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Michael J Taunton, Robert T Trousdale, Rafael J Sierra, Ken Kaufman, Mark W Pagnano
BACKGROUND: The choice of surgical approach for THA remains controversial. Some studies suggest that the direct anterior approach (DAA) leads to less muscle damage than the miniposterior approach (MPA), but there is little high-quality evidence indicating whether this accelerates recovery, or whether this approach-which may be technically more demanding-is associated with component malposition or more complications. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) Does the DAA result in faster return to activities of daily living than the MPA? (2) Does the DAA have superior patient-reported outcome measures than the MPA? (3) Does the DAA result in improved radiographic outcomes than the MPA? (4) Does the DAA have a higher risk of complications than the MPA? METHODS: Between March 1, 2013, and May 31, 2016, 116 patients undergoing primary unilateral THA were randomized to either the DAA or MPA; 15 patients withdrew after randomization, and one died 6 months after surgery from a stroke unrelated to the procedure...
February 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Stephen Yu, John Dundon, Olga Solovyova, Joseph Bosco, Richard Iorio
BACKGROUND: TKA pain management protocols vary widely with no current consensus on a standardized pain management regimen. Multimodal TKA pain management protocols aim to address pain control, facilitate functional recovery, and maintain patient satisfaction. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) Did changes to our pain management protocol, specifically adding liposomal bupivacaine, eliminating patient-controlled analgesia (PCA), and discontinuing femoral nerve blocks (FNBs), affect narcotic consumption after TKA? (2) Did these changes to our pain management protocols affect patient-reported pain scores? (3) Does the use of an immediate postoperative PCA affect rapid rehabilitation and functional recovery? (4) How did changes to our pain management regimen affect discharge disposition and pain-related Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) scores? METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed an institutional arthroplasty database between September 2013 and September 2015 containing 1808 patients who underwent primary TKA...
January 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Carlos J Marques
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Rupali Soeters, Peter B White, Mary Murray-Weir, Jayme C B Koltsov, Michael M Alexiades, Amar S Ranawat
BACKGROUND: As length of stay decreases for total joint arthroplasty, much of the patient preparation and teaching previously done in the hospital must be performed before surgery. However, the most effective form of preparation is unknown. This randomized trial evaluated the effect of a one-time, one-on-one preoperative physical therapy education session coupled with a web-based microsite (preopPTEd) on patients' readiness to discharge from physical therapy (PT), length of hospital stay, and patient-reported functional outcomes after total joint arthroplasty...
January 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Juliana Harumi Arita, Mário H Barros, Felipe Gustavo Ravagnani, Marcello Ziosi, Lívia Rentas Sanches, Fabíola Rosa Picosse, Tania Oliveira Lopes, Patrícia de Carvalho Aguiar, Carolina Habermann Macabelli, Marcos Chiaratti, José Luiz Pedroso, Catarina M Quinzi, Orlando Graziani Póvoas Barsottini, Claudia Cristina Ferreiro-Barros
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates many different metabolic pathways in eukaryote cells including mitochondria biogenesis and energy homeostasis. Here we identify a patient with hypotonia, weakness, delayed milestones and neurological impairment since birth harbouring a novel homozygous mutation in the AMPK catalytic α-subunit 1, encoded by the PRKAA1 gene. The homozygous mutation p.S487 L in isoform 1 present in the patient is in a cryptic residue for AMPK activity. In the present study, we performed the characterization of mitochondrial respiratory properties of the patient, in comparison to healthy controls, through the culture of skin fibroblasts in order to understand some of the cellular consequences of the PRKAA1 mutation...
March 8, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Sorelle Dongmo Nsogning, Susann Fischer, Thomas Becker
Understanding lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fermentation behavior in malt wort is a milestone towards flavor improvement of lactic acid fermented malt beverages. Therefore, this study aims to outline deficiencies that may exist in malt wort fermentation. First, based on six LAB strains, cell viability and vitality were evaluated. Second, sugars, organic acids, amino acids, pH value and buffering capacity (BC) were monitored. Finally, the implication of key amino acids, fructose and wort BC on LAB growth was determined...
August 2018: Food Microbiology
Vincenzo Campanella, Antonio Libonati, Roberto Nardi, Vincenzo Angotti, Gianni Gallusi, Edoardo Montemurro, Maurizio D'Amario, Giuseppe Marzo
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to compare an electronic device, the Wand Injection System (Milestone Scientific Livingstone), with conventional anesthesia in terms of the following: pain sensation during anesthetic injection; effectiveness in achieving adequate anesthesia for a complete painless dental treatment; post-operative discomfort; and patient's anxiety toward dental treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty adults from 18 to 70 years were enrolled in this cross-over study...
March 10, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
Marie-Pierre Sylvestre, Miguel Chagnon, Robert J Wellman, Erika N Dugas, Jennifer O'Loughlin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 7, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Ann M Weber, Virginia A Marchman, Yatma Diop, Anne Fernald
Valid indigenous language assessments are needed to further our understanding of how children learn language around the world. We assessed the psychometric properties and performance of two caregiver-report measures of Wolof language skill (language milestones achieved and vocabulary knowledge) for 500 children (ages 0;4 to 2;6) living in rural Senegal. Item response models (IRM) evaluated instrument- and item-level performance and differential function by gender. Both caregiver-report measures had good psychometric properties and displayed expected age and socioeconomic effects...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Child Language
J Zhang, M Liu, L Zhou, Z B Zhang, J M Wang, Y W Jiang, Y Wu
Objective: To analyze the clinical and imaging features of hypomyelination with brain stem and spinal cord involvement and leg spasticity (HBSL) due to mutations in DARS, and to identify DARS mutations responsible for HBSL. Methods: Data on 2 HBSL patients who were admitted to the pediatric department of Peking University First Hospital from January 2009 through December 2016 were reviewed and the 2 patients were followed up. Targeted next generation sequencing, whole exome sequencing and Sanger sequencing were employed to identify potential genetic variations of the children and their parents...
March 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
M Alsharedi, R Srivastava, N Elmsherghi
Immunotherapy has revolutionized cancer care in the modern era of oncology. Research in immunotherapy has led to important advances in the treatment of melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer and other malignancies using checkpoint inhibition. Multiple systemic immunotherapies have been approved or are currently being investigated for the management of urothelial malignancies (1). Five antibodies targeting the programmed cell death protein 1--programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-1--PD-L1) pathway have been approved by the U...
December 2017: Drugs of Today
Bradley J Till, Sneha Datta, Joanna Jankowicz-Cieslak
Gene space: the final frontier in plant functional genomics. These are the voyages of TILLING, the reverse-genetics strategy that sought to boldly go where no-one had gone before by combining high-density chemical mutagenesis with high-throughput mutation discovery. Its 18-year mission has been to explore new technologies such as next generation sequencing and to seek out new strategies like in silico databases of catalogued EMS-induced mutations from entire mutant plant populations. This chapter is a clip show highlighting key milestones in the development of TILLING...
March 8, 2018: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Witold Jamroz, Mateusz Kurek, Ewelina Lyszczarz, Witold Brniak, Renata Jachowicz
In the last few years there has been a huge progress in a development of printing techniques and their application in pharmaceutical sciences and particularly in the pharmaceutical technology. The variety of printing methods makes it necessary to systemize them, explain the principles of operation, and specify the possibilities of their use in pharmaceutical technology. This paper aims to review the printing techniques used in a drug development process. The growing interest in 2D and 3D printing methods results in continuously increasing number of scientific papers...
May 2017: Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica
Bonnie J Baty
Growth of the profession of genetic counseling has gone hand-in-hand with professional development of individual genetic counselors. Genetic counseling has achieved most of the typical early milestones in the development of a profession. The profession is maturing at a time when the number of practitioners is predicted to vastly expand. The last two decades have seen a proliferation of genetic counselor roles and practice areas, and a distinct professional identity. It is likely that the next two decades will see an increase in educational paths, practice areas, and possibilities for professional advancement...
March 7, 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C, Seminars in Medical Genetics
Mark R Dixon, Scott H Wiggins, Jordan Belisle
The current investigation sought to extend prior research evaluating the use of the PEAK Relational Training System as a comprehensive treatment model in improving language skills demonstrated by individuals with autism. Baseline PEAK-Direct Training and Verbal Behavior Milestone Assessment and Placement Program (VB-MAPP) assessments were conducted across 3 adult male participants, and scores on the PEAK-Direct Training assessment were used to select targets for intervention. Language instruction guided by the PEAK-Direct Training module was implemented for 45 to 69 days across participants...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Stefania Sarsah Cobbinah, Jan Lewis
Racial discrimination has been increasingly reported to have a causal link with morbidity and mortality of Black Americans, yet this issue is rarely addressed in a public health perspective. Racism affects health at different levels: institutional racism is a structural and legalized system that results in differential access to health services; cultural racism refers to the negative racial stereotypes, often reinforced by media, that results in poorer psychological and physiological wellbeing of the minorities...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Muhammad A Rahman, Charlotte Todd, Ann John, Jacinta Tan, Michael Kerr, Robert Potter, Jonathan Kennedy, Frances Rice, Sinead Brophy
BACKGROUND: Mental disorders in children and adolescents have an impact on educational attainment. Aims To examine the temporal association between attainment in education and subsequent diagnosis of depression or self-harm in the teenage years. METHOD: General practitioner, hospital and education records of young people in Wales between 1999 and 2014 were linked and analysed using Cox regression. RESULTS: Linked records were available for 652 903 young people and of these 33 498 (5...
March 6, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Jean-Charles Nault, Peter R Galle, Jens U Marquardt
Hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) are characterized by considerable phenotypic and molecular heterogeneity. Treatment and design of clinical trials are particularly challenging due a co-existing liver disease present in the majority of patients which limits aggressive therapeutic options. Despite positive results in recent phase III clinical trials, that confirmed the high value of antiangiogenic therapies for HCC in both first (sorafenib and lenvatinib) and second line (regorafenib and cabozantinib) treatment modalities, failure of several large randomized controlled clinical trials over the last 10 years underlines the necessity for innovative treatment strategies and implementation of findings from translational studies to overcome this unmet clinical need...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
Snežana Medić, Michalis Katsilieris, Zagorka Lozanov-Crvenković, Constantinos I Siettos, Vladimir Petrović, Vesna Milošević, Snežana Brkić, Nick Andrews, Milan Ubavić, Cleo Anastassopoulou
This study aimed at establishing baseline key epidemiological parameters for varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection in Vojvodina, Serbia, with the ultimate goal to quantify the VZV transmission potential in the population. Seroprevalence data generated during the first large cross-sectional VZV serosurvey were modelled, using a two-tiered modelling approach to calculate age-specific forces of infection (FOI), the basic reproduction number (R0) and herd immunity threshold (H). Seroprevalence and modelling data were compared with corresponding pre-vaccination epidemiological parameters from 11 countries participating in the European Sero-Epidemiology Network 2 (ESEN2) project...
2018: PloS One
Ferenc Jakab
Numerous outstanding summarizing publications on the milestones of the rapid development of liver surgery in the twentieth century came to light around the year 2000, therefore in this summary only the newest principles and novelties of liver surgery after the second millennium are presented. Among the new principles, the newest indications, the bloodless surgery and the vascular exclusion of the liver, the "associating liver partition and portal vein occlusion for staged hepatectomy" (ALPPS) - as presently the fastest and most successful method for liver regeneration, and the "downsizing of tumors" treatment for the interest of resection of unresectable tumours are analyzed and evaluated...
March 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
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