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Bacterial persistence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457686/viable-but-non-culturable-and-persistence-describe-the-same-bacterial-stress-state
#1
Jun-Seob Kim, Nityananda Chowdhury, Ryota Yamasaki, Thomas K Wood
Bacteria are often thought of as having two dormant phenotypes: the viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state and the persister state. Here we investigate the relatedness of the two stress-induced phenotypes at the single-cell level and examine cell morphology and quantify cell resuscitation. Using the classic starvation conditions to create VBNC cells, we found that the majority of the remaining Escherichia coli population are spherical, have empty cytosol, and fail to resuscitate; however, some of the spherical cells resuscitate immediately (most probably those with dense cytosol)...
February 19, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456969/mutation-of-agr-is-associated-with-the-adaptation-of-staphylococcus-aureus-to-the-host-during-chronic-osteomyelitis
#2
Carlos M Suligoy, Santiago M Lattar, Mariángeles Noto Llana, Cintia D González, Lucía P Alvarez, D Ashley Robinson, Marisa I Gómez, Fernanda R Buzzola, Daniel O Sordelli
Selection pressures exerted on Staphylococcus aureus by host factors may lead to the emergence of mutants better adapted to the evolving conditions at the infection site. This study was aimed at identifying the changes that occur in S. aureus exposed to the host defense mechanisms during chronic osteomyelitis and evaluating whether these changes affect the virulence of the organism. Genome assessment of two S. aureus isolates collected 13 months apart (HU-85a and HU-85c) from a host with chronic osteomyelitis was made by whole genome sequencing...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456525/kinetics-and-novel-degradation-pathway-of-permethrin-in-acinetobacter-baumannii-zh-14
#3
Hui Zhan, Huishan Wang, Lisheng Liao, Yanmei Feng, Xinghui Fan, Lianhui Zhang, Shaohua Chen
Persistent use of permethrin has resulted in its ubiquitous presence as a contaminant in surface streams and soils, yet little is known about the kinetics and metabolic behaviors of this pesticide. In this study, a novel bacterial strain Acinetobacter baumannii ZH-14 utilizing permethrin via partial hydrolysis pathways was isolated from sewage sludge. Response surface methodology based on Box-Behnken design of cultural conditions was used for optimization resulting in 100% degradation of permethrin (50 mg·L-1 ) within 72 h...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456081/lysozyme-counteracts-%C3%AE-lactam-antibiotics-by-promoting-the-emergence-of-l-form-bacteria
#4
Yoshikazu Kawai, Katarzyna Mickiewicz, Jeff Errington
β-lactam antibiotics inhibit bacterial cell wall assembly and, under classical microbiological culture conditions that are generally hypotonic, induce explosive cell death. Here, we show that under more physiological, osmoprotective conditions, for various Gram-positive bacteria, lysis is delayed or abolished, apparently because inhibition of class A penicillin-binding protein leads to a block in autolytic activity. Although these cells still then die by other mechanisms, exogenous lytic enzymes, such as lysozyme, can rescue viability by enabling the escape of cell wall-deficient "L-form" bacteria...
January 31, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455620/bacterial-mediated-biodegradation-of-pentachlorophenol-via-electron-shuttling
#5
Heba A El-Bialy, Ola A A Khalil, Ola M Gomaa
Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a common persistent pesticide in soil, its persistence generates toxicity in the environment. PCP degradation by soil indigenous bacteria represents a practical and cost-effective solution. In the present study, bacteria isolated from paddy soil was investigated and the role of electron shuttling in the PCP degradation process was assessed. Two strains demonstrated the highest PCP degradation of 93.5% and 94.88% in the presence of citrate, and were identified using 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis as Pseudomonas chengduensis and Pseudomonas plecoglossicida, respectively...
February 19, 2018: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454879/application-of-genetically-encoded-redox-biosensors-to-measure-dynamic-changes-in-the-glutathione-bacillithiol-and-mycothiol-redox-potentials-in-pathogenic-bacteria
#6
REVIEW
Quach Ngoc Tung, Nico Linzner, Vu Van Loi, Haike Antelmann
Gram-negative bacteria utilize glutathione (GSH) as their major LMW thiol. However, most Gram-positive bacteria do not encode enzymes for GSH biosynthesis and produce instead alternative LMW thiols, such as bacillithiol (BSH) and mycothiol (MSH). BSH is utilized by Firmicutes and MSH is the major LMW thiol of Actinomycetes. LMW thiols are required to maintain the reduced state of the cytoplasm, but are also involved in virulence mechanisms in human pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Salmonella enterica subsp...
February 15, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453545/cytotoxicity-and-physiological-effects-of-silver-nanoparticles-on-marine-invertebrates
#7
Adriano Magesky, Émilien Pelletier
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) incorporation in commercial products is increasing due to their remarkable physical and chemical properties and their low cost on the market. Silver has been known for a long time to be highly toxic to bacterial communities, aquatic organisms, and particularly to marine biota. Strong chloro-complexes dominate Ag speciation in seawater and facilitate its persistence in dissolved form. It has a great impact on marine organisms because low concentration of silver can lead to strong bioaccumulation, partly because the neutral silver chloro complex (AgCl 0 ) is highly bioavailable...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452293/genetic-diversity-and-functional-analysis-of-oipa-gene-in-association-with-other-virulence-factors-among-helicobacter-pylori-isolates-from-iranian-patients-with-different-gastric-diseases
#8
Nastaran Farzi, Abbas Yadegar, Hamid Asadzadeh Aghdaei, Yoshio Yamaoka, Mohammad Reza Zali
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the most genetically diverse bacterial pathogens that persistently colonizes the human gastric epithelium. This remarkable genomic plasticity may act as a driving force for successful adaptation and persistence of the bacteria in the harsh gastric environment. Outer inflammatory protein A (OipA) encoded by oipA gene (HP0638/hopH) is a member of the outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of H. pylori involved in induction of IL-8 secretion and is associated with development of peptic ulcer and gastric cancer...
February 13, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451920/an-upstream-sequence-modulates-phenazine-production-at-the-level-of-transcription-and-translation-in-the-biological-control-strain-pseudomonas-chlororaphis-30-84
#9
Jun Myoung Yu, Dongping Wang, Tessa R Ries, Leland S Pierson, Elizabeth A Pierson
Phenazines are bacterial secondary metabolites and play important roles in the antagonistic activity of the biological control strain P. chlororaphis 30-84 against take-all disease of wheat. The expression of the P. chlororaphis 30-84 phenazine biosynthetic operon (phzXYFABCD) is dependent on the PhzR/PhzI quorum sensing system located immediately upstream of the biosynthetic operon as well as other regulatory systems including Gac/Rsm. Bioinformatic analysis of the sequence between the divergently oriented phzR and phzX promoters identified features within the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of phzX that are conserved only among 2OHPCA producing Pseudomonas...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449156/stochastic-expression-of-lactate-dehydrogenase-a-induces-escherichia-coli-persister-formation
#10
Naoki Yamamoto, Rino Isshiki, Yuto Kawai, Daiki Tanaka, Tetsushi Sekiguchi, Shinya Matsumoto, Satoshi Tsuneda
Bacterial persisters are phenotypic variants that survive the treatment of lethal doses of growth-targeting antibiotics without mutations. Although the mechanism underlying persister formation has been studied for decades, how the persister phenotype is switched on and protects itself from antibiotics has been elusive. In this study, we focused on the lactate dehydrogenase gene (ldhA) that was upregulated in an Escherichia coli persister-enriched population. A survival rate assay using an ldhA-overexpressing strain showed that ldhA expression induced persister formation...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447471/anti-infection-silver-nanoparticle-immobilized-biomaterials-facilitated-by-argon-plasma-grafting-technology
#11
Ashwin Ambi, Nisharg Parikh, Carolina Vera, Krystal Burns, Naidel Montano, Leonard Sciorra, Jessica Epstein, Debing Zeng, Christian Traba
Many research groups have attained slow, persistent, continuous release of silver ions through careful experimental design using existing methods. Such methods effectively kill planktonic bacteria and therefore prevent surface adhesion of pathogens. However, the resultant modified coatings cannot provide long-term antibacterial efficacy due to sustained anti-microbial release. In this study, the anti-infection activity of AgNP immobilized biomaterials was evaluated, facilitated by argon plasma grafting technology and activated by bacterial colonization...
February 15, 2018: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446800/biology-of-vibrio-cholera-editorial-overview
#12
EDITORIAL
Felipe Cava
In this monographic issue, we have the pleasure to present contributions from six of the leading laboratories at the forefront of Vibrio cholerae genetics, ecology and evolution, together with a brief tribute by Diego Romero to Doctor Jaime Ferrán y Clua, a pioneering Spanish bacteriologist who developed the first vaccine against this pathogen. V. cholerae is a free-living aquatic bacterium that interacts with and infects a variety of organisms. In humans it causes cholera, the deadly diarrhoea that was responsible for millions of deaths during seven pandemics since 1817, and still thousands every year...
September 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446459/the-challenge-of-converting-gram-positive-only-compounds-into-broad-spectrum-antibiotics
#13
REVIEW
Michelle F Richter, Paul J Hergenrother
Multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections are on the rise, and there is a lack of new classes of drugs to treat these pathogens. This drug shortage is largely due to the challenge of finding antibiotics that can permeate and persist inside Gram-negative species. Efforts to understand the molecular properties that enable certain compounds to accumulate in Gram-negative bacteria based on retrospective studies of known antibiotics have not been generally actionable in the development of new antibiotics...
February 15, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443819/chronic-osteomyelitis-with-staphylococcus-aureus-deformation-in-submicron-canaliculi-of-osteocytes-a-case-report
#14
Karen L de Mesy Bentley, Ashlee MacDonald, Edward M Schwarz, Irvin Oh
CASE: A patient presenting with an infected diabetic foot ulcer and Staphylococcus aureus chronic osteomyelitis was studied to validate the clinical importance of bacterial colonization of osteocytic-canalicular networks, as we recently reported in a mouse model. We utilized transmission electron microscopy to describe the deformation of S. aureus, from round cocci to rod-shaped bacteria, in the submicron osteocytic-canalicular networks of amputated bone tissue. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of S...
February 14, 2018: JBJS Case Connector
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443761/haemolytic-uremic-syndrome-due-to-infection-with-adenovirus-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#15
Victoria Birlutiu, Rares Mircea Birlutiu
RATIONALE: Haemolytic-uremic syndrome is a rare but serious complication of bacterial and viral infections, which is characterized by the triad of: acute renal failure, microangiopathic haemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia, sometimes severe, requiring peritoneal dialysis. In Europe, hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) in paediatric pathology is primarily caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157, followed by O26. Beside these etiologies, there are other bacterial and viral infections, and also noninfectious ones that have been associated to lead to HUS as well: in the progression of neoplasia, medication-related, post-transplantation, during pregnancy or associated with the antiphospholipid syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus or family causes with autosomal dominant or recessive inheritance...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435491/genomewide-identification-of-essential-genes-and-fitness-determinants-of-streptococcus-mutans-ua159
#16
Robert C Shields, Lin Zeng, David J Culp, Robert A Burne
Transposon mutagenesis coupled with next-generation DNA sequencing (Tn-seq) is a powerful tool for discovering regions of the genome that are required for the survival of bacteria in different environments. We adapted this technique to the dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans UA159 and identified 11% of the genome as essential, with many genes encoding products required for replication, translation, lipid metabolism, and cell wall biogenesis. Comparison of the essential genome of S. mutans UA159 with those of selected other streptococci for which such information is available revealed several metabolic pathways and genes that are required in S...
January 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435283/targeted-immunotherapy-of-high-grade-cervical-intra-epithelial-neoplasia-expectations-from-clinical-trials
#17
Jean-Luc Brun, José Rajaonarison, Nicolas Nocart, Laura Hoarau, Stéphanie Brun, Isabelle Garrigue
Targeted immunotherapy of high-grade cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN) has been developed as an alternative to conization, to preserve future reproductive outcomes and avoid human papillomavirus (HPV) persistence. The objectives of the review are to present drugs according to their process of development and to examine their potential future use. A search for key words associated with CIN and targeted immunotherapy was carried out in the Cochrane library, Pubmed, Embase, and ClinicalTrials.gov from 1990 to 2016...
February 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435256/specific-plasmid-patterns-and-high-rates-of-bacterial-co-occurrence-within-the-coral-holobiont
#18
Deborah C A Leite, Joana F Salles, Emiliano N Calderon, Jan D van Elsas, Raquel S Peixoto
Despite the importance of coral microbiomes for holobiont persistence, the interactions among these are not well understood. In particular, knowledge of the co-occurrence and taxonomic importance of specific members of the microbial core, as well as patterns of specific mobile genetic elements (MGEs), is lacking. We used seawater and mucus samples collected from Mussismilia hispida colonies on two reefs located in Bahia, Brazil, to disentangle their associated bacterial communities, intertaxa correlations, and plasmid patterns...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429664/removal-of-bacteria-legionella-pneumophila-escherichia-coli-and-bacillus-subtilis-by-super-cavitation
#19
Andrej Šarc, Janez Kosel, David Stopar, Martina Oder, Matevž Dular
In sufficient concentrations, the pathogenic bacteria L. pneumophila can cause a respiratory illness that is known as the "Legionnaires" disease. Moreover, toxic Shiga strains of bacteria E. coli can cause life-threatening hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Because of the recent restrictions imposed on the usage of chlorine, outbreaks of these two bacterial species have become more common. In this study we have developed a novel rotation generator and its effectiveness against bacteria Legionella pneumophila and Escherichia coli was tested for various types of hydrodynamic cavitation (attached steady cavitation, developed unsteady cavitation and supercavitation)...
April 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425052/regulatory-t-cells-subvert-mycobacterial-containment-in-patients-failing-extensively-drug-resistant-tb-treatment
#20
Malika Davids, Anil S Pooran, Elize Pietersen, Helen C Wainwright, Anke Binder, Robin Warren, Keertan Dheda
RATIONALE: The advent of extensively (XDR-TB) and totally drug-resistant TB, with limited or no treatment options, has facilitated renewed interest in host directed immunotherapy, particularly for therapeutically destitute patients. However, the selection and utility of such approaches depend upon understanding the host immune response in XDR-TB, which hitherto remains unexplored. OBJECTIVES: To determine the host immunological profile in patients with XDR-TB, compared to drug-sensitive TB, using peripheral blood and explanted lung tissue...
February 9, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
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