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Cancer immunotherapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793087/skin-allografting-activates-anti-tumor-immunity-and-suppresses-growth-of-colon-cancer-in-mice
#1
Xiang Li, Xu Lan, Grace Wang, Yi Liu, Ke Zhao, Shan-Zheng Lu, Xiao-Xi Xu, Gang-Gang Shi, Kui Ye, Bao-Ren Zhang, Yi-Ming Zhao, Hong-Qiu Han, Cai-Gan Du, Thomas E Ichim, Hao Wang
INTRODUCTION: The tumor cells could escape from the immune elimination through the immunoediting mechanisms including the generation of immunosuppressive or immunoregulative cells. By contrast, allograft transplantation could activate the immune system and induce a strong allogenic response. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of allogenic skin transplantation in the inhibition of tumor growth through the activation of allogenic immune response. METHODS: Full-thickness skin transplantation was performed from C57BL/6 (H-2b ) donors to BALB/c (H-2d ) recipients that were receiving subcutaneous injection of isogenic CT26 colon cancer cells (2 × 106 cells) at the same time...
May 21, 2018: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792730/nivolumab-for-the-treatment-of-colorectal-cancer
#2
Kortnye Maureen Smith, Jayesh Desai
Despite a variety of therapies for advanced metastatic colorectal cancer being available, the outcomes in this malignancy remain sub-optimal. Immunotherapy has been slow to impact the management of this patient group. Checkpoint inhibitors, such as nivolumab, have had disappointing results when used broadly. However, for the subset of patients with microsatellite unstable colorectal cancer the use of checkpoint inhibitors such as nivolumab appears to be transformative, and will provide a new therapeutic option for patient with advanced disease...
May 24, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791816/fast-forward-neoadjuvant-cancer-immunotherapy
#3
EDITORIAL
Thomas F Gajewski
New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 378, Issue 21, Page 2034-2035, May 2018.
May 24, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791768/vaccine-immunotherapy-with-arnax-induces-tumor-specific-memory-t-cells-and-durable-anti-tumor-immunity-in-mouse-models
#4
Yohei Takeda, Sumito Yoshida, Ken Takashima, Noriko Ishii-Mugikura, Hiroaki Shime, Tsukasa Seya, Misako Matsumoto
Immunological checkpoint blockade therapies benefit a limited population of cancer patients. We have previously shown that vaccine immunotherapy with TLR3-adjuvant and tumor antigen overcomes anti-programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) resistance in mouse tumor models. In this study, four different OVA-expressing tumor cell lines were implanted into syngeneic mice and subjected to antitumor immunotherapy using ARNAX and whole OVA protein. ARNAX is a Toll-like receptor 3-specific agonist that does not activate the MAVS pathway, and thus does not induce systemic inflammation...
May 23, 2018: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791705/is-there-a-role-for-vats-sleeve-lobectomy-in-lung-cancer
#5
Natalie N Merchant, Robert McKenna, Osita Onugha
Lung cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer and continues to be the leading cause of death for both men and women, with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounting for 85% of all lung cancer cases. Once a lung mass is visualized on imaging, accurate staging is required for determination of treatment options and, when possible, surgical resection is recommended as it has been proven to have the best survival rates versus non-surgical treatment. If a patient has advanced or metastatic disease, therapeutic options include chemotherapy and radiation, while immunotherapy and specific agents that target tumor mutations are only recommended for appropriate candidates...
June 1, 2018: Surgical Technology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790621/generation-and-application-of-human-induced-stem-cell-memory-t-it-scm-cells-for-adoptive-immunotherapy
#6
Taisuke Kondo, Yuuki Imura, Shunsuke Chikuma, Sana Hibino, Setsuko Omata-Mise, Makoto Ando, Takashi Akanuma, Mana Iizuka, Ryota Sakai, Rimpei Morita, Akihiko Yoshimura
Adoptive T cell therapy is an effective strategy for cancer immunotherapy. However, infused T cells frequently become functionally exhausted, and consequently offer a poor prognosis after transplantation into patients. Adoptive transfer of tumor antigen-specific stem cell memory T (TSCM ) cells is expected to overcome this shortcoming since TSCM cells are close to naïve T cells, but are also highly proliferative, long-lived, and produce a large number of effector T cells in response to antigen stimulation...
May 23, 2018: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790485/bibliometric-analysis-of-tumor-immunotherapy-studies
#7
Kaining Lu, Shan Yu, Meng Yu, Dan Sun, Zhihong Huang, Haotian Xing, Jianbin Bi, Zeliang Li, Zhenhua Li, Xiankui Liu, Chuize Kong, Yuyan Zhu
BACKGROUND Cancer immunotherapy is the use of the immune system to treat cancer. After years of research, there have been a significant number of publications in this field. We analyzed the literature and performed a hotspot analysis to identify important areas of future scientific research. MATERIAL AND METHODS Articles (2945) related to cancer immunotherapy published in the past 3 years were selected as the research sample. BICOMB software was then used to retrieve the high-frequency words and construct a text/co-word matrix...
May 23, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789418/juxtacrine-signaling-inhibits-antitumor-immunity-by-upregulating-pd-l1-expression
#8
Wen-Hao Yang, Jong-Ho Cha, Weiya Xia, Heng-Huan Lee, Li-Chuan Chan, Ying-Nai Wang, Jennifer L Hsu, Guoxin Ren, Mien-Chie Hung
Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a well-known immune checkpoint protein that helps cancer cells evade immune response. Anti-PD-L1 immune therapy has been approved for the treatment of several advanced human cancers. Therefore, further understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of PD-L1 is critical to improve PD-L1-targeting immunotherapy. Recent studies indicated that contact-dependent pathways may regulate anticancer immunity, highlighting the importance of cell contact-induced signaling in cancer immunity...
May 22, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789417/mapping-the-hla-ligandome-of-colorectal-cancer-reveals-an-imprint-of-malignant-cell-transformation
#9
Markus W Löffler, Daniel J Kowalewski, Linus Backert, Jörg Bernhardt, Patrick Adam, Heiko Schuster, Florian Dengler, Daniel Backes, Hans-Georg Kopp, Stefan Beckert, Silvia Wagner, Ingmar Königsrainer, Oliver Kohlbacher, Lothar Kanz, Alfred Königsrainer, Hans-Georg Rammensee, Stefan Stevanovic, Sebastian P Haen
Immune cell infiltrates have proven highly relevant for colorectal carcinoma (CRC) prognosis, making CRC a promising candidate for immunotherapy. Since tumors interact with the immune system via HLA-presented peptide ligands, exact knowledge of the peptidome constitution is fundamental for understanding this relationship. Here we comprehensively describe the naturally presented HLA-ligandome of CRC and corresponding non-malignant colon (NMC) tissue. Mass spectrometry identified 35,367 and 28,132 HLA-class I ligands on CRC and NMC, attributable to 7,684 and 6,312 distinct source proteins, respectively...
May 22, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789015/pharmacomicrobiomics-exploiting-the-drug-microbiota-interactions-in-anticancer-therapies
#10
REVIEW
Concetta Panebianco, Angelo Andriulli, Valerio Pazienza
Cancer is a major health burden worldwide, and despite continuous advances in medical therapies, resistance to standard drugs and adverse effects still represent an important cause of therapeutic failure. There is a growing evidence that gut bacteria can affect the response to chemo- and immunotherapeutic drugs by modulating either efficacy or toxicity. Moreover, intratumor bacteria have been shown to modulate chemotherapy response. At the same time, anticancer treatments themselves significantly affect the microbiota composition, thus disrupting homeostasis and exacerbating discomfort to the patient...
May 22, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788167/treatment-effects-measured-by-restricted-mean-survival-time-in-trials-of-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-for-cancer
#11
F Liang, S Zhang, Q Wang, W Li
Background: The hazard ratio (HR) is used routinely to quantify the treatment effect for time-to-event end points in oncology trials, but its use requires that there be proportional hazards in the treatment arms. Non-proportional hazards are observed frequently in cancer immunotherapy trials due to the long-term survival and delayed clinical effect. Although values of HR are quoted in such trials, they are not valid measures of outcome. Methods: Reports of parallel group randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating immune checkpoint inhibitors with overall survival data were eligible...
May 1, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786888/injectable-bioresponsive-gel-depot-for-enhanced-immune-checkpoint-blockade
#12
Shuangjiang Yu, Chao Wang, Jicheng Yu, Jinqiang Wang, Yue Lu, Yuqi Zhang, Xudong Zhang, Quanyin Hu, Wujin Sun, Chaoliang He, Xuesi Chen, Zhen Gu
Although cancer immunotherapy based on immune checkpoint inhibitors holds great promise toward many types of cancers, several challenges still remain, associated with low objective response of patient rate as well as systemic side effects. Here, a combination immunotherapy strategy is developed based on a thermogelling reactive oxygen species (ROS)-responsive polypeptide gel for sustained release of anti-programmed cell death-ligand 1 antibody and dextro-1-methyl tryptophan, inhibitor of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase with leveraging the ROS level in the tumor microenvironment...
May 22, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786170/immunopeptidomic-profiling-of-hla-a2-positive-triple-negative-breast-cancer-identifies-potential-immunotherapy-target-antigens
#13
Nicola Ternette, Marloes J M Olde Nordkamp, Julius Muller, Amanda P Anderson, Annalisa Nicastri, Adrian V S Hill, Benedikt M Kessler, Demin Li
The recent development in immune checkpoint inhibitors and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cells in the treatment of cancer has not only demonstrated the potency of utilising T-cell reactivity for cancer therapy, but has also highlighted the need for developing new approaches to discover targets suitable for such novel therapeutics. Here we analysed the immunopeptidomes of 6 HLA-A2-positive triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) samples by nano-ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (nUPLC-MS2 )...
May 22, 2018: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785785/metabolism-within-the-tumor-microenvironment-and-its-implication-on-cancer-progression-an-ongoing-therapeutic-target
#14
REVIEW
Ma Carmen Ocaña, Beatriz Martínez-Poveda, Ana R Quesada, Miguel Ángel Medina
Since reprogramming energy metabolism is considered a new hallmark of cancer, tumor metabolism is again in the spotlight of cancer research. Many studies have been carried out and many possible therapies have been developed in the last years. However, tumor cells are not alone. A series of extracellular components and stromal cells, such as endothelial cells, cancer-associated fibroblasts, tumor-associated macrophages, and tumor-infiltrating T cells, surround tumor cells in the so-called tumor microenvironment (TME)...
May 22, 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785403/immunotherapy-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-current-advances-and-future-expectations
#15
REVIEW
Yingjun Xie, Yien Xiang, Jiyao Sheng, Dan Zhang, Xiaoxiao Yao, Yongsheng Yang, Xuewen Zhang
Primary liver cancer is a common kind of digestive cancers with high malignancy, causing 745,500 deaths each year. Hepatocellular carcinoma is the major pathological type of primary liver cancer. Traditional treatment methods for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma have shown poor efficacy in killing residual cancer cells for a long time. In recent years, tumor immunotherapy has emerged as a promising method owing to its safety and efficacy with respect to delaying the progression of advanced tumors and protecting postoperative patients against tumor relapse and metastasis...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785006/the-era-of-immunogenomics-immunopharmacogenomics
#16
REVIEW
Makda Zewde, Kazuma Kiyotani, Jae-Hyun Park, Hua Fang, Kai Lee Yap, Poh Yin Yew, Houda Alachkar, Taigo Kato, Tu H Mai, Yuji Ikeda, Tatsuo Matsuda, Xiao Liu, Lili Ren, Boya Deng, Makiko Harada, Yusuke Nakamura
Although germline alterations and somatic mutations in disease cells have been extensively analyzed, molecular changes in immune cells associated with disease conditions have not been characterized in depth. It is clear that our immune system has a critical role in various biological and pathological conditions, such as infectious diseases, autoimmune diseases, drug-induced skin and liver toxicity, food allergy, and rejection of transplanted organs. The recent development of cancer immunotherapies, particularly drugs modulating the immune checkpoint molecules, has clearly demonstrated the importance of host immune cells in cancer treatments...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784926/clinical-utility-of-circulating-non-coding-rnas-an-update
#17
REVIEW
Simone Anfossi, Anna Babayan, Klaus Pantel, George A Calin
Over the past decade, the amount of research and the number of publications on associations between circulating small and long non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) and cancer have grown exponentially. Particular focus has been placed on the development of diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers to enable efficient patient management - from early detection of cancer to monitoring for disease recurrence or progression after treatment. Owing to their high abundance and stability, circulating ncRNAs have potential utility as non-invasive, blood-based biomarkers that can provide information on tumour biology and the effects of treatments, such as targeted therapies and immunotherapies...
May 21, 2018: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784854/molecular-subtype-specific-immunocompetent-models-of-high-grade-urothelial-carcinoma-reveal-differential-neoantigen-expression-and-response-to-immunotherapy
#18
Ryoichi Saito, Christof C Smith, Takanobu Utsumi, Lisa M Bixby, Jordan Kardos, Sara E Wobker, Kyle G Stewart, Shengjie Chai, Ujjawal Manocha, Kevin Matthew Byrd, Jeffrey S Damrauer, Scott E Williams, Benjamin G Vincent, William Y Kim
High-grade urothelial cancer contains intrinsic molecular subtypes that exhibit differences in underlying tumor biology and can be divided into luminal-like and basal-like subtypes. We describe here the first subtype-specific murine models of bladder cancer and show that Upk3a-CreERT2; Trp53L/L; PtenL/L; Rosa26LSL-Luc (UPPL: luminal-like) and BBN (basal-like) tumors are more faithful to human bladder cancer than the widely-used MB49 cells. Following engraftment into immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice, BBN tumors were more responsive to PD-1 inhibition than UPPL tumors...
May 21, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784737/nccn-guidelines-updates-breast-cancer
#19
Sharon H Giordano, Anthony D Elias, William J Gradishar
The emergence of CDK4/6 inhibitors has changed the treatment algorithm for advanced/metastatic estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. In pivotal trials of palbociclib, ribociclib, and abemaciclib, doubling in progression-free survival has been seen. All 3 agents in this class are now included in the NCCN Guidelines for Breast Cancer, and clinicians should be incorporating these agents into their treatment algorithms. The other important issue in this breast cancer setting is extended duration of endocrine therapy...
May 2018: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784734/new-nccn-guidelines-recognition-and-management-of-immunotherapy-related-toxicity
#20
John A Thompson
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are now FDA-approved for the treatment of 8 different cancers, and more approvals are likely, including use of these drugs in combinations. Although ICIs represent a true advance in cancer care, they can cause a range of immune-related adverse events. As more experience with ICIs is gained, more information is becoming available on immunotoxicity and optimal management. Physicians and patients need to be educated about potential adverse events and management of ICI-associated toxicity...
May 2018: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
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