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Cancer immunotherapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353396/the-differences-in-the-assessments-of-side-effects-at-an-oncology-outpatient-clinic
#1
A Bayraktar-Ekincioglu, E Kucuk
Background There is a growing interest in the use of targeted and immunotherapies in oncology. However, the assessment of side effects can be different due to interpretation of patients' health status by healthcare professionals in oncology outpatient clinics. Objective To demonstrate the differences in the assessments of side effects conducted independently by a clinical pharmacist and nurses in patients who receive targeted therapies at an oncology outpatient clinic. Setting The study was conducted at the University Oncology Hospital in an outpatient clinic from October 2015 to March 2016...
January 20, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352713/clinical-variables-associated-with-overall-survival-in-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-patients-treated-with-sipuleucel-t-immunotherapy
#2
Xiao X Wei, Jaselle Perry, Emily Chang, Li Zhang, Robert A Hiatt, Charles J Ryan, Eric J Small, Lawrence Fong
BACKGROUND: Sipuleucel-T is an autologous cell-based cancer immunotherapy for men with asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Its approval by the Food and Drug Administration was based on demonstration of an overall survival (OS) benefit in randomized placebo-controlled phase III trials. However, treatment was associated with a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) decline in only a small minority of patients. Understanding the clinical factors that are associated with OS could help guide treatment decisions, including patient selection and the timing of sipuleucel-T relative to other therapies...
December 27, 2017: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350327/hypermutated-tumors-and-immune-checkpoint-inhibition
#3
Kristen K Ciombor, Richard M Goldberg
Microsatellite instability-high/DNA mismatch repair deficient tumors are found across the cancer spectrum and often harbor markedly increased numbers of mutations when compared to microsatellite stable/DNA mismatch repair proficient tumors. As a result of this high mutational load, tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte density is increased and more immunogenic neoepitopes are expressed, leading to upregulation of immune checkpoints in these tumors. Checkpoint inhibitors such as pembrolizumab and nivolumab, both immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) monoclonal antibodies that block interactions between the programmed cell death receptor-1 and its ligands, have significant activity in this tumor class...
January 19, 2018: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350175/update-on-the-nephrotoxicity-of%C3%A2-novel%C3%A2-anticancer-agents%C3%A2
#4
Eliezer Zachary Nussbaum, Mark A Perazella
Anticancer drug-induced kidney disease is a problem commonly encountered by nephrologists. The number of medications employed by oncologists causing acute and chronic kidney injury as well as electrolyte and acid-base disturbances has increased significantly over the past several decades. While conventional chemotherapeutic drugs induce a number of kidney lesions, emergence of very effective and well-tolerated targeted therapies and novel immunotherapies has increased the occurrence of drug-induced acute and chronic kidney injury in cancer patients...
January 19, 2018: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350031/microbiota-regulated-outcomes-of-human-cancer-immunotherapy-via-the-pd-1-pd-l1-axis
#5
Jaymin Patel, Jason M Crawford
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 19, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348890/adoptive-immunotherapy-shows-encouraging-benefit-on-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Binghao Zhao, Wenxiong Zhang, Dongliang Yu, Jianjun Xu, Yiping Wei
Although adoptive immunotherapy (AIT) is a novel emerging target treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), its actual efficacy remains controversial. In this meta-analysis, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of AIT for NSCLC. We systematically searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Medline, and Web of Science for relevant parallel randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and high-quality observation studies of AIT without any language restrictions. Two investigators reviewed all the texts and extracted information regarding overall survival rate (OS), progression-free survival rate (PFS), objective response rate (ORR), and disease control rate (DCR) from eligible studies; sensitivity analyses and subgroup analyses were also conducted to reduce heterogeneity Of 319 suitable studies, 15 studies (13 RCTs and 2 observation studies) involving 1684 patients were finally included...
December 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348685/overexpression-of-adhesion-molecules-and-barrier-molecules-is-associated-with-differential-infiltration-of-immune-cells-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#7
Young Kwang Chae, Wooyoung M Choi, William H Bae, Jonathan Anker, Andrew A Davis, Sarita Agte, Wade T Iams, Marcelo Cruz, Maria Matsangou, Francis J Giles
Immunotherapy is emerging as a promising option for lung cancer treatment. Various endothelial adhesion molecules, such as integrin and selectin, as well as various cellular barrier molecules such as desmosome and tight junctions, regulate T-cell infiltration in the tumor microenvironment. However, little is known regarding how these molecules affect immune cells in patients with lung cancer. We demonstrated for the first time that overexpression of endothelial adhesion molecules and cellular barrier molecule genes was linked to differential infiltration of particular immune cells in non-small cell lung cancer...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348598/increased-diversity-with-reduced-diversity-evenness-of-tumor-infiltrating-t-cells-for-the-successful-cancer-immunotherapy
#8
Akihiro Hosoi, Kazuyoshi Takeda, Koji Nagaoka, Tamaki Iino, Hirokazu Matsushita, Satoshi Ueha, Shin Aoki, Kouji Matsushima, Masato Kubo, Teppei Morikawa, Kazutaka Kitaura, Ryuji Suzuki, Kazuhiro Kakimi
To facilitate the optimization of cancer immunotherapy lacking immune-related adverse events, we performed TCR repertoire analysis of tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T-cells in B16 melanoma-bearing mice receiving anti-PD-1, anti-CTLA-4, anti-4-1BB, anti-CD4 or a combination of anti-PD-1 and 4-1BB antibodies. Although CD8+ T-cells in the tumor were activated and expanded to a greater or lesser extent by these therapies, tumor growth suppression was achieved only by anti-PD-1, anti-PD-1/4-1BB combined, or by anti-CD4 treatment, but not by anti-CTLA-4 or anti-4-1BB monotherapy...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346540/blood-and-lymphatic-vessels-contribute-to-the-impact-of-the-immune-microenvironment-on-clinical-outcome-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#9
Giovanna Armani, Denise Madeddu, Giulia Mazzaschi, Giovanni Bocchialini, Francesco Sogni, Caterina Frati, Bruno Lorusso, Angela Falco, Costanza Annamaria Lagrasta, Stefano Cavalli, Chiara Mangiaracina, Rocchina Vilella, Gabriella Becchi, Letizia Gnetti, Emilia Corradini, Eugenio Quaini, Konrad Urbanek, Matteo Goldoni, Paolo Carbognani, Luca Ampollini, Federico Quaini
OBJECTIVES: Lymphangiogenesis plays a critical role in the immune response, tumour progression and therapy effectiveness. The aim of this study was to determine whether the interplay between the lymphatic and the blood microvasculature, tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes and the programmed death 1 (PD-1)/programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) immune checkpoint constitutes an immune microenvironment affecting the clinical outcome of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. METHODS: Samples from 50 squamous cell carcinomas and 42 adenocarcinomas were subjected to immunofluorescence to detect blood and lymphatic vessels...
January 15, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346215/challenges-and-perspectives-for-immunotherapy-in-adenocarcinoma-of-the-pancreas-the-cancer-immunity-cycle
#10
Markus Kieler, Matthias Unseld, Daniela Bianconi, Gerald Prager
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a lethal disease with a devastating 5-year overall survival of only approximately 7%. Although just 4% of all malignant diseases are accounted to PDAC, it will become the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths before 2030. Immunotherapy has proven to be a promising therapeutic option in various malignancies such as melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), microsatellite instability-high gastrointestinal cancer, urinary tract cancer, kidney cancer, and others...
February 2018: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346180/development-of-a-pd-l1-complementary-diagnostic-immunohistochemistry-assay-sp142-for-atezolizumab
#11
Bharathi Vennapusa, Brian Baker, Marcin Kowanetz, Jennifer Boone, Ina Menzl, Jean-Marie Bruey, Gregg Fine, Sanjeev Mariathasan, Ian McCaffery, Simonetta Mocci, Sandra Rost, Dustin Smith, Eslie Dennis, Szu-Yu Tang, Bita Damadzadeh, Espen Walker, Priti S Hegde, J Andrew Williams, Hartmut Koeppen, Zachary Boyd
Cancer immunotherapies, such as atezolizumab, are proving to be a valuable therapeutic strategy across indications, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and urothelial cancer (UC). Here, we describe a diagnostic assay that measures programmed-death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression, via immunohistochemistry, to identify patients who will derive the most benefit from treatment with atezolizumab, a humanized monoclonal anti-PD-L1 antibody. We describe the performance of the VENTANA PD-L1 (SP142) Assay in terms of specificity, sensitivity, and the ability to stain both tumor cells (TC) and tumor-infiltrating immune cells (IC), in NSCLC and UC tissues...
January 16, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345976/synthetic-biology-immunotherapy-by-design
#12
Matthew J Brenner, Jang Hwan Cho, Nicole M L Wong, Wilson W Wong
Cellular immunotherapy holds great promise for the treatment of human disease. Clinical evidence suggests that T cell immunotherapies have the potential to combat cancers that evade traditional immunotherapy. Despite promising results, adverse effects leading to fatalities have left scientists seeking tighter control over these therapies, which is reflected in the growing body of synthetic biology literature focused on developing tightly controlled, context-independent parts. In addition, researchers are adapting these tools for other uses, such as for the treatment of autoimmune disease, HIV infection, and fungal interactions...
January 18, 2018: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345737/present-status-and-future-perspective-of-peptide-based-vaccine-therapy-for-urological-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Wataru Obara, Mitsugu Kanehira, Toyomasa Katagiri, Renpei Kato, Yoichiro Kato, Ryo Takata
The use of peptide-based vaccines as therapeutics aims to elicit immune responses through antigenic epitopes derived from tumor antigens. Peptide-based vaccines are easily synthesized and the lack of significant side effects when administered in-vivo. Peptide-based vaccine therapy against several cancers including urological cancers had made progress for several decades, but there is no approval peptide vaccine all over the world. Peptides vaccines were also shown to induce a high frequency of immune response in patients who were accompanied by clinical efficacy...
January 18, 2018: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345636/promoting-the-accumulation-of-tumor-specific-t-cells-in-tumor-tissues-by-dendritic-cell-vaccines-and-chemokine-modulating-agents
#14
Nataša Obermajer, Julie Urban, Eva Wieckowski, Ravikumar Muthuswamy, Roshni Ravindranathan, David L Bartlett, Pawel Kalinski
This protocol describes how to induce large numbers of tumor-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) in the spleens and lymph nodes of mice receiving dendritic cell (DC) vaccines and how to modulate tumor microenvironments (TMEs) to ensure effective homing of the vaccination-induced CTLs to tumor tissues. We also describe how to evaluate the numbers of tumor-specific CTLs within tumors. The protocol contains detailed information describing how to generate a specialized DC vaccine with augmented ability to induce tumor-specific CTLs...
February 2018: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345336/%C3%AE-%C3%AE-cells-and-tumor-microenvironment-a-helpful-or-a-dangerous-liason
#15
REVIEW
Elena Lo Presti, Roberto Di Mitri, Gabriele Pizzolato, Filippo Mocciaro, Francesco Dieli, Serena Meraviglia
γδ T cells are a subset of T lymphocytes that have been implicated in immunosurveillance against infections and tumors. γδ T cells are endowed with antitumor activities, and hence several γδ T cell-based small-scale clinical trials have been conducted either by in vivo activation by intravenous administration of aminobiphosphonates or by adoptive transfer of in vitro expanded γδ T cells. Although both these strategies have yielded promising results, there are a number of limitations associated with each of them which, if overcome may help to further improve efficacy...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345149/medical-management-of-brain-metastases-and-leptomeningeal-disease-in-patients-with-breast-carcinoma
#16
Kelsey M Bowman, Priya Kumthekar
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women and accounts for the second highest number of cancer-related deaths. With patients surviving longer due to advances in systemic control, the incidence of CNS involvement is increasing; however, the management of CNS metastases has not undergone parallel advancements. The blood-brain barrier limits the efficacy of most systemic chemotherapies, and the utilization of surgery and radiation beyond first-line therapy is limited. We will explore the recent developments in the medical management of breast cancer brain metastasis...
January 18, 2018: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345063/immunotherapy-it-is-not-just-for-cancer-anymore
#17
EDITORIAL
Lyle L Moldawer, Richard Hotchkiss
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344995/activation-of-human-cd141-and-cd1c-dendritic-cells-in-vivo-with-combined-tlr-3-and-tlr-7-8-ligation
#18
Frances E Pearson, Karshing Chang, Yoshihito Minoda, Ingrid M Leal Rojas, Oscar L Haigh, Ghazal Daraj, Kirsteen M Tullett, Kristen J Radford
Mice reconstituted with human hematopoietic stem cells are valuable models to study aspects of the human immune system in vivo. We describe a humanized mouse model (hu mice) in which fully functional human CD141+ and CD1c+ myeloid and CD123+ plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DC) develop from human cord blood CD34+ cells in immunodeficient mice. CD141+ DC are the human equivalents of murine CD8+ /CD103+ DC which are essential for the induction of tumor-inhibitory cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses, making them attractive targets to exploit for the development of new cancer immunotherapies...
January 18, 2018: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344550/neutrophils-and-anti-cancer-immunity-a-paradigm-shift-in-cancer-immunotherapy
#19
EDITORIAL
Rebecca Sturey, Akash Patnaik
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Oncoscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344409/immunotherapy-in-lung-cancer
#20
Johan F Vansteenkiste
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: ESMO Open
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