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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775373/axion-plasmon-polaritons-in-strongly-magnetized-plasmas
#1
H Terças, J D Rodrigues, J T Mendonça
Axions are hypothetical particles related to the violation of the charge-parity symmetry within the strong sector of the standard model, being one of the most prone candidates for dark matter. Multiple attempts to prove their existence are currently performed in different physical systems. Here, we predict that axions may couple to the electrostatic (Langmuir) modes of a strongly magnetized plasma, and show that a new quasiparticle can be defined, the axion-plasmon polariton. The excitation of axions can be inferred from the pronounced modification of the dispersion relation of the Langmuir waves, a feature that we estimate to be accessible in state-of-the-art plasma-based experiments...
May 4, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775282/confined-liquid-phase-growth-of-crystalline-compound-semiconductors-on-any-substrate
#2
Debarghya Sarkar, Wei Wang, Matthew Mecklenburg, Andrew J Clough, Matthew Yeung, Chenhao Ren, Qingfeng Lin, Louis Blankemeier, Shanyuan Niu, Huan Zhao, Haotian Shi, Han Wang, Stephen B Cronin, Jayakanth Ravichandran, Mitul Luhar, Rehan Kapadia
The growth of crystalline compound semiconductors on amorphous and non-epitaxial substrates is a fundamental challenge for state-of-the-art thin-film epitaxial growth techniques. Direct growth of materials on technologically relevant amorphous surfaces, such as nitrides or oxides results in nanocrystalline thin-films, or nanowire type structures, preventing growth and integration of high-performance devices and circuits on these surfaces. Here we show crystalline compound semiconductors grown directly on technologically relevant amorphous and non-epitaxial substrates in geometries compatible with standard microfabrication technology...
May 18, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773659/modeling-leaderless-transcription-and-atypical-genes-results-in-more-accurate-gene-prediction-in-prokaryotes
#3
Alexandre Lomsadze, Karl Gemayel, Shiyuyun Tang, Mark Borodovsky
In a conventional view of the prokaryotic genome organization, promoters precede operons and RBS sites with Shine-Dalgarno consensus precede genes. However, recent experimental research suggesting a more diverse view motivated us to develop an algorithm with improved gene-finding accuracy. We describe GeneMarkS 2, an ab initio algorithm that uses a model derived by self-training for finding species-specific (native) genes, along with an array of pre-computed "heuristic" models designed to identify harder-to-detect genes (likely horizontally transferred)...
May 17, 2018: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771918/a-hybrid-q-learning-sine-cosine-based-strategy-for-addressing-the-combinatorial-test-suite-minimization-problem
#4
Kamal Z Zamli, Fakhrud Din, Bestoun S Ahmed, Miroslav Bures
The sine-cosine algorithm (SCA) is a new population-based meta-heuristic algorithm. In addition to exploiting sine and cosine functions to perform local and global searches (hence the name sine-cosine), the SCA introduces several random and adaptive parameters to facilitate the search process. Although it shows promising results, the search process of the SCA is vulnerable to local minima/maxima due to the adoption of a fixed switch probability and the bounded magnitude of the sine and cosine functions (from -1 to 1)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771786/the-continuum-of-hiv-care-in-rural-mozambique-the-implications-of-hiv-testing-modality-on-linkage-and-retention
#5
Elisa Lopez-Varela, Laura Fuente-Soro, Orvalho Joaquim Augusto, Charfudin Sacoor, Ariel Nhacolo, Esmeralda Karajeanes, Paula Vaz, Denise Naniche
INTRODUCTION: Context-specific improvements in the continuum of HIV care are needed in order to achieve the UNAIDS target of 90-90-90. This study aimed to assess the linkage to and retention in HIV care according to different testing modalities in rural southern Mozambique. METHODS: Adults newly diagnosed with HIV from voluntary counseling and testing (VCT), provider-initiated (PICT) and home-based HIV testing (HBT) services were prospectively enrolled between 2014- 2015 at the Manhiça District...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771783/hiv-1-drug-resistance-among-ugandan-adults-attending-an-urban-out-patient-clinic
#6
Amrei von Braun, Christine Sekaggya-Wiltshire, Nadine Bachmann, Deogratius Ssemwanga, Alexandra U Scherrer, Maria Nanyonjo, Anne Kapaata, Pontiano Kaleebu, Huldrych F Günthard, Barbara Castelnuovo, Jan Fehr, Andrew Kambugu
BACKGROUND: Little is known about prevalence of drug resistance among HIV-infected Ugandans, a setting with over 15 years of public-sector access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and where virological monitoring was only recently introduced. SETTING: This study was conducted in the adults' out-patient clinic of the Infectious Diseases Institute, Kampala, Uganda. METHODS: HIV genotyping was performed in ART naïve patients and in treatment experienced patients on ART for ≥ six months with virological failure (≥1000 copies/mL)...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771781/lack-of-virological-suppression-among-young-hiv-positive-adults-in-botswana
#7
Vlad Novitsky, Tendani Gaolathe, Mompati Mmalane, Sikhulile Moyo, Unoda Chakalisa, Etienne Kadima Yankinda, Tafireyi Marukutira, Molly Pretorius Holme, Tumalano Sekoto, Simani Gaseitsiwe, Rosemary Musonda, Erik van Widenfelt, Kathleen M Powis, Nealia Khan, Scott Dryden-Peterson, Kara Bennett, Kathleen E Wirth, Eric Tchetgen Tchetgen, Pam Bachanas, Lisa A Mills, Refeletswe Lebelonyane, El-Halabi Shenaaz, Joseph Makhema, Shahin Lockman, M Essex
BACKGROUND: HIV-1 RNA load is the best biological predictor of HIV transmission and treatment response. The rate of virologic suppression among key sub-populations can guide HIV prevention programs. METHODS: The Botswana Combination Prevention Project performed a population-based household survey among adults in 30 communities in Botswana. Data collected included knowledge of HIV-positive status, ART coverage and virologic suppression (HIV-1 RNA ≤400 copies/mL)...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771675/action-driven-visual-object-tracking-with-deep-reinforcement-learning
#8
Sangdoo Yun, Jongwon Choi, Youngjoon Yoo, Kimin Yun, Jin Young Choi
In this paper, we propose an efficient visual tracker, which directly captures a bounding box containing the target object in a video by means of sequential actions learned using deep neural networks. The proposed deep neural network to control tracking actions is pretrained using various training video sequences and fine-tuned during actual tracking for online adaptation to a change of target and background. The pretraining is done by utilizing deep reinforcement learning (RL) as well as supervised learning...
June 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771239/iii-v-heterostructure-tunnel-field-effect-transistor
#9
Clarissa Convertino, Cezar Zota, Heinz Schmid, Adrian M Ionescu, Kirsten Moselund
The Tunnel Field-Effect Transistor (TFET) is regarded as one of the most promising solid-state switches to overcome the power dissipation challenge in ultra-low power integrated circuits. TFETs take advantage of quantum mechanical tunneling hence exploit a different current control mechanism compared to standard MOSFETs. In this review, we describe state-of-the-art development of TFET both in terms of performances and of materials integration and we identify the main remaining technological challenges such as heterojunction defects and oxide/channel interface traps causing trap-assisted-tunneling (TAT)...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770309/interventional-radiology-of-the-thyroid-gland-critical-review-and-state-of-the-art
#10
REVIEW
Antonio Barile, Simone Quarchioni, Federico Bruno, Anna Maria Ierardi, Francesco Arrigoni, Aldo Victor Giordano, Sergio Carducci, Marco Varrassi, Giampaolo Carrafiello, Ferdinando Caranci, Alessandra Splendiani, Ernesto Di Cesare, Carlo Masciocchi
Thyroid nodules are a common incidental finding during a routinely ultrasound (US) exam unrelated to the thyroid gland in the healthy adult population with a prevalence of 20-76%. As treated before with surgery, in the last years new minimally invasive techniques have been developed as an alternative to surgery. The aim of this review, based on newly revised guidelines, is to provide some information regarding the basic principles, indications, materials, techniques, and results of mini-invasive procedures or treatments for thyroid nodules...
April 2018: Gland Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770249/snorkel-rapid-training-data-creation-with-weak-supervision
#11
Alexander Ratner, Stephen H Bach, Henry Ehrenberg, Jason Fries, Sen Wu, Christopher Ré
Labeling training data is increasingly the largest bottleneck in deploying machine learning systems. We present Snorkel, a first-of-its-kind system that enables users to train state-of- the-art models without hand labeling any training data. Instead, users write labeling functions that express arbitrary heuristics, which can have unknown accuracies and correlations. Snorkel denoises their outputs without access to ground truth by incorporating the first end-to-end implementation of our recently proposed machine learning paradigm, data programming...
November 2017: Proceedings of the VLDB Endowment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770183/colour-for-behavioural-success
#12
Birgitta Dresp-Langley, Adam Reeves
Colour information not only helps sustain the survival of animal species by guiding sexual selection and foraging behaviour but also is an important factor in the cultural and technological development of our own species. This is illustrated by examples from the visual arts and from state-of-the-art imaging technology, where the strategic use of colour has become a powerful tool for guiding the planning and execution of interventional procedures. The functional role of colour information in terms of its potential benefits to behavioural success across the species is addressed in the introduction here to clarify why colour perception may have evolved to generate behavioural success...
March 2018: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768685/post-formation-copper-nitrogen-species-on-carbon-black-their-chemical-structures-and-active-sites-for-oxygen-reduction-reaction
#13
Xin Xie, Jingjun Liu, Tuanfeng Li, Ye Song, Feng Wang
Note that 3d transition metal and nitrogen co-doped carbon materials (TM-N-C) are considered as the most promising next-generation electrocatalysts alternative to precious Pt for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Herein, we have fabricated a Cu-N-C catalyst through directly grafting copper-nitrogen complexes composed by cuprous chloride and ammonia water onto the surface of an industrial carbon black at 500℃. In an alkaline environment, the synthesized catalyst exhibits excellent ORR catalytic activity, which is comparable to the state-of-the-art Pt/C catalyst but far exceeding that obtained by the original carbon...
May 16, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767979/ultra-compliant-heterogeneous-copper-tin-nanowire-arrays-making-a-super-solder
#14
Wei Gong, Pengfei Li, Yunheng Zhang, Xuhui Feng, Joshua Major, Douglas DeVoto, Paul Paret, Charles King, Sreekant Narumanchi, Sheng Shen
Due to the substantial increase in power density, thermal interface resistance that can constitute more than 50 % of the total thermal resistance has generally become a bottleneck for thermal management in electronics. However, conventional thermal interface materials (TIMs) such as solder, epoxy, gel, and grease cannot fulfill the requirements of electronics for high-power and long-term operation. Here we demonstrate a high-performance TIM consisting of a heterogeneous copper-tin nanowire array which we term "super-solder" to emulate the role of conventional solders in bonding various surfaces...
May 16, 2018: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765662/new-guinea-bone-daggers-were-engineered-to-preserve-social-prestige
#15
Nathaniel J Dominy, Samuel T Mills, Christopher M Yakacki, Paul B Roscoe, R Dana Carpenter
Bone daggers were once widespread in New Guinea. Their purpose was both symbolic and utilitarian; they functioned as objects of artistic expression with the primary function of stabbing and killing people at close quarters. Most daggers were shaped from the tibiotarsus of cassowaries, but daggers shaped from the femora of respected men carried greater social prestige. The greater cross-sectional curvature of human bone daggers indicates superior strength, but the material properties of cassowary bone are unknown...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765298/real-time-tracking-of-selective-auditory-attention-from-m-eeg-a-bayesian-filtering-approach
#16
Sina Miran, Sahar Akram, Alireza Sheikhattar, Jonathan Z Simon, Tao Zhang, Behtash Babadi
Humans are able to identify and track a target speaker amid a cacophony of acoustic interference, an ability which is often referred to as the cocktail party phenomenon. Results from several decades of studying this phenomenon have culminated in recent years in various promising attempts to decode the attentional state of a listener in a competing-speaker environment from non-invasive neuroimaging recordings such as magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG). To this end, most existing approaches compute correlation-based measures by either regressing the features of each speech stream to the M/EEG channels (the decoding approach) or vice versa (the encoding approach)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764378/grim-filter-fast-seed-location-filtering-in-dna-read-mapping-using-processing-in-memory-technologies
#17
Jeremie S Kim, Damla Senol Cali, Hongyi Xin, Donghyuk Lee, Saugata Ghose, Mohammed Alser, Hasan Hassan, Oguz Ergin, Can Alkan, Onur Mutlu
BACKGROUND: Seed location filtering is critical in DNA read mapping, a process where billions of DNA fragments (reads) sampled from a donor are mapped onto a reference genome to identify genomic variants of the donor. State-of-the-art read mappers 1) quickly generate possible mapping locations for seeds (i.e., smaller segments) within each read, 2) extract reference sequences at each of the mapping locations, and 3) check similarity between each read and its associated reference sequences with a computationally-expensive algorithm (i...
May 9, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763498/effect-of-avocado-soybean-unsaponifiables-asu-on-osseointegration-in-rats-with-experimental-arthritis
#18
Luiz Guilherme Freitas de Paula, Guilherme José Pimentel Lopes de Oliveira, Felipe Eduardo Pinotti, Bruna Biagioni Grecchi, Sabrina Garcia de Aquino, Rosemary Adriana Chiérici Marcantonio
PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of the use of avocado/soybean unsaponifiables (ASU) on osseointegration of implants in animals with experimental arthritis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred twenty rats were randomly divided into four groups: CTR, healthy animals and saline solution administration; ASU, healthy animals and ASU administration; ART, arthritic animals and saline solution administration; and ART/ASU, arthritic animals and ASU administration. The solutions were administered daily by gavage, beginning 7 days before the surgical procedures until the completion of the experimental period (15, 30, and 60 days after the placement of the implants in the tibia)...
May 2018: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762669/ethics-of-oocyte-banking-for-third-party-assisted-reproduction-a-systematic-review
#19
E M Kool, A M E Bos, R van der Graaf, B C J M Fauser, A L Bredenoord
BACKGROUND: The demand for donor oocytes has increased dramatically over the years. Today people in need of ART with the use of donor oocytes can appeal to commercial or public donor oocyte banks. The introduction of oocyte banks has shed a new light on the practice of ART using donor oocytes. The establishment and maintenance of oocyte banks should be sensitive to the ethical considerations. However, it is currently unclear which ethical aspects have to be taken into account. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: The aim of this article is to identify the ethical aspects of establishing and maintaining oocyte banks for third-party ART...
May 14, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762544/femtosecond-laser-texturing-of-surfaces-for-tribological-applications
#20
Jörn Bonse, Sabrina V Kirner, Michael Griepentrog, Dirk Spaltmann, Jörg Krüger
Laser texturing is an emerging technology for generating surface functionalities on basis of optical, mechanical, or chemical properties. Taking benefit of laser sources with ultrashort (fs) pulse durations features outstanding precision of machining and negligible rims or burrs surrounding the laser-irradiation zone. Consequently, additional mechanical or chemical post-processing steps are usually not required for fs-laser surface texturing (fs-LST). This work aimed to provide a bridge between research in the field of tribology and laser materials processing...
May 15, 2018: Materials
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