systems-engineering
#1
REVIEW
C Sangavai, P Chellapandi
Model-driven systems engineering has been more fascinating process for the microbial production of biofuel and bio-refineries in chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Genome-scale modeling and simulations have been guided for metabolic engineering of Clostridium species for the production of organic solvents and organic acids. Among them, Clostridium sticklandii is one of the potential organisms to be exploited as a microbial cell factory for biofuel production. It is a hyper-ammonia producing bacterium and is able to catabolize amino acids as important carbon and energy sources via Stickland reactions and the development of the specific pathways...
December 2017: Biotechnology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167491/use-of-cues-in-virtual-reality-depends-on-visual-feedback
#2
Jacqueline M Fulvio, Bas Rokers
3D motion perception is of central importance to daily life. However, when tested in laboratory settings, sensitivity to 3D motion signals is found to be poor, leading to the view that heuristics and prior assumptions are critical for 3D motion perception. Here we explore an alternative: sensitivity to 3D motion signals is context-dependent and must be learned based on explicit visual feedback in novel environments. The need for action-contingent visual feedback is well-established in the developmental literature...
November 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167023/underlying-mechanisms-of-mistreatment-in-the-surgical-learning-environment-a-thematic-analysis-of-medical-student-perceptions
#3
Elena Brandford, Brittany Hasty, Janine S Bruce, Sylvia Bereknyei Merrell, Edward S Shipper, Dana T Lin, James N Lau
BACKGROUND: Medical students experience more psychological distress than the general population. One contributing factor is mistreatment. This study aims to understand the mechanisms of mistreatment as perceived by medical students. METHODS: Students completed anonymous surveys during the first and last didactic session of their surgery clerkship in which they defined and gave examples of mistreatment. Team-based thematic analysis was performed on responses. RESULTS: Between January 2014 and June 2016, 240 students participated in the surgery clerkship...
November 7, 2017: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166902/a-national-stakeholder-consensus-study-of-challenges-and-priorities-for-clinical-learning-environments-in-postgraduate-medical-education
#4
Caroline Kilty, Anel Wiese, Colm Bergin, Patrick Flood, Na Fu, Mary Horgan, Agnes Higgins, Bridget Maher, Grainne O'Kane, Lucia Prihodova, Dubhfeasa Slattery, Slavi Stoyanov, Deirdre Bennett
BACKGROUND: High quality clinical learning environments (CLE) are critical to postgraduate medical education (PGME). The understaffed and overcrowded environments in which many residents work present a significant challenge to learning. The purpose of this study was to develop a national expert group consensus amongst stakeholders in PGME to; (i) identify important barriers and facilitators of learning in CLEs and (ii) indicate priority areas for improvement. Our objective was to provide information to focus efforts to provide high quality CLEs...
November 22, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164086/a-novel-missense-mutation-of-the-nsd1-gene-associated-with-overgrowth-in-three-generations-of-an-italian-family-case-report-differential-diagnosis-and-review-of-mutations-of-nsd1-gene-in-familial-sotos-syndrome
#5
Gianluigi Laccetta, Francesca Moscuzza, Angela Michelucci, Andrea Guzzetta, Sara Lunardi, Francesca Lorenzoni, Paolo Ghirri
Sotos syndrome (SoS) is characterized by overgrowth of prenatal onset, learning disability, and characteristic facial appearance; it is usually due to haploinsufficiency of NSD1 gene at chromosome 5q35. An Italian child was born at 37 weeks of gestation (weight 2,910 g, 25th-50th centiles; length 50 cm, 75th centile; head circumference 36 cm, 97th centile) showing cryptorchidism on the right side, hypertelorism, dolichocephaly, broad and prominent forehead, and narrow jaw; the pregnancy was worsened by maternal preeclampsia and gestational diabetes, and his mother had a previous history of four early miscarriages...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163726/beyond-equality-providing-equitable-care-for-persons-with-disabilities
#6
Scott Wakeham, Sally Heung, Janet Lee, Cheryl A Sadowski
Background: Almost 14% of Canadians have a disability, and older adults are most commonly affected. People living with disabilities have challenges accessing health care services, including medications and other services provided in pharmacies. Methods: A literature review was conducted regarding disability and pharmacy services. Resources regarding accessibility were also incorporated. Results: A number of organizations provide guidance on caring for those with disabilities...
July 2017: Canadian Pharmacists Journal: CPJ, Revue des Pharmaciens du Canada: RPC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163380/focused-review-cytotoxic-and-antioxidant-potentials-of-mangrove-derived-streptomyces
#7
REVIEW
Hooi-Leng Ser, Loh Teng-Hern Tan, Jodi Woan-Fei Law, Kok-Gan Chan, Acharaporn Duangjai, Surasak Saokaew, Priyia Pusparajah, Nurul-Syakima Ab Mutalib, Tahir Mehmood Khan, Bey-Hing Goh, Learn-Han Lee
Human life expectancy is rapidly increasing with an associated increasing burden of chronic diseases, such as neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. However, there is limited progress in finding effective treatment for these conditions. For this reason, members of the genus Streptomyces have been explored extensively over the past decades as these filamentous bacteria are highly efficient in producing bioactive compounds with human health benefits. Being ubiquitous in nature, streptomycetes can be found in both terrestrial and marine environments...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163113/changes-of-attention-during-value-based-reversal-learning-are-tracked-by-n2pc-and-feedback-related-negativity
#8
Mariann Oemisch, Marcus R Watson, Thilo Womelsdorf, Anna Schubö
Previously learned reward values can have a pronounced impact, behaviorally and neurophysiologically, on the allocation of selective attention. All else constant, stimuli previously associated with a high value gain stronger attentional prioritization than stimuli previously associated with a low value. The N2pc, an ERP component indicative of attentional target selection, has been shown to reflect aspects of this prioritization, by changes of mean amplitudes closely corresponding to selective enhancement of high value target processing and suppression of high value distractor processing...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163007/from-mice-to-mole-rats-species-specific-modulation-of-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#9
Maria K Oosthuizen
Rodent populations living in their natural environments have very diverse ecological and life history profiles that may differ substantially from that of conventional laboratory rodents. Free-living rodents show species-specific neurogenesis that are dependent on their unique biology and ecology. This perspective aims to illustrate the benefit of studying wild rodent species in conjunction with laboratory rodents. African mole-rats are discussed in terms of habitat complexity, social structures, and longevity...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161758/young-athletes-health-knowledge-system-qualitative-analysis-of-health-learning-processes-in-adolescent-sportspersons
#10
Laura I Rodríguez-Serrano, Toomas Timpka, Joakim Ekberg, Örjan Dahlström, Jenny Jacobsson
Recognized side effects on health associated with sports participation in youth include overtraining, doping, and exposure to harassment and violence. Many of these effects originate in contexts where young athletes are beginning to make decisions about their sports practices on their own. This study set out to explore knowledge and reasoning about health among adolescent athletes and to describe how health knowledge management structures are associated with different social systems. Qualitative data were collected from focus groups involving 65 young Swedish athletes aged 16 to 17 years...
November 21, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161681/revisiting-task-orientated-care-oral-histories-of-former-student-nurses-in-ireland-1960-2001
#11
Anne Fallon, Toni Uí Chiardha, Teresa Meaney, Deirdre van der Putten, Miriam Brennan, Jackie Uí Chionna, Stephen Bradley, Miriam McNicholas, Siobhan Smyth
The apprenticeship model of nurse training was in place in Ireland up to the end of the twentieth century. Task orientated care was a feature of this model. It is important to examine task allocation from the student's perspective, in light of current and on-going debates regarding student nurses' supernumerary status. Both approaches influence the status of the student; as a worker with task allocation and as a learner with supernumerary status. Oral history interviews were undertaken with twelve former student nurses (1960-2001) to explore their experiences of clinical learning and task allocation...
November 8, 2017: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159991/journey-to-the-centre-of-the-cell-virtual-reality-immersion-into-scientific-data
#12
REVIEW
Angus P R Johnston, James Rae, Nicholas Ariotti, Benjamin Bailey, Andrew Lija, Robyn Webb, Charles Ferguson, Sheryl Maher, Thomas P Davis, Richard I Webb, John McGhee, Robert G Parton
Visualization of scientific data is crucial not only for scientific discovery but also to communicate science and medicine to both experts and a general audience. Until recently, we have been limited to visualizing the three-dimensional (3D) world of biology in 2 dimensions. Renderings of 3D cells are still traditionally displayed using two-dimensional (2D) media, such as on a computer screen or paper. However, the advent of consumer grade virtual reality (VR) headsets such as Oculus Rift and HTC Vive means it is now possible to visualize and interact with scientific data in a 3D virtual world...
November 21, 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159933/dyspraxia-in-clinical-education-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Eleanor Walker, Sebastian Ck Shaw, Jim Price, Malcolm Reed, John Anderson
BACKGROUND: The stereotype of the student with dyspraxia as 'clumsy and disorganised' may cause clinical teachers to be concerned about the student's performance in a clinical environment; however, if it is understood that dyspraxic students possess many strengths, as well as weaknesses, it may be that some stereotypical myths will be dispelled and more effective support offered to them. This review considers research surrounding the experiences of students and health professionals with dyspraxia within higher education (HE), alongside the personal experiences of EW, in order to inform the development of clinical teachers with respect to their support for learners with dyspraxia...
November 21, 2017: Clinical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159842/struggle-and-failure-on-clinical-placement-a-critical-narrative-review
#14
REVIEW
Rachel Davenport, Sally Hewat, Alison Ferguson, Sue McAllister, Michelle Lincoln
BACKGROUND: Clinical placements are crucial to the development of skills and competencies in speech-language pathology (SLP) education and, more generally, a requirement of all health professional training programmes. Literature from medical education provides a context for understanding how the environment can be vital to all students' learning. Given the increasing costs of education and demands on health services, students who struggle or fail on clinical placement place an additional burden on educators...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159197/donepezil-enhances-understanding-of-degraded-speech-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Chris J D Hardy, Yun T Hwang, Rebecca L Bond, Charles R Marshall, Basil H Ridha, Sebastian J Crutch, Martin N Rossor, Jason D Warren
Auditory dysfunction under complex, dynamic listening conditions is a clinical hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) but challenging to measure and manage. Here, we assessed understanding of sinewave speech (a paradigm of degraded speech perception) and general cognitive abilities in 17 AD patients, before and following a 10 mg dose of donepezil. Relative to healthy older individuals, patients had impaired sinewave speech comprehension that was selectively ameliorated by donepezil. Our findings demonstrate impaired perception of degraded speech in AD but retained perceptual learning capacity that can be harnessed by acetylcholinesterase inhibition, with implications for designing communication interventions and acoustic environments in dementia...
November 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158399/nature-and-origins-of-the-lexicon-in-6-mo-olds
#16
Elika Bergelson, Richard N Aslin
Recent research reported the surprising finding that even 6-mo-olds understand common nouns [Bergelson E, Swingley D (2012) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109:3253-3258]. However, is their early lexicon structured and acquired like older learners? We test 6-mo-olds for a hallmark of the mature lexicon: cross-word relations. We also examine whether properties of the home environment that have been linked with lexical knowledge in older children are detectable in the initial stage of comprehension. We use a new dataset, which includes in-lab comprehension and home measures from the same infants...
November 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158109/outcome-modulation-across-tasks-in-the-primate-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex
#17
Encarni Marcos, Simon Nougaret, Satoshi Tsujimoto, Aldo Genovesio
Animals need to learn and to adapt to new and changing environments so that appropriate actions that lead to desirable outcomes are acquired within each context. The prefrontal cortex (PF) is known to underlie such function that directly implies that the outcome of each response must be represented in the brain for behavioral policies update. However, whether such PF signal is context dependent or it is a general representation beyond the specificity of a context is still unclear. Here, we analyzed the activity of neurons in the dorsolateral PF (PFdl) recorded while two monkeys performed two perceptual magnitude discrimination tasks...
November 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157420/learning-features-in-a-complex-and-changing-environment-a-distribution-based-framework-for-visual-attention-and-vision-in-general
#18
Andrey Chetverikov, Gianluca Campana, Árni Kristjánsson
What are the building blocks of our visual representations? Whatever we look at, the things we see will have some feature variability: even snow is not purely white but has a range of shades of white. However, in most studies investigating visual perception, homogeneous displays with all stimuli having a very limited range of features have been used. In contrast, recent studies using heterogeneous displays have shown that our perceptual system encodes surprisingly detailed information about stimuli, representing parameters such as the mean, variance, and most importantly the probability density functions of feature distributions...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157229/computer-model-for-the-cardiovascular-system-development-of-an-e-learning-tool-for-teaching-of-medical-students
#19
David Roy Warriner, Martin Bayley, Yubing Shi, Patricia Victoria Lawford, Andrew Narracott, John Fenner
BACKGROUND: This study combined themes in cardiovascular modelling, clinical cardiology and e-learning to create an on-line environment that would assist undergraduate medical students in understanding key physiological and pathophysiological processes in the cardiovascular system. METHODS: An interactive on-line environment was developed incorporating a lumped-parameter mathematical model of the human cardiovascular system. The model outputs were used to characterise the progression of key disease processes and allowed students to classify disease severity with the aim of improving their understanding of abnormal physiology in a clinical context...
November 21, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156276/formation-and-degradation-of-n-oxide-venlafaxine-during-ozonation-and-biological-post-treatment
#20
Ines Zucker, Hadas Mamane, Alon Riani, Igal Gozlan, Dror Avisar
While ozonation is considered an efficient treatment to eliminate trace organic compounds (TrOCs) from secondary wastewater effluents, the presence and persistence of transformation products (TPs) resulting from ozonation of TrOCs is a major concern that should be assessed prior to effluent discharge to the environment. Venlafaxine (VLX), an environmentally relevant tertiary amine-containing TrOC, was chosen as the model for this study. TP analysis confirmed that the lone electron pair of the non-protonated amine are the predominant site of oxidant attack, and therefore strongly affected by pH value and VLX speciation...
November 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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