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Early Childhood Education

Michael T Willoughby, Benjamin Piper, Dunston Kwayumba, Megan McCune
Interest in measuring executive function skills in young children in low- and middle-income country contexts has been stymied by the lack of assessments that are both easy to deploy and scalable. This study reports on an initial effort to develop a tablet-based battery of executive function tasks, which were designed and extensively studied in the United States, for use in Kenya. Participants were 193 children, aged 3-6 years old, who attended early childhood development and education centers. The rates of individual task completion were high (65-100%), and 85% of children completed three or more tasks...
June 17, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
Lorraine M McKelvey, Nicola Conners Edge, Glenn R Mesman, Leanne Whiteside-Mansell, Robert H Bradley
Findings from the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) study articulated the negative effects of childhood trauma on long-term well-being. The purpose of the current study is to examine the associations between ACEs experienced in infancy and toddlerhood and adaptive behavior and academic status in middle childhood. We used data collected from a sample of low-income families during the impacts study of Early Head Start (EHS). Data were collected by trained interviewers demonstrating at least 85% reliability with protocols...
June 13, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Can Hüseyin Hekimoğlu, Özgen Alpay Özbek, Mestan Emek, Mehmet Ali Öktem, Galip Köroğlu, Mustafa Sertel, Sevin Özdeniz, Ali Ceylan, Ayla Açikgöz, Belgin Ünal
Background: In Turkey, varicella vaccine was introduced into routine childhood immunization in 2013, with a single dose administered to children aged 12 months. However, there is limited information on the morbidity (incidence and seroprevalence), mortality and burden of disease of varicella in the overall Turkish population. Aim: To determine varicella seroprevalence and its social determinants in Manisa Province, Turkey in children aged > 2 years before single-dose varicella vaccination was introduced in 2013...
June 10, 2018: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
Christopher Mark Davis
Russia has had a high elderly share of its population like the OECD countries, but has had a more turbulent history over the past 100 years, which has caused fluctuations in the capabilities of those turning 60 (measured by education and training, income, enabling environment, medical care, and health status). This article analyses the life experiences and capabilities of five Russian birth cohorts turning 60 over the period 1990-2020. It presents relevant concepts, reviews past research, and evaluates the importance of health factors (health environment, health-related behaviours, medical care, health status) in determining the activities and contributions of older people in Russia...
2018: Journal of Population Ageing
Visha Ramroop, Annie Kowlessar, Vidya Ramcharitar-Maharaj, Lerissa Morris, Rahul Naidu
OBJECTIVE: To determine paediatrician's knowledge and attitudes about oral health in Trinidad and Tobago. DESIGN AND METHOD: A pre-tested questionnaire was sent out via survey monkey to 70 out of 75 paediatricians registered with the Medical Board of Trinidad and for whom email addresses were available. Hard copies of the questionnaires were delivered to the paediatric departments of the Eric Williams Medical Sciences complex. Paediatricians that were unable to complete the questionnaire online were asked to complete hard copies...
June 12, 2018: International Dental Journal
Margherita Malanchini, Emily Smith-Woolley, Ziada Ayorech, Kaili Rimfeld, Eva Krapohl, Eero Vuoksimaa, Tellervo Korhonen, Meike Bartels, Toos C E M van Beijsterveldt, Richard J Rose, Sebastian Lundström, Henrik Anckarsäter, Jaakko Kaprio, Paul Lichtenstein, Dorret I Boomsma, Robert Plomin
BACKGROUND: Maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) has been linked to offspring's externalizing problems. It has been argued that socio-demographic factors (e.g. maternal age and education), co-occurring environmental risk factors, or pleiotropic genetic effects may account for the association between MSDP and later outcomes. This study provides a comprehensive investigation of the association between MSDP and a single harmonized component of externalizing: aggressive behaviour, measured throughout childhood and adolescence...
June 11, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Chun-Wen Lin
Guided by the general incentives rational action model and deliberative participatory democracy framework, we investigated whether deliberative beliefs, including normative and personal aspects, mediate the relationship between distributive, procedural, and interactive organizational justice and intention to participate in professional associations. Self-report measures of organizational justice, deliberative belief, and intention of participation were obtained from 789 early childhood educators in Taiwan. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the proposed model...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
Beatriz Carriconde Colvara, Daniel Demétrio Faustino-Silva, Elisabeth Meyer, Fernando Neves Hugo, Juliana Balbinot Hilgert, Roger Keller Celeste
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of motivational interviewing in preventing early childhood caries compared with conventional oral health education. STUDY DESIGN: Twelve health care units in southern Brazil were randomly allocated in 2 groups of 6 and professionals in 1 group were trained in motivational interviewing. The mothers/children and external examiners were blinded to the intervention. The data were collected by calibrated examiners using questionnaires and a clinical examination based on modified International Caries Detection and Assessment System criteria...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Tanja Linnavalli, Vesa Putkinen, Jari Lipsanen, Minna Huotilainen, Mari Tervaniemi
Several studies have suggested that intensive musical training enhances children's linguistic skills. Such training, however, is not available to all children. We studied in a community setting whether a low-cost, weekly music playschool provided to 5-6-year-old children in kindergartens could already affect their linguistic abilities. Children (N = 66) were tested four times over two school-years with Phoneme processing and Vocabulary subtests, along with tests for Perceptual reasoning skills and Inhibitory control...
June 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Rachel E Lean, Cynthia E Rogers, Rachel A Paul, Emily D Gerstein
Purpose of review: Parents of infants admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) experience psychological distress, loss of the parenting role, and disruptions to parent-infant bonding. The inclusion of evidence-based practices to address these challenges in the NICU has largely been based upon short-term improvements in parent and infant functioning. However, less is known regarding the extent to which family-based interventions may also be associated with longer-term parenting behaviors and children's neurobehavioral outcomes...
March 2018: Current Treatment Options in Pediatrics
Sarah Warkentin, Laís Amaral Mais, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira Latorre, Susan Carnell, José Augusto de Aguiar CarrazedoTaddei
BACKGROUND: Eating habits formed in early childhood are influenced by parental feeding behaviors, warranting investigation of predictors and correlates of parent feeding. We aimed to describe relationships between parental feeding practices and parent and child characteristics in a sample of Brazilian preschoolers. METHODS: Four hundred and two parents of preschoolers enrolled in private schools of São Paulo and Campinas, Brazil, completed a Brazilian version of the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire, as well as questions about parental attitudes, child food intake, other obesity-associated behaviors, and socioeconomic and demographic characteristics...
June 7, 2018: BMC Public Health
April B Scott, Rebecca G Reed, Natasha E Garcia-Willingham, Karen A Lawrence, Suzanne C Segerstrom
Objectives: Early socioeconomic status (SES) correlates with later-life cognition. However, the effect of socioeconomic context (SEC), which reflects influences from broader ecological contexts, has not been examined. The present study developed a measure of SEC using lifetime residential addresses and examined SEC and residential mobility effects on later-life cognition. Method: Older adults (N=117, Mage=75) reported addresses since birth. Latent SEC was constructed from census income, employment, and education (1920-2010) for each county and census year, extrapolated between census years...
June 6, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
Eun Kyoung Yun, Hanna Lee, Ji Uhn Lee, Jun Hee Park, Young Min Noh, Yu Gil Song, Jung Hwa Park
BACKGROUND: Mental and physical development during adolescence is a factor that may affect quality of life in adulthood. PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to investigate the developmental trajectories of body mass index (BMI), self-esteem, and adjustment among students from early to late adolescence and to examine the longitudinal relationships among these variables. METHODS: Data from 2006 to 2012 were collected from the Korean Welfare Panel Study...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Nursing Research: JNR
Victoria P Niederhauser, Lisa C Lindley, Brittany Farabollini
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to explore if parental barriers to childhood immunizations change over time. DESIGN AND SAMPLE: Using secondary data, a pretest post-test design was employed to measure changes in parental barriers to childhood immunizations in the first 7 months of life. Thirty-nine parent/infant dyads were included in this study. MEASURES: The Searching for Hardship and Obstacles to Shots (SHOTS) Survey was completed by a parent when their infant was between one and 28 days old (prior to their first immunizations) and again when the child was 6-7 months of age...
June 7, 2018: Public Health Nursing
Ville Rantalainen, Jari Lahti, Markus Henriksson, Eero Kajantie, Johan G Eriksson, Katri Räikkönen
OBJECTIVE: To test if the Finnish Defence Forces Basic Intellectual Ability Test scores at 20.1 years predicted risk of organic dementia or Alzheimer disease (AD). METHODS: Dementia was defined as inpatient or outpatient diagnosis of organic dementia or AD risk derived from Hospital Discharge or Causes of Death Registers in 2,785 men from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, divided based on age at first diagnosis into early onset (<65 years) or late onset (≥65 years)...
June 6, 2018: Neurology
German Tapia, Ketil Størdal, Karl Mårild, Christian R Kahrs, Torild Skrivarhaug, Pål R Njølstad, Geir Joner, Lars C Stene
Background: Infections in early life have been linked to type 1 diabetes (T1D) risk, but no previous study has comprehensively analysed exposure to antibiotics, acetaminophen and infections during pregnancy and early childhood in relation to offspring risk of T1D. Methods: Participants in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (n = 114 215 children, of whom 403 children were diagnosed with T1D) reported infections and medication use through repeated questionnaires from pregnancy until the children were 18 months old...
June 1, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Nikolaos Tsigilis, Athanasios Gregoriadis, Vasilis Grammatikopoulos, Evridiki Zachopoulou
Teacher-child relationships in early childhood are a fundamental prerequisite for children's social, emotional, and academic development. The Student-Teacher Relationship Scale (STRS) is one of the most widely accepted and used instruments that evaluate the quality of teacher-child relationships. STRS is a 28-item questionnaire that assess three relational dimensions, Closeness, Conflict, and Dependency. The relevant literature has shown a pattern regarding the difficulty to support the STRS factor structure with CFA, while it is well-documented with EFA...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Gabrielle Garon-Carrier, Michel Boivin, Jean-Pascal Lemelin, Yulia Kovas, Sophie Parent, Jean R Séguin, Frank Vitaro, Richard E Tremblay, Ginette Dionne
Little is known about the development of number knowledge (NK) and the antecedents of low-persistent NK profiles in early childhood. We documented the developmental trajectories of NK across the transition from preschool to elementary school, their predictive validity with respect to later math achievement, and the child and family early-life factors associated with low NK profiles. Children's NK was assessed four times at regular intervals between the ages 4 and 7 years in a large, representative population-based sample...
June 2018: Journal of School Psychology
Stephanie D'Souza, Karen E Waldie, Elizabeth R Peterson, Lisa Underwood, Susan M B Morton
Behavioural difficulties during early childhood have significant implications for multiple outcomes later in life. Child behavioural difficulties at 2 years of age (N = 6246) were assessed by mothers enrolled in a longitudinal, population-based New Zealand cohort study. 10.1% of children had total difficulties scores in the abnormal range on the preschool version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. After controlling for maternal education, poverty, and child's birth age/weight, several antenatal and postnatal maternal health and family risk factors were significant for: (i) emotional problems (antenatal maternal perceived stress, lack of periconceptional folate, and moderate to severe maternal postnatal anxiety); (ii) hyperactivity-inattention (antenatal maternal perceived stress, mothers' antenatal exposure to secondhand smoke, moderate to severe maternal postnatal anxiety, and low maternal self-evaluation); (iii) conduct problems and total difficulties (antenatal maternal perceived stress, verbal inter-parental conflict and low maternal self-evaluation)...
June 2, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Tuhinur Rahman Chowdhury, Sayan Chakrabarty, Muntaha Rakib, Sue Saltmarsh, Kendrick A Davis
BACKGROUND: Underweight is a major cause of global disease burden. It is associated with child mortality and morbidity, and its adverse impact on human performance and child survival is well recognized. Underweight is a major public health problem in Bangladesh, which is amongst the highest underweight prevalent countries in the world. The objectives of our study were to determine the national and regional prevalence rates of underweight and severe underweight in Bangladesh, and to investigate the association of socioeconomic and demographic factors with child underweight and severely underweight among children under the age of five living in Bangladesh...
May 30, 2018: Globalization and Health
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