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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792672/biosynthesis-of-lincosamide-antibiotics-reactions-associated-with-degradation-and-detoxification-pathways-play-a-constructive-role
#1
Daozhong Zhang, Zhijun Tang, Wen Liu
Natural products typically are small molecules produced by living organisms. These products possess a wide variety of biological activities and thus have historically played a critical role in medicinal chemistry and chemical biology either as chemotherapeutic agents or as useful tools. Natural products are not synthesized for use by human beings; rather, living organisms produce them in response to various biochemical processes and environmental concerns, both internal and external. These processes/concerns are often dynamic and thus motivate the diversification, optimization, and selection of small molecules in line with changes in biological function...
May 24, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792470/the-science-of-teamwork-progress-reflections-and-the-road-ahead
#2
Eduardo Salas, Denise L Reyes, Susan H McDaniel
We need teams in nearly every aspect of our lives (e.g., hospitals, schools, flight decks, nuclear power plants, oil rigs, the military, and corporate offices). Nearly a century of psychological science has uncovered extensive knowledge about team-related processes and outcomes. In this article, we draw from the reviews and articles of this special issue to identify 10 key reflections that have arisen in the team literature, briefly summarized here. Team researchers have developed many theories surrounding the multilayered aspects of teams, such that now we have a solid theoretical basis for teams...
May 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792464/debriefs-teams-learning-from-doing-in-context
#3
Joseph A Allen, Roni Reiter-Palmon, John Crowe, Cliff Scott
Debriefs are a type of work meeting in which teams discuss, interpret, and learn from recent events during which they collaborated. In a variety of forms, debriefs are found across a wide range of organizational types and settings. Well-conducted debriefs can improve team effectiveness by 25% across a variety of organizations and settings. For example, the U.S. military adopted debriefs decades ago to promote learning and performance across the various services. Subsequently, debriefs have been introduced in the medical field, the fire service, aviation, education, and in a variety of organizational training and simulation environments...
May 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792243/understanding-the-science-of-portion-control-and-the-art-of-downsizing
#4
Marion M Hetherington, Pam Blundell-Birtill, Samantha J Caton, Joanne E Cecil, Charlotte E Evans, Barbara J Rolls, Tang Tang
Offering large portions of high-energy-dense (HED) foods increases overall intake in children and adults. This is known as the portion size effect (PSE). It is robust, reliable and enduring. Over time, the PSE may facilitate overeating and ultimately positive energy balance. Therefore, it is important to understand what drives the PSE and what might be done to counter the effects of an environment promoting large portions, especially in children. Explanations for the PSE are many and diverse, ranging from consumer error in estimating portion size to simple heuristics such as cleaning the plate or eating in accordance with consumption norms...
May 24, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792100/difficult-debriefing-situations-a-toolbox-for-simulation-educators
#5
V J Grant, T Robinson, H Catena, W Eppich, A Cheng
BACKGROUND: Simulation-based education (SBE) has emerged as an essential modality for health professions education. One of the central tenants of effective SBE is reflective practice, typically guided by a facilitated debriefing. The debriefing conversation has the possibility of becoming a difficult conversation based on learner and situation-related factors. Difficult debriefing situations may threaten the learning environment, thus requiring an appreciation and understanding of the various ways that learners may react adversely to simulation and debriefing...
May 23, 2018: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791736/program-to-improve-private-early-education-pipe-a-case-study-of-a-systems-approach-for-scaling-quality-early-education-solutions
#6
Vikram Jain, Ahmed Irfan, Gauri Kirtane Vanikar
FSG is a mission-driven nonprofit organization supporting leaders in creating large-scale, lasting social change. A survey conducted by FSG in 2015 across 4407 low-income families in urban India showed that 95% of them send their children to preschools, a majority of choosing affordable private preschools (APSs), as parents perceive the quality of government schools to be poor. Parents use and value rote-based methods (e.g., reciting poems) to assess their children's learning in school; however, these methods fail to measure conceptual understanding...
May 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791734/implementing-aeiotu-quality-improvement-alongside-an-efficacy-study-learning-while-growing
#7
Milagros Nores, Alexandra Figueras-Daniel, Maria Adelaida Lopez, Raquel Bernal
Effectiveness trials of increasing childhood development interventions across low- and middle-income countries have shown significant variability. The strength and consistency of benefits for children are dependent on program quality, and this requires paying attention to program implementation. In this paper, we summarize findings on program quality and teacher practices and perceptions for the aeioTU program, a center-based Reggio-inspired program in Colombia, now serving more than 13,000 children. The research found engaged, committed staff who valued the emergent approach and understood the children as requiring opportunities to express themselves, being the source for the curriculum, and having relationships with the materials around them...
May 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790957/cultivating-collaborations-site-specific-design-for-embodied-science-learning
#8
Katherine Gill, Jocelyn Glazier, Betsy Towns
Immersion in well-designed outdoor environments can foster the habits of mind that enable critical and authentic scientific questions to take root in students' minds. Here we share two design cases in which careful, collaborative, and intentional design of outdoor learning environments for informal inquiry provide people of all ages with embodied opportunities to learn about the natural world, developing the capacity for understanding ecology and the ability to empathize, problem-solve and reflect. Embodied learning, as facilitated by and in well-designed outdoor learning environments, leads students to develop new ways of seeing, new scientific questions, new ways to connect with ideas, with others and new ways of thinking about the natural world...
May 21, 2018: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790930/a-machine-learning-recommender-system-to-tailor-preference-assessments-to-enhance-person-centered-care-among-nursing-home-residents
#9
Gerald C Gannod, Katherine M Abbott, Kimberly Van Haitsma, Nathan Martindale, Alexandra Heppner
Background and Objectives: Nursing homes (NHs) using the Preferences for Everyday Living Inventory (PELI-NH) to assess important preferences and provide person-centered care find the number of items (72) to be a barrier to using the assessment. Research Design and Methods: Using a sample of n = 255 NH resident responses to the PELI-NH, we used the 16 preference items from the MDS 3.0 Section F to develop a machine learning recommender system to identify additional PELI-NH items that may be important to specific residents...
May 21, 2018: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790411/genetic-and-environmental-influences-on-achievement-outcomes-based-on-family-history-of-learning-disabilities-status
#10
Florina Erbeli, Sara A Hart, Jeanette Taylor
A risk to develop a learning disability has been shown to run in families. Having a positive family history of learning disability seems to account for mean differences in achievement outcomes (reading, math) in that children with a positive family history score significantly lower compared to their peers with no such family history. However, the role of family history status in explaining etiological (genetic and environmental) differences among these subgroups of children has yet to be established. The present study of 872 twins ( Mage = 13...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789932/the-cognitive-nuances-of-surprising-events-exposure-to-unexpected-stimuli-elicits-firing-variations-in-neurons-of-the-dorsal-ca1-hippocampus
#11
Ornella Valenti, Nace Mikus, Thomas Klausberger
The ability to recognize novel situations is among the most fascinating and vital of the brain functions. A hypothesis posits that encoding of novelty is prompted by failures in expectancy, according to computation matching incoming information with stored events. Thus, unexpected changes in context are detected within the hippocampus and transferred to downstream structures, eliciting the arousal of the dopamine system. Nevertheless, the precise locus of detection is a matter of debate. The dorsal CA1 hippocampus (dCA1) appears as an ideal candidate for operating a mismatch computation and discriminating the occurrence of diverse stimuli within the same environment...
May 22, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789099/building-capacity-for-change-evaluation-of-an-organisation-wide-leadership-development-program
#12
Tim Schultz, Jodie Shoobridge, Gill Harvey, Libby Carter, Alison Kitson
Objective. This study evaluated Leading 4 Change, a change leadership development program designed to support healthcare middle managers through a period of significant organisational change and enhance workplace resilience. Methods. A mixed methods evaluation was conducted within the program's framework of a quality improvement activity. Quantitative measures were participant responses (n=160) to online questionnaires, which were compared before and after the program, using an uncontrolled pre-post study design...
May 23, 2018: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787486/a-random-dot-computer-video-game-improves-stereopsis
#13
Juan A Portela-Camino, Santiago Martín-González, Javier Ruiz-Alcocer, Igor Illarramendi-Mendicute, Rafaela Garrido-Mercado
SIGNIFICANCE: Currently, treatments for amblyopia are occlusion or penalization of the stronger fellow eye. Fewer than 30% of patients improve stereoacuity using these treatments. In order to improve these outcomes, this group proposes a treatment to stimulate the stereoacuity through perceptual learning in a game format for use at home. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine whether perceptual learning with random dot stimuli (RDS) in the form of a computer video game improves stereopsis in patients with a history of amblyopia...
May 21, 2018: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787458/peer-teaching-in-high-fidelity-simulation-participant-experiences-and-reflections
#14
Kay Lawrence, DeAnne K Hilfinger Messias, Robin Dawson Estrada, Vicki Long
Peer teaching provides students with opportunities to experience the educator role and increase self-confidence and problem-solving skills. To address the shortage of meaningful leadership experiences for senior baccalaureate nursing students, faculty implemented an alternative leadership experience involving senior students taking on the role of peer teachers in the high-fidelity simulation (HFS) laboratory. We conducted focus groups to assess peer teachers and learners' experiences and used thematic analysis to examine and interpret the data...
May 9, 2018: Nurse Educator
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786958/variability-in-student-perceptions-of-mistreatment
#15
Samantha Ellis, Joel Purkiss, Emily Abdoler, Amanda Opaskar, Rajesh S Mangrulkar, Joseph C Kolars, Sally A Santen
BACKGROUND: As medical schools strive to improve the learning environment, it is important to understand medical students' perceptions of mistreatment. The purpose of this study was to explore student interpretations of previously reported mistreatment incidents to better understand how they conceptualise the interactions. METHODS: Medical students were presented with case scenarios of previously reported instances of mistreatment and asked to indicate their agreement as to whether the scenarios demonstrated mistreatment, using a five-point Likert scale (1, strongly disagree; 5, strongly agree)...
May 22, 2018: Clinical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785844/regularity-extraction-across-species-associative-learning-mechanisms-shared-by-human-and-non-human-primates
#16
Arnaud Rey, Laure Minier, Raphaëlle Malassis, Louisa Bogaerts, Joël Fagot
Extracting the regularities of our environment is a core cognitive ability in human and non-human primates. Comparative studies may provide information of strong heuristic value to constrain the elaboration of computational models of regularity learning. This study illustrates this point by testing human and non-human primates (Guinea baboons, Papio papio) with the same experimental paradigm, using a novel online learning measure. For local co-occurrence regularities, we found similar patterns of regularity extraction in baboons and humans...
May 21, 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785283/reporting-and-appraising-the-context-process-and-impact-of-ppi-on-contributors-researchers-and-the-trial-during-a-randomised-controlled-trial-the-3d-study
#17
Cindy Mann, Simon Chilcott, Katrina Plumb, Edmund Brooks, Mei-See Man
Plain English summary: Including patient and public involvement (PPI) in health research is thought to improve research but it is hard to be clear exactly how it helps. This is because PPI takes many forms, is sometimes only token and is not always reported clearly. This makes it difficult to combine the evidence so that clear conclusions can be reached about the ingredients of successful PPI and what PPI achieves. Previous research that has tried to combine the evidence has led to several guidelines for researchers to use in setting up and reporting PPI...
2018: Research Involvement and Engagement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784550/school-environmental-conditions-and-links-to-academic-performance-and-absenteeism-in-urban-mid-atlantic-public-schools
#18
J D Berman, M C McCormack, K A Koehler, F Connolly, D Clemons-Erby, M F Davis, C Gummerson, P J Leaf, T D Jones, F C Curriero
School facility conditions, environment, and perceptions of safety and learning have been investigated for their impact on child development. However, it is important to consider how the environment separately influences academic performance and attendance after controlling for school and community factors. Using results from the Maryland School Assessment, we considered outcomes of school-level proficiency in reading and math plus attendance and chronic absences, defined as missing 20 or more days, for grades 3-5 and 6-8 at 158 urban schools...
May 2, 2018: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784543/environmental-enrichment-affects-the-ontogeny-of-learning-memory-and-depth-perception-of-the-pharaoh-cuttlefish-sepia-pharaonis
#19
Haruhiko Yasumuro, Yuzuru Ikeda
We investigated the effects of environmental enrichment on the cognitive abilities of pharaoh cuttlefish, Sepia pharaonis, which were reared from day seven in four different environments: isolated, poor, standard, and enriched. First, we used "prawn-in-the-tube" to test whether environmental enrichment affects the ontogeny of learning and memory of S. pharaonis. The results showed that cuttlefish could usually learn the task regardless of their age and environment. At early age (74 - 81 d), cuttlefish from the isolated environment memorized the task for 24h...
May 5, 2018: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784007/reporting-to-parents-on-children-s-exposures-to-asthma-triggers-in-low-income-and-public-housing-an-interview-based-case-study-of-ethics-environmental-literacy-individual-action-and-public-health-benefits
#20
Laura J Perovich, Jennifer Liss Ohayon, Elicia Mayuri Cousins, Rachel Morello-Frosch, Phil Brown, Gary Adamkiewicz, Julia Green Brody
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence about the effects of endocrine disruptors on asthma symptoms suggests new opportunities to reduce asthma by changing personal environments. Right-to-know ethics supports returning personal results for these chemicals to participants, so they can make decisions to reduce exposures. Yet researchers and institutional review boards have been reluctant to approve results reports in low-income communities, which are disproportionately affected by asthma. Concerns include limited literacy, lack of resources to reduce exposures, co-occurring stressors, and lack of models for effective reporting...
May 21, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
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