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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914112/socioeconomic-differences-in-childhood-vaccination-in-developed-countries-a-systematic-review-of-quantitative-studies
#1
Aurélie Bocquier, Jeremy Ward, Jocelyn Raude, Patrick Peretti-Watel, Pierre Verger
Introduction The reasons for vaccine hesitancy and its relation to individual socioeconomic status (SES) must be better understood. Areas covered This review focused on developed countries with programs addressing major financial barriers to vaccination access. We systematically reviewed differences by SES in uptake of publicly funded childhood vaccines and in cognitive determinants (beliefs, attitudes) of parental decisions about vaccinating their children. Using the PRISMA statement to guide this review, we searched three electronic databases from January 2000 through April 2016...
September 15, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912595/analysis-of-vsv-pseudotype-virus-infection-mediated-by-rubella-virus-envelope-proteins
#2
Masafumi Sakata, Hideki Tani, Masaki Anraku, Michiyo Kataoka, Noriyo Nagata, Fumio Seki, Maino Tahara, Noriyuki Otsuki, Kiyoko Okamoto, Makoto Takeda, Yoshio Mori
Rubella virus (RV) generally causes a systemic infection in humans. Viral cell tropism is a key determinant of viral pathogenesis, but the tropism of RV is currently poorly understood. We analyzed various human cell lines and determined that RV only establishes an infection efficiently in particular non-immune cell lines. To establish an infection the host cells must be susceptible and permissible. To assess the susceptibility of individual cell lines, we generated a pseudotype vesicular stomatitis virus bearing RV envelope proteins (VSV-RV/CE2E1)...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910270/updated-dosing-instructions-for-immune-globulin-human-gamastan-s-d-for-hepatitis-a-virus-prophylaxis
#3
Noele P Nelson
GamaSTAN S/D (Grifols Therapeutics, Inc., Research Triangle Park, North Carolina) is a sterile, preservative-free solution of immune globulin (IG) for intramuscular administration and is used for prophylaxis against disease caused by infection with hepatitis A, measles, varicella, and rubella viruses (1). GamaSTAN S/D is the only IG product approved by the Food and Drug Administration for hepatitis A virus (HAV) prophylaxis. In July 2017, GamaSTAN S/D prescribing information was updated with changes to the dosing instructions for hepatitis A preexposure and postexposure prophylaxis indications...
September 15, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903791/an-outbreak-of-mumps-with-genetic-strain-variation-in-a-highly-vaccinated-student-population-in-scotland
#4
L J Willocks, D Guerendiain, H I Austin, K E Morrison, R L Cameron, K E Templeton, V R F DE Lima, R Ewing, W Donovan, K G J Pollock
An outbreak of mumps within a student population in Scotland was investigated to assess the effect of previous vaccination on infection and clinical presentation, and any genotypic variation. Of the 341 cases, 79% were aged 18-24. Vaccination status was available for 278 cases of whom 84% had received at least one dose of mumps containing vaccine and 62% had received two. The complication rate was 5·3% (mainly orchitis), and 1·2% were admitted to hospital. Genetic sequencing of mumps virus isolated from cases across Scotland classified 97% of the samples as genotype G...
September 14, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893741/prevention-and-assessment-of-infectious-diseases-among-children-and-adult-migrants-arriving-to-the-european-union-european-economic-association-a-protocol-for-a-suite-of-systematic-reviews-for-public-health-and-health-systems
#5
Kevin Pottie, Alain D Mayhew, Rachael L Morton, Christina Greenaway, Elie A Akl, Prinon Rahman, Dominik Zenner, Manish Pareek, Peter Tugwell, Vivian Welch, Joerg Meerpohl, Pablo Alonso-Coello, Charles Hui, Beverley-Ann Biggs, Ana Requena-Méndez, Eric Agbata, Teymur Noori, Holger J Schünemann
INTRODUCTION: The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control is developing evidence-based guidance for voluntary screening, treatment and vaccine prevention of infectious diseases for newly arriving migrants to the European Union/European Economic Area. The objective of this systematic review protocol is to guide the identification, appraisal and synthesis of the best available evidence on prevention and assessment of the following priority infectious diseases: tuberculosis, HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis (polio), Haemophilus influenza disease, strongyloidiasis and schistosomiasis...
September 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893478/pain-caused-by-measles-mumps-and-rubella-vaccines-a-systematic-literature-review
#6
REVIEW
Corinne Willame, Ouzama Henry, Lan Lin, Volker Vetter, Laurence Baril, Nicolas Praet
PURPOSE: The risk of post-vaccination adverse events (AEs) is a primary public health concern. Among the AEs, pain is a significant source of anxiety for both children and their parents. This review describes and assesses the intensity of pain experienced by children post-vaccination with widely used Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) vaccines. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted in Pubmed, Embase and Cochrane to identify publications describing immediate pain at injection site (primary objective) or pain within days (secondary objective) after 2 specific MMR vaccines...
September 8, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890772/knowledge-and-cultural-beliefs-of-mothers-regarding-the-risk-factors-of-infant-hearing-loss-and-awareness-of-audiology-services
#7
Samantha M Govender, Nasim Banu Khan
The aim of the paper is to describe the knowledge of mothers in Durban, South Africa, regarding risk factors of hearing loss in infants and their awareness of audiology services, and to describe their cultural beliefs about the risk factors for hearing loss in infants. A descriptive survey design with quantitative methods of analysis were used. Conveniently sampled mothers (n=102) receiving postnatal care for their infants from eight provincial clinics within Durban consented to participate, yielding a response rate of 48%...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Public Health in Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886180/health-care-utilization-in-general-practice-after-hpv-vaccination-a-danish-nationwide-register-based-cohort-study
#8
Lene Wulff Krogsgaard, Claus Høstrup Vestergaard, Oleguer Plana-Ripoll, Tina Hovgaard Lützen, Mogens Vestergaard, Morten Fenger-Grøn, Bodil Hammer Bech, Dorte Rytter
OBJECTIVE: The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has increasingly been suspected of adverse effects in Denmark since 2013. By using consultations with the general practitioner (GP) as an indicator for morbidity, this study aims to examine the association between HPV vaccination and morbidity in girls in the Danish childhood immunization program. METHODS: The study is a nationwide register-based cohort study. Both the HPV and the Measles, Mumps and Rubella (MMR) vaccines were offered to 12-year-old girls in Denmark in the study period (2008-2015)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877026/effectiveness-of-a-third-dose-of-mmr-vaccine-for-mumps-outbreak-control
#9
Cristina V Cardemil, Rebecca M Dahl, Lisa James, Kathleen Wannemuehler, Howard E Gary, Minesh Shah, Mona Marin, Jacob Riley, Daniel R Feikin, Manisha Patel, Patricia Quinlisk
BACKGROUND: The effect of a third dose of the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine in stemming a mumps outbreak is unknown. During an outbreak among vaccinated students at the University of Iowa, health officials implemented a widespread MMR vaccine campaign. We evaluated the effectiveness of a third dose for outbreak control and assessed for waning immunity. METHODS: Of 20,496 university students who were enrolled during the 2015-2016 academic year, mumps was diagnosed in 259 students...
September 7, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875465/measles-rubella-and-varicella-igg-seroprevalence-in-a-large-refugee-cohort-in-germany-in-2015-a-cross-sectional-study
#10
Alexandra Jablonka, Christine Happle, Martin Wetzke, Christian Dopfer, Sonja Merkesdal, Reinhold E Schmidt, Georg M N Behrens, Philipp Solbach
INTRODUCTION: The current extent of migration to the European continent is associated with exceptional humanitarian challenges. In 2015, Western Europe faced an enormous immigration of refugees with largely unknown protection status against communicable diseases. To adapt vaccination strategies, we aimed at assessing seroprevalences against three of the most relevant vaccine preventable diseases (VPD) in a large representative cohort. METHODS: IgG seroprevalences for rubella, varicella (n = 554) and measles (n = 552) were analyzed in inhabitants of a Northern German refugee camp in the summer of 2015...
September 5, 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867843/estimated-economic-impact-of-vaccinations-in-73-low-and-middle-income-countries-2001-2020
#11
Sachiko Ozawa, Samantha Clark, Allison Portnoy, Simrun Grewal, Meghan L Stack, Anushua Sinha, Andrew Mirelman, Heather Franklin, Ingrid K Friberg, Yvonne Tam, Neff Walker, Andrew Clark, Matthew Ferrari, Chutima Suraratdecha, Steven Sweet, Sue J Goldie, Tini Garske, Michelle Li, Peter M Hansen, Hope L Johnson, Damian Walker
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the economic impact likely to be achieved by efforts to vaccinate against 10 vaccine-preventable diseases between 2001 and 2020 in 73 low- and middle-income countries largely supported by Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance. METHODS: We used health impact models to estimate the economic impact of achieving forecasted coverages for vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae type b, hepatitis B, human papillomavirus, Japanese encephalitis, measles, Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A, rotavirus, rubella, Streptococcus pneumoniae and yellow fever...
September 1, 2017: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859098/a-comparative-transcriptomic-analysis-reveals-the-core-genetic-components-of-salt-and-osmotic-stress-responses-in-braya-humilis
#12
Pengshan Zhao, Lirong Wang, Xin Zhao, Guoxiong Chen, Xiao-Fei Ma
Braya humilis is a member of the Euclidieae tribe within the family Brassicaceae. This species exhibits a broad range of adaptations to different climatic zones and latitudes as it has a distribution that ranges from northern Asia to the arctic-alpine regions of northern North America. In China, B. humilis is mainly found on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and in adjacent arid regions. In this study, we sequenced a sample from an arid region adjacent to the QTP using the Illumina platform generating a total of 46,485 highly accurate unigenes, of which 78...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855159/non-specific-effects-of-measles-mumps-and-rubella-mmr-vaccination-in-high-income-setting-population-based-cohort-study-in-the-netherlands
#13
Susanne M A J Tielemans, Hester E de Melker, Susan J M Hahné, Anna G C Boef, Fiona R M van der Klis, Elisabeth A M Sanders, Marianne A B van der Sande, Mirjam J Knol
Objectives To investigate whether measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine has positive non-specific effects in a high income setting and to compare rates of hospital admissions for infections between children aged ≤2 years who received live MMR vaccine and those who received an inactivated vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP-IPV-Hib) as their most recent vaccination.Design Nationwide population based cohort study.Setting In the Netherlands, DTaP-IPV-Hib+pneumococcal vaccination (PCV) is recommended at ages 2, 3, 4, and 11 months and MMR + meningococcal C (MenC) vaccination at age 14 months...
August 30, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854791/pcr-based-approach-for-qualitative-molecular-analysis-of-six-neurotropic-pathogens
#14
R Ferese, L Scorzolini, R Campopiano, V Albano, A M Griguoli, E Giardina, S Scala, L Ryskalin, C D'Alessio, S Zampatti, R Fantozzi, M Storto, F Fornai, S Gambardella
In the last few years, polymerase chain reaction analysis is frequently required to improve the detection of pathogen infections in central nervous system as a potential cause of neurological disorders and neuropsychiatric symptoms. The goal of this paper is to set up a fast, cheap and reliable molecular approach for qualitative detection of six neurotropic pathogens. A method based on PCR has been designed and implemented to guarantee the qualitative DNA detection of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSVI/II), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), rubella virus (RUBV) and Toxoplasma gondii in the cerebrospinal fluid, where otherwise they are barely detectable...
2017: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854204/impact-of-the-two-dose-rubella-vaccination-regimen-on-incidence-of-rubella-seronegativity-in-gravidae-aged-25-years-and-younger
#15
Shuk Yi Annie Hui, Daljit S Sahota, Terence T Lao
OBJECTIVE: This study compared the incidence of rubella seronegativity among gravidae of 25 year-old and younger, between those born in Hong Kong after 1983 when the two-dose rubella vaccination was implemented, versus gravidae born before, to examine the impact of the two-dose regimen. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, the incidence of antenatal rubella seronegativity in our parturients managed in1997-2015 was analysed by their age from ≤16 to 25 years, and the effect of year of birth was determined adjusting for confounding factors including teenage status, obstetric history, anthropometric factors, and health parameters including anaemia, thalassaemia trait and hepatitis B carrier status...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851393/pattern-ii-and-pattern-iii-ms-are-entities-distinct-from-pattern-i-ms-evidence-from-cerebrospinal-fluid-analysis
#16
S Jarius, F B König, I Metz, K Ruprecht, F Paul, W Brück, B Wildemann
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) is currently based solely on clinical and magnetic resonance imaging features. However, histopathological studies have revealed four different patterns of lesion pathology in patients diagnosed with MS, suggesting that MS may be a pathologically heterogeneous syndrome rather than a single disease entity. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether patients with pattern I MS differ from patients with pattern II or III MS with regard to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings, especially with reference to intrathecal IgG synthesis, which is found in most patients with MS but is frequently missing in MS mimics such as aquaporin-4-IgG-positive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-IgG-positive encephalomyelitis...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844634/infectious-causes-of-microcephaly-epidemiology-pathogenesis-diagnosis-and-management
#17
REVIEW
Delan Devakumar, Alasdair Bamford, Marcelo U Ferreira, Jonathan Broad, Richard E Rosch, Nora Groce, Judith Breuer, Marly A Cardoso, Andrew J Copp, Paula Alexandre, Laura C Rodrigues, Ibrahim Abubakar
Microcephaly is an important sign of neurological malformation and a predictor of future disability. The 2015-16 outbreak of Zika virus and congenital Zika infection brought the world's attention to links between Zika infection and microcephaly. However, Zika virus is only one of the infectious causes of microcephaly and, although the contexts in which they occur vary greatly, all are of concern. In this Review, we summarise important aspects of major congenital infections that can cause microcephaly, and describe the epidemiology, transmission, clinical features, pathogenesis, management, and long-term consequences of these infections...
August 22, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838201/impact-of-an-intervention-to-use-a-measles-rubella-and-polio-mass-vaccination-campaign-to-strengthen-routine-immunization-services-in-nepal
#18
Aaron S Wallace, Rajendra Bohara, Steven Stewart, Giri Subedi, Abhijeet Anand, Eleanor Burnett, Jagat Giri, Jagat Shrestha, Suraj Gurau, Sameer Dixit, Rajesh Rajbhandari, W William Schluter
Background: The potential to strengthen routine immunization (RI) services through supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) is an important benefit of global measles and rubella elimination and polio eradication strategies. However, little evidence exists on how best to use SIAs to strengthen RI. As part the 2012 Nepal measles-rubella and polio SIA, we developed an intervention package designed to improve RI processes and evaluated its effect on specific RI process measures. Methods: The intervention package was incorporated into existing SIA activities and materials to improve healthcare providers' RI knowledge and practices throughout Nepal...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838200/lessons-learned-and-legacy-of-the-stop-transmission-of-polio-program
#19
Yinka Kerr, Melinda Mailhot, Alford A J Williams, Virginia Swezy, Linda Quick, Rudolf H Tangermann, Kirsten Ward, Amalia Benke, Anna Callaghan, Kathleen Clark, Brian Emery, Jessica Nix, Eleanor Aydlotte, Charlotte Newman, Benjamin Nkowane
In 1988, the by the World Health Assembly established the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, which consisted of a partnership among the World Health Organization (WHO), Rotary International, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the United Nations Children's Fund. By 2016, the annual incidence of polio had decreased by >99.9%, compared with 1988, and at the time of writing, only 3 countries in which wild poliovirus circulation has never been interrupted remain: Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838195/transitioning-lessons-learned-and-assets-of-the-global-polio-eradication-initiative-to-global-and-regional-measles-and-rubella-elimination
#20
Katrina Kretsinger, Peter Strebel, Robert Kezaala, James L Goodson
The Global Polio Eradication Initiative has built an extensive infrastructure with capabilities and resources that should be transitioned to measles and rubella elimination efforts. Measles continues to be a major cause of child mortality globally, and rubella continues to be the leading infectious cause of birth defects. Measles and rubella eradication is feasible and cost saving. The obvious similarities in strategies between polio elimination and measles and rubella elimination include the use of an extensive surveillance and laboratory network, outbreak preparedness and response, extensive communications and social mobilization networks, and the need for periodic supplementary immunization activities...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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