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Yeast Infection

Miguel A Arroyo, Bryan H Schmitt, Thomas E Davis, Ryan F Relich
Mucormycosis fungemia is rarely documented since blood cultures are nearly always negative. We describe a case of Mucor circinelloides fungemia in a patient with a history of a sinus infection, sarcoidosis, and IgG deficiency. The identity of the isolate was supported by its microscopic morphology and its ability to convert into yeast forms under anaerobic conditions. The early detection, initiation of liposomal amphotericin B treatment, and reversal of underlying predisposing risk factors resulted in a good outcome...
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Silke Schelenz, Ferry Hagen, Johanna L Rhodes, Alireza Abdolrasouli, Anuradha Chowdhary, Anne Hall, Lisa Ryan, Joanne Shackleton, Richard Trimlett, Jacques F Meis, Darius Armstrong-James, Matthew C Fisher
BACKGROUND: Candida auris is a globally emerging multidrug resistant fungal pathogen causing nosocomial transmission. We report an ongoing outbreak of C. auris in a London cardio-thoracic center between April 2015 and July 2016. This is the first report of C. auris in Europe and the largest outbreak so far. We describe the identification, investigation and implementation of control measures. METHODS: Data on C. auris case demographics, environmental screening, implementation of infection prevention/control measures, and antifungal susceptibility of patient isolates were prospectively recorded then analysed retrospectively...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
José A L Fernandes, Tâmara H R Prandini, Maria da Conceiçao A Castro, Thales D Arantes, Juliana Giacobino, Eduardo Bagagli, Raquel C Theodoro
Inteins are invasive intervening sequences that perform an autocatalytic splicing from their host proteins. Among eukaryotes, these elements are present in many fungal species, including those considered opportunistic or primary pathogens, such as Candida spp. Here we reviewed and updated the list of Candida species containing inteins in the genes VMA, THRRS and GLT1 and pointed out the importance of these elements as molecular markers for molecular epidemiological researches and species-specific diagnosis, since the presence, as well as the size of these inteins, is polymorphic among the different species...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Thiago Aparecido da Silva, Maria Cristina Roque-Barreira, Arturo Casadevall, Fausto Almeida
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by eukaryotes, archaea, and bacteria contain proteins, lipids, polysaccharides, and other molecules. The cargo analysis of EVs shows that they contain virulence factors suggesting a role in the pathogenesis of infection. The proteome, lipidome, RNA content, and carbohydrate composition of EVs from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii were characterized. However, the effects of P. brasiliensis EVs on the host immune system have not yet been investigated...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Roberta Iatta, Maria Rita Puttilli, Davide Immediato, Domenico Otranto, Claudia Cafarchia
This study aims to evaluate the effect of efflux pump modulators (EPMs) on the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of fluconazole (FLZ) and voriconazole (VOR) in Malassezia furfur and Malassezia pachydermatis. The in vitro efficacy of azoles, in combination with EPMs (ie haloperidol-HAL, promethazine-PTZ and cyclosporine A-CYS), against 21 M. furfur from bloodstream infection patients and 14 M. pachydermatis from the skin of dogs with dermatitis, was assessed using a broth microdilution chequerboard analysis...
October 24, 2016: Mycoses
François Vromman, Stéphanie Perrinet, Lena Gehre, Agathe Subtil
Chlamydiae are Gram negative bacteria that develop exclusively inside eukaryotic host cells, within a membrane-bounded compartment. Members of the family Chlamydiaceae, such as Chlamydia trachomatis, are pathogenic species infecting vertebrates. They have a very reduced genome and exploit the capacities of their host for their own development, mainly through the secretion of proteins tailored to interfere with eukaryotic processes, called effector proteins. All Chlamydiaceae possess genes coding for four to five effectors that share a domain of unknown function (DUF582)...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Piotr Kurnatowski, Anna Wójcik, Joanna Błaszkowska, Katarzyna Góralska
The pathogenicity of fungi depends on, inter alia, the secretion of hydrolytic enzymes. The aim of this study was to determine the enzymatic activity of yeasts and yeast-like fungi isolated from children’s recreation areas, and compare the results with literature data of strains obtained from patients with mycoses. The enzymatic activity of 96 strains was assessed using an API ZYM kit (bioMerieux, France) and their biotypes were established. The fungal species were found to produce from 16 to 19 hydrolases: the most active were: leucine arylamidase (e5), acid phosphatase (e10), alkaline phosphatase (e1), naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase (e11), esterase – C4 (e2), β-galac - tosidase (e13) and β-glucosidase (e16)...
October 1, 2016: Annals of Parasitology
Samantha Y L Ang, Victor W L Ng, Shree Dinesh Kumar, Sharon Y Y Low
Cryptococcosis is a fungal infection caused by Cryptococcus spp. that enters the body via inhalation. This ubiquitous yeast has gained notoriety as an opportunistic pathogen in the immunosuppressed population. The authors report a case of a previously-well adult male presented with left-sided weakness. Imaging demonstrated a pulmonary mass and 2 contrast-enhancing intracranial lesions-all features suggestive of a primary lung carcinoma with brain metastases. However, further investigations confirmed disseminated cryptococcosis, without evidence of malignancy...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Ludovic Enkler, Delphine Richer, Anthony L Marchand, Dominique Ferrandon, Fabrice Jossinet
Among Candida species, the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida glabrata has become the second most common causative agent of candidiasis in the world and a major public health concern. Yet, few molecular tools and resources are available to explore the biology of C. glabrata and to better understand its virulence during infection. In this study, we describe a robust experimental strategy to generate loss-of-function mutants in C. glabrata. The procedure is based on the development of three main tools: (i) a recombinant strain of C...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
J M Koshy, S Mohan, D Deodhar, M John, A Oberoi, A Pannu
BACKGROUND: Though cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is recognized as a disease of the immunocompromised, studies have implicated that it also affect immunocompetent patients. METHODOLOGY: This was a cross sectional study conducted in the Department of Medicine of a tertiary teaching institution in North India. All the patients diagnosed with CM on the basis of detection of cryptococcal antigen or the presence of capsulated budding yeast cells on India ink preparation, from April 2009 to March2015 were included in the study...
October 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Melanie Ott, Débora Marques, Christina Funk, Susanne M Bailer
BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1), a member of the alphaherpesvirinae, can cause recurrent facial lesions and encephalitis. Two membrane envelopment processes, one at the inner nuclear membrane and a second at cytoplasmic membranes are crucial for a productive viral infection. Depending on the subfamily, herpesviruses encode more than 11 different transmembrane proteins including members of the tail-anchored protein family. HSV1 encodes three tail-anchored proteins pUL34, pUL56 and pUS9 characterized by a single hydrophobic region positioned at their C-terminal end that needs to be released from the ribosome prior to posttranslational membrane insertion...
October 20, 2016: Virology Journal
Mojgan Aminnejad, Massimo Cogliati, Shuyao Duan, Michael Arabatzis, Kathrin Tintelnot, Elizabeth Castañeda, Marcia Lazéra, Aristea Velegraki, David Ellis, Tania C Sorrell, Wieland Meyer
Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii are pathogenic basidiomycetous yeasts and the commonest cause of fungal infection of the central nervous system. Cryptococci are typically haploid but several inter-species, inter-varietal and intra-varietal hybrids have been reported. It has a bipolar mating system with sexual reproduction occurring normally between two individuals with opposite mating types, α and a. This study set out to characterize hybrid isolates within the C. neoformans/C. gattii species complex: seven unisexual mating intra-varietal VNI/VNII (αAAα) and six novel inter-varietal VNII/VNIV (aADα)...
2016: PloS One
Joaquim Suñer-Carbó, Antonio Boix-Montañés, Lyda Halbaut-Bellowa, Nelvis Velázquez-Carralero, Joanna Zamarbide-Ledesma, Nuria Bozal-de-Febrer, Ana Cristina Calpena-Campmany
Local delivery of imidazolic antifungals is limited by its extreme lipophilicity. Multiple emulsions (ME) are a potential vehicle to enhance the delivery of econazole nitrate (ECN), an antifungal targeted to deep-seated epidermal yeast infections. An 1% ECN hydrophilic ME was compared with a commercial formulation in terms of rheology, droplet size and in vitro antifungal activity against Candida species. Comparative in vitro drug release, human skin permeation and drug retention were investigated using vertical diffusion cells...
October 20, 2016: Mycoses
Jihee Yoon, Ho-Seong Cho, Chul Park, Byoung-Yong Park, Yang-Hoon Kim, Jiho Min
Yeast vacuoles, lysosomes, are cell organelles that have antimicrobial activity against several bacteria in vitro. Lysosomes have a potential application to the treatment of pathogens such as antibiotics in vivo. Therefore, the in vivo efficacy of lysosomes was examined in a rat infection model against pathogenic Escherichia coli with varying susceptibilities to standard antimicrobial agents. Before in vivo testing, the concentration-dependent safety of lysosomes was confirmed by blood test and histopathology of normal rats...
October 18, 2016: Current Microbiology
Young Hee Joung, Se Hee Park, Ki-Beom Moon, Jae-Heung Jeon, Hye-Sun Cho, Hyun-Soon Kim
Disease prevention through vaccination is considered to be the greatest contribution to public health over the past century. Every year more than 100 million children are vaccinated with the standard World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended vaccines including hepatitis B (HepB). HepB is the most serious type of liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV), however, it can be prevented by currently available recombinant vaccine, which has an excellent record of safety and effectiveness. To date, recombinant vaccines are produced in many systems of bacteria, yeast, insect, and mammalian and plant cells...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yi-Chia Su, Chih-Chien Wu
A 54-year-old woman presented at the emergency department after experiencing lower limb weakness and bilateral ankle pain for 2 days. She had a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, diabetes mellitus nephropathy with chronic kidney disease, and chronic gouty arthritis. She had received 0.6 mg colchicine orally once or twice daily for 8 months. Four days prior to her emergency department visit, she was discharged from our nephrology ward, where she had been admitted because of a urinary tract infection. During hospitalization, she was treated with intravenous cefazolin for 7 days...
December 2015: Drug Saf Case Rep
Makoto Nakao, Hideki Muramatsu, Tetsushi Takahashi, Shunsuke Niwa, Yusuke Kagawa, Ryota Kurokawa, Kazuki Sone, Yuki Uozumi, Misako Ohkusu, Katsuhiko Kamei, Hiroshi Koga
A 39-year-old man presented to our hospital with a four-week history of headache and a two-week history of low-grade fever. Chest X-rays showed a tumor of approximately 50 mm in size in the right lower field. A histopathological examination of a transbronchial lung biopsy specimen from the right S9/10 revealed numerous fungal elements that appeared as encapsulated yeast with clear halos. Gadolinium-enhanced brain magnetic resonance images showed multiple cerebral nodules. Cryptococcus gattii (Genotype VGIIa) was isolated from the bronchial lavage and cerebrospinal fluid specimens...
2016: Internal Medicine
Elena M Marín Martínez, Ana Isabel Aller García, Estrella Martín-Mazuelos
BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal infection (IFI) has increased in recent years due to there being a greater number of risk factors. IFI caused by Candida is the most frequent, and although Candida albicans is the most isolated species, there is currently a decrease of C. albicans and an increase of other species of the genus. AIMS: To analyse the epidemiology, risk factors, and antifungal susceptibility of blood culture isolates of non-C.albicans Candida species in our hospital in the last 12years...
October 13, 2016: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
Thierry Kammalac Ngouana, Pascal Drakulovski, Donika Krasteva, Rufin Kuipou Toghueo, Charles Kouanfack, Jacques Reynes, Eric Delaporte, Fabrice Fekam Boyom, Michèle Mallié, Sébastien Bertout
The molecular epidemiology and the antifungal susceptibility profiles of Candida albicans are scarce in Cameroon. Authors studied the genetic diversity and the antifungal susceptibility of C. albicans isolates from Yaoundé HIV-infected patients. Clinical isolates were obtained by mycological diagnosis of oropharyngeal swabs, stools, urine, and vaginal swabs from patients. C. albicans isolates were confirmed by the Light cycler real-time PCR of the ITS1 region of the 5.8s ribosomal DNA. The ABC genotypes and the Hwp1 gene amplification were carried out with specific primers...
October 14, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Akihiko Komuro, Yuya Homma, Takaharu Negoro, Glen N Barber, Curt M Horvath
LGP2 and MDA5 cooperate to detect viral RNA in the cytoplasm of Picornavirus-infected cells and activate innate immune responses. To further define regulatory components of RNA recognition by LGP2/MDA5, a yeast two-hybrid screen was used to identify LGP2-interacting proteins. The screening has identified the TAR-RNA binding protein (TRBP), which is known to be an essential factor for RNA interference (RNAi). Immuno-precipitation experiments demonstrated that TRBP interacted specifically with LGP2 but not with related RIG-I-like receptors, RIG-I or MDA5...
October 12, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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