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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828759/antibiotics-for-persistent-cough-or-wheeze-following-acute-bronchiolitis-in-children
#1
REVIEW
Gabrielle B McCallum, Erin J Plumb, Peter S Morris, Anne B Chang
BACKGROUND: Bronchiolitis is a common acute respiratory condition with high prevalence worldwide. This clinically diagnosed syndrome is manifested by tachypnoea (rapid breathing), with crackles or wheeze in young children. In the acute phase of bronchiolitis (≤ 14 days), antibiotics are not routinely prescribed unless the illness is severe or a secondary bacterial infection is suspected. Although bronchiolitis is usually self-limiting, some young children continue to have protracted symptoms (e...
August 22, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828217/a-pilot-study-on-the-effects-of-probiotic-supplementation-on-neuropsychological-performance-and-microrna-29a-c-levels-in-antiretroviral-treated-hiv-1-infected-patients
#2
Giancarlo Ceccarelli, Mariangela Fratino, Carla Selvaggi, Noemi Giustini, Sara Serafino, Ivan Schietroma, Giuseppe Corano Scheri, Paolo Pavone, Giulia Passavanti, Danilo Alunni Fegatelli, Ivano Mezzaroma, Guido Antonelli, Vincenzo Vullo, Carolina Scagnolari, Gabriella d'Ettorre
INTRODUCTION: The gut microbiota is involved in the regulation of cognition, mood, anxiety, and pain, and can impact cognitive functions by producing neuroactive substances or releasing bacterial by-products and metabolites. No information is available on the effects of a probiotic supplementation on brain function of HIV+ subjects. In light of the above considerations, we performed a pilot study in cART-treated HIV-1-positive patients with long-term virologic suppression. The aims were to analyze the effect of high-concentration multistrain probiotic supplementation (Vivomixx®; Visbiome®) on several neurocognitive abilities and to evaluate the safety of this supplementation...
August 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827029/temporal-assessment-of-microbial-communities-in-soils-of-two-contrasting-mangroves
#3
Janaina Rigonato, Angela D Kent, Thiago Gumiere, Luiz Henrique Zanini Branco, Fernando Dini Andreote, Marli Fátima Fiore
Variations in microbial communities promoted by alterations in environmental conditions are reflected in similarities/differences both at taxonomic and functional levels. Here we used a natural gradient within mangroves from seashore to upland, to contrast the natural variability in bacteria, cyanobacteria and diazotroph assemblages in a pristine area compared to an oil polluted area along a timespan of three years, based on ARISA (bacteria and cyanobacteria) and nifH T-RFLP (diazotrophs) fingerprinting. The data presented herein indicated that changes in all the communities evaluated were mainly driven by the temporal effect in the contaminated area, while local effects were dominant on the pristine mangrove...
August 1, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822736/-rhinovirus-underestimated-pathogens-in-patients-during-the-neonatal-period
#4
S Zacharie, A Vabret, B Guillois, C Dupont, J Brouard
INTRODUCTION: In recent years, developments in virological tools have led to the easy detection of rhinoviruses and enteroviruses (E/RV). Their detection is very frequent in cases of airway involvement in children and their demonstrated causality. But the morbidity of E/RV in the neonatal period is unknown due to lack of epidemiological data. The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence and clinical characteristics of these infections in hospitalized neonates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the virology specimens of all neonates hospitalized at the Caen University Hospital between 2006 and 2011...
August 16, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821865/identification-of-bacterial-biofilm-and-the-staphylococcus-aureus-derived-protease-staphopain-on-the-skin-surface-of-patients-with-atopic-dermatitis
#5
Andreas Sonesson, Kornelia Przybyszewska, Sigrid Eriksson, Matthias Mörgelin, Sven Kjellström, Julia Davies, Jan Potempa, Artur Schmidtchen
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by an impaired epidermal barrier, dysregulation of innate and adaptive immunity, and a high susceptibility to bacterial colonization and infection. In the present study, bacterial biofilm was visualized by electron microscopy at the surface of AD skin. Correspondingly, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) isolates from lesional skin of patients with AD, produced a substantial amount of biofilm in vitro. S. aureus biofilms showed less susceptibility to killing by the antimicrobial peptide LL-37 when compared with results obtained using planktonic cells...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821540/investigating-undergraduate-students-use-of-intuitive-reasoning-and-evolutionary-knowledge-in-explanations-of-antibiotic-resistance
#6
Melissa Richard, John D Coley, Kimberly D Tanner
Natural selection is a central concept throughout biology; however, it is a process frequently misunderstood. Bacterial resistance to antibiotic medications provides a contextual example of the relevance of evolutionary theory and is also commonly misunderstood. While research has shed light on student misconceptions of natural selection, minimal study has focused on misconceptions of antibiotic resistance. Additionally, research has focused on the degree to which misconceptions may be based in the complexity of biological information or in pedagogical choices, rather than in deep-seated cognitive patterns...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821380/unique-transcriptional-profile-of-native-persisters-in-escherichia-coli
#7
Shinya Matsumoto, Yuto Kawai, Satoshi Miyagawa, Yuka Iwamoto, Shujiro Okuda, Alicia Sánchez-Gorostiaga, Miguel Vicente, Satoshi Tsuneda
Non-dividing persisters, bacteria that can survive in the presence of antibiotics by pausing their metabolic activity, are among the many causes of the refractory nature of bacterial infections. Here we constructed a recombinant Escherichia coli strain that enables to distinguish non-dividing from dividing cell based on Z-ring during cell division. Then, non-dividing cells and dividing cells were successfully separated using a fluorescence activated cell sorter. The sorted non-dividing cells showed significantly higher tolerance toward ofloxacin than dividing cells, which indicates that persisters were concentrated with the methodology...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820897/persistent-infection-due-to-a-small-colony-variant-of-burkholderia-pseudomallei-leads-to-pd-1-upregulation-on-circulating-immune-cells-and-mononuclear-infiltration-in-viscera-of-experimental-balb-c-mice
#8
Jia-Xiang See, Samudi Chandramathi, Mahmood Ameen Abdulla, Jamuna Vadivelu, Esaki M Shankar
BACKGROUND: Melioidosis is a neglected tropical disease endemic across South East Asia and Northern Australia. The etiological agent, Burkholderia pseudomallei (B.pseudomallei), is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, motile bacterium residing in the soil and muddy water across endemic regions of the tropical world. The bacterium is known to cause persistent infections by remaining latent within host cells for prolonged duration. Reactivation of the recrudescent disease often occurs in elders whose immunity wanes...
August 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820412/-to-the-state-of-the-fetoplacental-complex-in-women-with-the-threat-of-abortion
#9
L Rzaguliyeva, Z Osmanli, S Akperbekova, N Meybalizade
The goal is a comprehensive study of the morphofunctional state of the mother-placenta-fetus system in placental insufficiency and infection. 250 pregnant and puerperas for the period 2008-2014 were examined. Detection of bacterial flora was carried out in 35 pregnant women aged 20.4±0.8 years with the threat of abortion from an early gestation period and a prolonged persistent infection of the genitals, bacterial vaginosis. Methods are applied: culture, ion chromatography, gas-liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry...
July 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819362/recurrent-csf-rhinorrhea-misdiagnosed-as-chronic-allergic-rhinitis-with-subsequent-development-of-bacterial-meningitis
#10
Michael T Ulrich, Lawrence K Loo, Michael B Ing
INTRODUCTION: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea results from an abnormal communication of the dura mater to the nasal mucosa. The majority of cases of CSF rhinorrhea are the result of trauma or surgery involving the skull base. Spontaneous CSF rhinorrhea is a rare clinical entity with increased risk of ascending infection. Delay in diagnosis places the patient at risk of developing meningitis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 36-year-old African American female with significant medical history of obesity and hypertension presented to the emergency department with headache, altered level of consciousness, fever, and neck stiffness...
2017: Case Reports in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817787/evaluation-of-the-electron-transfer-flavoprotein-etf-as-an-antibacterial-target-in-burkholderia-cenocepacia
#11
Maria S Stietz, Christina Lopez, Osasumwen Osifo, Marcelo Tolmasky, Silvia T Cardona
There are hundreds of essential genes in multidrug resistant bacterial genomes, but only a few of their products are exploited as antibacterial targets. An example is the electron flavoprotein (ETF) which is required for growth and viability in <i>Burkholderia cenocepacia</i>. Here, we evaluated ETF as an antibiotic target for <i>Burkholderia cepacia</i> complex (Bcc). Depletion of the bacterial ETF during infection of <i>Caenorhabditis elegans</i> significantly extended survival of the nematodes, proving that ETF is essential for survival of <i>B...
August 17, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816717/comparison-of-negative-pressure-wound-therapy-and-conventional-therapy-for-cranial-bone-exposed-wounds-in-rabbits
#12
Lin Chen, Guorui Li, Sha Liu, Xianjie Ma, Xueyong Li, Yingjun Su, Shuzhong Guo
BACKGROUND: Bone-exposed wounds with intact or defected periosteum are difficult to heal. To provide relevant experimental evidence for guidance of clinical therapy, we established a rabbit model to compare the efficacies of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) and conventional guaze dressing therapy on the healing of cranial bone-exposed wounds. METHODS: Full-thickness excisional circular wounds of 2.0 cm in diameter with exposed bones covered with or without periosteum were created at the parietal regions in 88 rabbits that were further randomly divided into the following treatment groups: periosteum-intact wounds treated with conventional vaseline gauze dressings (P + Control group), periosteum-intact wounds treated with NPWT (P + NPWT group), periosteum-lacking wounds treated with conventional vaseline gauze dressings (P-Control group), and periosteum-lacking wounds treated with NPWT (P-NPWT group)...
August 14, 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815848/inflammation-and-fertility-in-the-mare
#13
REVIEW
M Christoffersen, Mht Troedsson
A transient uterine inflammation post-breeding is a normal physiological reaction in the mare, and it is believed that the inflammatory response is necessary to eliminate bacteria and excess spermatozoa introduced into the uterine lumen. A tight balance between multiple pro- and anti-inflammatory factors is required for resolving the breeding-induced inflammation within 24-36 hr in the reproductively healthy mare, whereas a subpopulation of mares is susceptible to development of a persistent infection that can interfere with fertility...
August 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815509/production-of-minicircle-dna-vectors-using-site-specific-recombinases
#14
Nafiseh Sanei Ata-Abadi, Naeimeh Rezaei, Kianoush Dormiani, Mohammad Hossein Nasr-Esfahani
Minicircle DNA vectors are plasmid derivatives free of bacterial elements. These vectors are mostly provided from common plasmids via recombination by site-specific recombinases in E. coli. Absence of bacterial backbone in minicircle vectors results in high-level and persistent expression of transgene in comparison with conventional plasmids and provides promising vehicles for gene therapy and vaccination. Here we describe the production of replicative minicircle DNA vectors using the PBAD/araC system expressing ΦC31 integrase in E...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814419/chronic-cough-postacute-respiratory-illness-in-children-a-cohort-study
#15
Kerry-Ann F O'Grady, Benjamin J Drescher, Vikas Goyal, Natalie Phillips, Jason Acworth, Julie M Marchant, Anne B Chang
OBJECTIVE: Data on the aetiology of persistent cough at the transitional stage from subacute to chronic cough (>4 weeks duration) are scarce. We aimed to (1) identify the prevalence of chronic cough following acute respiratory illness (ARI) and (2) determine the diagnostic outcomes of children with chronic cough. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: A paediatric emergency department (ED) in Brisbane, Australia. PATIENTS: Children aged <15 years presenting with an ARI with cough...
August 16, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814284/effect-of-poly-hexamethylene-biguanide-hydrochloride-phmb-treated-non-sterile-medical-gloves-upon-the-transmission-of-streptococcus-pyogenes-carbapenem-resistant-e-coli-mrsa-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae-from-contact-surfaces
#16
S Ali, A P R Wilson
BACKGROUND: Reduction of accidental contamination of the near-patient environment has potential to reduce acquisition of healthcare-associated infection(s). Although medical gloves should be removed when soiled or touching the environment, compliance is variable. The use of antimicrobial-impregnated medical gloves could reduce the horizontal-transfer of bacterial contamination between surfaces. AIM: Determine the activity of antimicrobial-impregnated gloves against common hospital pathogens: Streptococcus pyogenes, carbapenem-resistant E...
August 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814268/the-genomic-architecture-of-mastitis-resistance-in-dairy-sheep
#17
G Banos, G Bramis, S J Bush, E L Clark, M E B McCulloch, J Smith, G Schulze, G Arsenos, D A Hume, A Psifidi
BACKGROUND: Mastitis is the most prevalent disease in dairy sheep with major economic, hygienic and welfare implications. The disease persists in all dairy sheep production systems despite the implementation of improved management practises. Selective breeding for enhanced mastitis resistance may provide the means to further control the disease. In the present study, we investigated the genetic architecture of four mastitis traits in dairy sheep. Individual animal records for clinical mastitis occurrence and three mastitis indicator traits (milk somatic cell count, total viable bacterial count in milk and the California mastitis test) were collected monthly throughout lactation for 609 ewes of the Greek Chios breed...
August 16, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813617/environmental-stress-affects-the-formation-of-staphylococcus-aureus-persisters-tolerant-to-antibiotics
#18
Lucie Kubistova, Lukas Dvoracek, Jan Tkadlec, Oto Melter, Irena Licha
The ability to form persisters has been observed in many microorganisms, including Staphylococcus aureus, mainly in the context of chronic infections and the pathogenicity of these microbes. In our research, we have demonstrated that salt or oxidative stress could play a role in the formation of S. aureus persisters outside the host's intracellular interface. We pre-exposed planktonic growing bacterial culture to an oxidative or salt stress and monitored the dynamics of persister formation after ciprofloxacin and gentamicin treatment...
August 16, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810997/cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-a-saudi-arabian-soldier-stationed-in-the-united-states
#19
Kelly Laurent, Jason Susong, Eric Fillman, Simon Ritchie
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is a common parasitic disease seen in many parts of the world, especially in areas where current U.S. and international forces are deployed. Approximately 350 million people are thought to be at risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) with an annual incidence of 1.5 million cases. Over 90% of cutaneous infections with Leishmania occur in the Middle East, Brazil, and Peru. Outbreaks of CL may occur in military personnel deployed to endemic areas. Since the incubation period for symptomatic CL ranges from weeks to months, symptoms may not appear until well after returning to the United States...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810610/microbial-investigations-in-throat-swab-and-tracheal-aspirate-specimens-are-beneficial-to-predict-the-corresponding-endotracheal-tube-biofilm-flora-among-intubated-neonates-with-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#20
Yun Pan, Lizhong Du, Qing Ai, Sijie Song, Xiaoli Tang, Danping Zhu, Jialin Yu
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common nosocomial infection in neonatal intensive care units with high morbidity and mortality. Bacterial biofilm in the endotracheal tube (ET) provides a notable and persistent source of pathogens that may cause VAP, and thus is important for VAP detection. However, during intubation microbial investigations in ET, samples are unavailable due to the infeasibility of collecting ET samples during intubation of neonates. It is therefore of great importance to find alternative sources of samples that can help identify the ET biofilm flora...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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