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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780375/effect-of-artinm-on-human-blood-cells-during-infection-with-paracoccidioides-brasiliensis
#1
Luciana P Ruas, Livia M Genaro, Amauri S Justo-Junior, Lilian O Coser, Lívia F de Castro, Plinio Trabasso, Ronei L Mamoni, Maria-Cristina Roque-Barreira, Maria-Heloisa S L Blotta
Infections caused by fungi are prominent in our environment and can be potentially fatal. paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), caused by fungi of the Paracoccidioides genus, is the most frequent systemic mycosis in Brazil and the main cause of death among immunocompetent individuals. The antifungal therapy for PCM is usually effective but side effects and relapses are often reported. The latter could be avoided with alternative or complementary therapies aimed at boosting the immune response to combat this pathogen...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778961/uva-induced-antimicrobial-activity-of-zno-ag-nanocomposite-covered-surfaces
#2
Meeri Visnapuu, Merilin Rosenberg, Egle Truska, Ergo Nõmmiste, Andris Šutka, Anne Kahru, Mihkel Rähn, Heiki Vija, Kaja Orupõld, Vambola Kisand, Angela Ivask
Application of efficient antimicrobial surfaces has been estimated to decrease both, the healthcare-associated infections and the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. In this paper, we prepared ZnO and ZnO/Ag nanoparticle covered surfaces and evaluated their antimicrobial efficacy towards a Gram-negative bacterial model (Escherichia coli), a Gram-positive bacterial model (Staphylococcus aureus) and a fungal model (Candida albicans) in the dark and under UVA illumination. The surfaces were prepared by spin coating aliquots of ZnO and ZnO/Ag nanoparticle suspensions onto glass substrates...
May 4, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775480/titan-cells-formation-in-cryptococcus-neoformans-is-finely-tuned-by-environmental-conditions-and-modulated-by-positive-and-negative-genetic-regulators
#3
Benjamin Hommel, Liliane Mukaremera, Radames J B Cordero, Carolina Coelho, Christopher A Desjardins, Aude Sturny-Leclère, Guilhem Janbon, John R Perfect, James A Fraser, Arturo Casadevall, Christina A Cuomo, Françoise Dromer, Kirsten Nielsen, Alexandre Alanio
The pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans exhibits morphological changes in cell size during lung infection, producing both typical size 5 to 7 μm cells and large titan cells (> 10 μm and up to 100 μm). We found and optimized in vitro conditions that produce titan cells in order to identify the ancestry of titan cells, the environmental determinants, and the key gene regulators of titan cell formation. Titan cells generated in vitro harbor the main characteristics of titan cells produced in vivo including their large cell size (>10 μm), polyploidy with a single nucleus, large vacuole, dense capsule, and thick cell wall...
May 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775477/cryptococcus-neoformans-can-form-titan-like-cells-in-vitro-in-response-to-multiple-signals
#4
Nuria Trevijano-Contador, Haroldo Cesar de Oliveira, Rocío García-Rodas, Suélen Andreia Rossi, Irene Llorente, Ángel Zaballos, Guilhem Janbon, Joaquín Ariño, Óscar Zaragoza
Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated pathogenic yeast that can change the size of the cells during infection. In particular, this process can occur by enlarging the size of the capsule without modifying the size of the cell body, or by increasing the diameter of the cell body, which is normally accompanied by an increase of the capsule too. This last process leads to the formation of cells of an abnormal enlarged size denominated titan cells. Previous works characterized titan cell formation during pulmonary infection but research on this topic has been hampered due to the difficulty to obtain them in vitro...
May 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774605/mixed-infections-are-a-critical-factor-in-the-treatment-of-superficial-mycoses
#5
A Gawaz, G Weisel
BACKGROUND: Superficial fungal infections of the skin, nails and hair are common with Trichophyton rubrum and Candida albicans being the main pathogens. Yet, in some patients, mycological cultures show growth of more than one fungal agent in the same anatomical region. OBJECTIVE: This study analyses prevalence, frequency and fungal agents found in superficial fungal mixed infections and discusses consequences for diagnostics and treatment. METHODS: Mycological data obtained between January 2006 to December 2015 from clinical specimens from a total cohort of 7733 patients with suspected fungal infections were retrospectively analysed...
May 17, 2018: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772751/what-we-do-not-know-about-fungal-cell-adhesion-molecules
#6
REVIEW
Peter N Lipke
There has been extensive research on structure and function of fungal cell adhesion molecules, but the most of the work has been about adhesins in Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These yeasts are members of a single ascomycete order, and adhesion molecules from the six other fungal phyla are only sparsely described in the literature. In these other phyla, most of the research is at the cellular level, rather than at the molecular level, so there has been little characterization of the adhesion molecules themselves...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769603/components-of-a-new-gene-family-of-ferroxidases-involved-in-virulence-are-functionally-specialized-in-fungal-dimorphism
#7
María Isabel Navarro-Mendoza, Carlos Pérez-Arques, Laura Murcia, Pablo Martínez-García, Carlos Lax, Marta Sanchis, Javier Capilla, Francisco E Nicolás, Victoriano Garre
Mucormycosis is an emerging angio-invasive infection caused by Mucorales that presents unacceptable mortality rates. Iron uptake has been related to mucormycosis, since serum iron availability predisposes the host to suffer this infection. In addition, iron uptake has been described as a limiting factor that determines virulence in other fungal infections, becoming a promising field to study virulence in Mucorales. Here, we identified a gene family of three ferroxidases in Mucor circinelloides, fet3a, fet3b and fet3c, which are overexpressed during infection in a mouse model for mucormycosis, and their expression in vitro is regulated by the availability of iron in the culture media and the dimorphic state...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764947/biological-roles-played-by-sphingolipids-in-dimorphic-and-filamentous-fungi
#8
REVIEW
Caroline Mota Fernandes, Gustavo H Goldman, Maurizio Del Poeta
Filamentous and dimorphic fungi cause invasive mycoses associated with high mortality rates. Among the fungal determinants involved in the establishment of infection, glycosphingolipids (GSLs) have gained increased interest in the last few decades. GSLs are ubiquitous membrane components that have been isolated from both filamentous and dimorphic species and play a crucial role in polarized growth as well as hypha-to-yeast transition. In fungi, two major classes of GSLs are found: neutral and acidic GSLs. Neutral GSLs comprise glucosylceramide and galactosylceramide, which utilize Δ4-Δ8-9-methyl-sphingadienine as a sphingoid base, linked to a C16-18 fatty acid chain, forming ceramide, and to a sugar residue, such as glucose or galactose...
May 15, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762871/fast-identification-of-dermatophytes-by-maldi-tof-ms-using-direct-transfer-of-fungal-cells-on-ground-steel-target-plates
#9
Keith C da Cunha, Arnaud Riat, Anne-Cecile Normand, Philipp P Bosshard, Margarete T G de Almeida, Renaud Piarroux, Jacques Schrenzel, Lionel Fontao
BACKGROUND: Dermatophytes cause human infections limited to keratinized tissues. We showed that the direct transfer method allows reliable identification of non-dermatophytes mould and yeast by MALDI-TOF/MS. OBJECTIVES: We aimed at assessing whether the direct transfer method can be used for dermatophytes and whether an own mass spectra library would be superior to the Bruker library. METHODS: We used the Bruker Biotyper to build a dermatophyte mass spectra library and assessed its performance by 1/ testing a panel of mass spectrum produced with strains genotypically identified and, 2/ comparing MALDI-TOF/MS identification to morphology-based methods...
May 15, 2018: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760550/synergistic-antifungal-effect-of-chitosan-stabilized-selenium-nanoparticles-synthesized-by-pulsed-laser-ablation-in-liquids-against-candida-albicans-biofilms
#10
Humberto H Lara, Gregory Guisbiers, Jonathan Mendoza, Lawrence C Mimun, Brandy A Vincent, Jose L Lopez-Ribot, Kelly L Nash
Background: Candida albicans is a major opportunistic fungal pathogen. One of the most important virulence factors that contribute to the pathogenesis of candidiasis is its ability to form biofilms. A key characteristic of Candida biofilms is their resistance to antifungal agents. Due to significant morbidity and mortality rates related to biofilm-associated drug resistance, there is an urgency to develop novel nanotechnology-based approaches preventing biofilm-related infections. Methods: In this study, we report, for the first time, the synthesis of selenium nanoparticles by irradiating selenium pellets by nanosecond pulsed laser ablation in liquid chitosan as a capping agent...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760548/silver-nanoparticles-induced-alterations-in-multiple-cellular-targets-which-are-critical-for-drug-susceptibilities-and-pathogenicity-in-fungal-pathogen-candida-albicans
#11
Venkatraman Srinivasan Radhakrishnan, Mohana Krishna Reddy Mudiam, Manish Kumar, Surya Prakash Dwivedi, Surinder Pal Singh, Tulika Prasad
Purpose: A significant increase in the incidence of fungal infections and drug resistance has been observed in the past decades due to limited availability of broad-spectrum antifungal drugs. Nanomedicines have shown significant antimicrobial potential against various drug-resistant microbes. Silver nanoparticles (AgNps) are known for their antimicrobial properties and lower host toxicity; however, for clinical applications, evaluation of their impact at cellular and molecular levels is essential...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760350/identification-of-chlamydia-pneumoniae-candidate-genes-that-interact-with-human-apoptotic-factor-caspase-9
#12
Md Abdul Aziz, Rie Ushirokita, Yoshinao Azuma
Chlamydia pneumoniae is an obligate intracellular pathogen responsible for respiratory diseases, including pneumonia and bronchitis, and is highly involved in chronic diseases, including atherosclerosis, asthma, and Alzheimer's disease. We previously showed that the host apoptotic factor caspase-9 played a crucial role for chlamydial multiplication and host apoptosis inhibition by chlamydial infection. To identify chlamydial genes interacting with human caspase-9, yeast two-hybrid screening was performed and 5 chlamydial genes, including Cpj0838 and pmpG were isolated from the C...
May 15, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760128/nitric-oxide-releasing-macromolecule-exhibits-broad-spectrum-anti-fungal-activity-and-utility-as-a-topical-treatment-for-superficial-fungal-infections
#13
Nathan Stasko, Kimberly McHale, Stanley J Hollenbach, Megan Martin, Ryan Doxey
Cutaneous and superficial fungal infections affecting the skin, nails, and hair of humans are caused primarily by dermatophytes of the genera Trichophyton, and Epidermophyton, or by yeasts of the genera Candida and Malassezia Onychomycosis is a common fungal infection of the nail frequently coexisting with tinea pedis, the most prevalent mycotic skin infection. Efficacy rates for current topical onychomycosis therapies are hampered by low drug penetration across the nail plate that is theoretically obviated with nitric oxide (NO)-based topical therapies...
May 14, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755280/-blastomyces-species-and-orbital-apex-syndrome-unsuspected-co-infection
#14
Janice R Safneck, Sherry Krawitz
Blastomyces species are thermally dimorphic fungi existing as yeast in tissue. We report an initially immunocompetent patient with orbital apex syndrome (OAS) whose presentation suggested giant cell arteritis. Subsequently, metastatic carcinoma was entertained as a cause of OAS until bronchoscopy yielded Blastomyces species. The patient rapidly succumbed with multiorgan failure despite Amphotericin B administration. At post-mortem, Blastomyces co-infection with fungal hyphae in keeping with Aspergillus species was found in cavernous sinus and in infarcted optic nerve...
January 2018: Saudi Journal of Ophthalmology: Official Journal of the Saudi Ophthalmological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753984/a-novel-white-spot-syndrome-virus-protein-wssv164-controls-prophenoloxidases-pmpropos-in-shrimp-melanization-cascade
#15
Pakkakul Sangsuriya, Walaiporn Charoensapsri, Jantiwan Sutthangkul, Saengchan Senapin, Ikuo Hirono, Anchalee Tassanakajon, Piti Amparyup
Melanization, mediated by the prophenoloxidase (proPO)-activating system, is an important innate immune response in invertebrates. The implication of the proPO system in antiviral response and the suppression of host proPO activation by the viral protein have previously been demonstrated in shrimp. However, the molecular mechanism of viral-host interactions in the proPO cascade remains largely unexplored. Here, we characterized the viral protein, namely, WSSV164, which was initially identified from the forward suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library of the PmproPO1/2 co-silenced black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon that was challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)...
May 4, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753529/candidemia-in-the-intensive-care-unit-a-12-year-retrospective-cohort-study-in-reunion-island
#16
G Hoarau, S Picot, J Lemant, J Peytral, P Poubeau, P Zunic, C Mohr, X Coueffe, P Gerardin, E Antok
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to describe the epidemiology of Candida bloodstream infection in an intensive care unit (ICU) in Reunion Island. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study and evaluated 63 candidemia episodes, which occurred between January 2004 and December 2015 in the ICU of a University Hospital in St-Pierre. RESULTS: The incidence rate of candidemia in the ICU was estimated at 7.6%. Candida albicans was the most common yeast pathogen species recovered (54%), followed by Candida glabrata (17%), Candida tropicalis (12%) and Candida parapsilosis (10%)...
May 9, 2018: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746940/nlrp3-inflammasome-is-involved-in-the-recognition-of-paracoccidioides-brasiliensis-by-human-dendritic-cells-and-in-the-induction-of-th17-cells
#17
Lívia Furquim de Castro, Larissa Nara Alegrini Longhi, Munir Regini Paião, Amauri da Silva Justo-Júnior, Marcelo Bispo de Jesus, Maria Heloisa de Souza Lima Blotta, Ronei Luciano Mamoni
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the involvement of NLRP3 in the effector functions of human dendritic cells (DCs) in response to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast cells (Pb) and to evaluate its role in the modulation of the adaptive immune response. METHODS: DCs were differentiated from purified peripheral blood monocytes and analyzed in relation to the participation of TLR-2, dectin-1, and Syk in Pb recognition, as well as, the indirect mechanisms (Reactive Oxygen Species production, endosome acidification, or K+ efflux) involved in NLRP3 inflammasome activation after the stimulus with Pb...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746582/assembly-hub-function-of-er-localized-snare-proteins-in-biogenesis-of-tombusvirus-replication-compartment
#18
Zsuzsanna Sasvari, Nikolay Kovalev, Paulina Alatriste Gonzalez, Kai Xu, Peter D Nagy
Positive-strand RNA viruses assemble numerous membrane-bound viral replicase complexes within large replication compartments to support their replication in infected cells. Yet the detailed mechanism of how given subcellular compartments are subverted by viruses is incompletely understood. Although, Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) uses peroxisomal membranes for replication, in this paper, we show evidence that the ER-resident SNARE (soluble NSF attachment protein receptor) proteins play critical roles in the formation of active replicase complexes in yeast model host and in plants...
May 10, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746581/human-neuroglial-cells-internalize-borrelia-burgdorferi-by-coiling-phagocytosis-mediated-by-daam1
#19
Shanna K Williams, Zachary P Weiner, Robert D Gilmore
Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme borreliosis, can elude hosts' innate and adaptive immunity as part of the course of infection. The ability of B. burgdorferi to invade or be internalized by host cells in vitro has been proposed as a mechanism for the pathogen to evade immune responses or antimicrobials. We have previously shown that B. burgdorferi can be internalized by human neuroglial cells. In this study we demonstrate that these cells take up B. burgdorferi via coiling phagocytosis mediated by the formin, Daam1, a process similarly described for human macrophages...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736196/identification-of-functional-domain-s-of-fibrillarin-interacted-with-p2-of-rice-stripe-virus
#20
Luping Zheng, Jie He, Zuomei Ding, Chenlong Zhang, Ruoxue Meng
p2 of Rice stripe virus may promote virus systemic infection by interacting with the full length of fibrillarin from Nicotiana benthamiana (NbFib2) in the nucleolus and cajal body (CB). NbFib2 contains three functional domains. We used yeast two-hybrid, colocalization, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays to study the interactions between p2 and the three domains of NbFib2, namely, the N-terminal fragment containing a glycine and arginine-rich (GAR) domain, the central RNA-binding domain, and the C-terminal fragment containing an α -helical domain...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
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