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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734808/-congenital-cytomegalovirus-infection-manifesting-as-neonatal-respiratory-distress-in-an-hiv-exposed-uninfected-newborn
#1
A Pham, H El Mjati, N Nathan, F Kieffer, D Mitanchez
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is one of the most common intrauterine infections, affecting approximately 1% of all live births. There are few reports on congenital CMV infections manifesting as isolated pneumonitis. CASE REPORT: We report a case of congenital CMV with neonatal respiratory distress affecting an HIV-exposed uninfected infant. This infant required noninvasive ventilation beginning within the first 15min of life. The initial chest X-ray showed diffuse bilateral ground-glass opacifications...
July 19, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733944/the-gastric-and-intestinal-microbiome-role-of-proton-pump-inhibitors
#2
REVIEW
Artem Minalyan, Lilit Gabrielyan, David Scott, Jonathan Jacobs, Joseph R Pisegna
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The discovery of Helicobacter pylori and other organisms colonizing the stomach and the intestines has shed some light on the importance of microbiome in maintaining overall health and developing pathological conditions when alterations in biodiversity are present. The gastric acidity plays a crucial role in filtering out bacteria and preventing development of enteric infections. In this article, we discuss the physiology of gastric acid secretion and bacterial contribution to the composition of gastric and intestinal barriers and review the current literature on the role of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in the microbial biodiversity of the gastrointestinal tract...
August 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731758/noncontact-cohesive-swimming-of-bacteria-in-two-dimensional-liquid-films
#3
Ye Li, He Zhai, Sandra Sanchez, Daniel B Kearns, Yilin Wu
Bacterial swimming in confined two-dimensional environments is ubiquitous in nature and in clinical settings. Characterizing individual interactions between swimming bacteria in 2D confinement will help to understand diverse microbial processes, such as bacterial swarming and biofilm formation. Here we report a novel motion pattern displayed by flagellated bacteria in 2D confinement: When two nearby cells align their moving directions, they tend to engage in cohesive swimming without direct cell body contact, as a result of hydrodynamic interaction but not flagellar intertwining...
July 7, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729253/genome-sequences-of-the-first-who-repository-of-platelet-transfusion-relevant-bacterial-reference-strains
#4
Alexander Mellmann, Eva Spindler-Raffel, Stefan Bletz, Marcel Prax, Isabelle Bekeredjian-Ding
To develop novel techniques for improving blood safety, dedicated bacterial strains, which are able to persist and to proliferate in blood platelet concentrates, are needed. Here, we present draft genome sequences of the four bacterial strains approved for the first WHO repository of platelet transfusion-relevant bacterial reference strains.
July 20, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728752/nano-structured-antimicrobial-surfaces-from-nature-to-synthetic-analogues
#5
REVIEW
Aaron Elbourne, Russell J Crawford, Elena P Ivanova
The scientific and industrial interest in antimicrobial surfaces has significantly increased in recent times. This interest is largely in response to the persistent microbial contamination of industrial and, importantly, medical implant surfaces. Bacterial contamination of implant surfaces often leads to infection at the implant-tissue interface, and with the prevalence of increasing levels of antimicrobial resistance, the treatment of these infections is becoming far more challenging. Recently, many naturally occurring, high-aspect-ratio surface topographies have been discovered that exhibit high levels of biocidal efficacy...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724903/co-expression-network-analysis-of-toxin-antitoxin-loci-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-reveals-key-modulators-of-cellular-stress
#6
Amita Gupta, Balaji Venkataraman, Madavan Vasudevan, Kiran Gopinath Bankar
Research on toxin-antitoxin loci (TA loci) is gaining impetus due to their ubiquitous presence in bacterial genomes and their observed roles in stress survival, persistence and drug tolerance. The present study investigates the expression profile of all the seventy-nine TA loci found in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The bacterium was subjected to multiple stress conditions to identify key players of cellular stress response and elucidate a TA-coexpression network. This study provides direct experimental evidence for transcriptional activation of each of the seventy-nine TA loci following mycobacterial exposure to growth-limiting environments clearly establishing TA loci as stress-responsive modules in M...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724401/deciphering-functional-diversification-within-the-lichen-microbiota-by-meta-omics
#7
Tomislav Cernava, Armin Erlacher, Ines Aline Aschenbrenner, Lisa Krug, Christian Lassek, Katharina Riedel, Martin Grube, Gabriele Berg
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence of specific bacterial communities extended the traditional concept of fungal-algal lichen symbioses by a further organismal kingdom. Although functional roles were already assigned to dominant members of the highly diversified microbiota, a substantial fraction of the ubiquitous colonizers remained unexplored. We employed a multi-omics approach to further characterize functional guilds in an unconventional model system. RESULTS: The general community structure of the lichen-associated microbiota was shown to be highly similar irrespective of the employed omics approach...
July 19, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721078/incomplete-recovery-of-the-fecal-flora-of-hematological-patients-with-neutropenia-and-repeated-fluoroquinolone-prophylaxis
#8
Yong Chong, Shinji Shimoda, Noriko Miyake, Takatoshi Aoki, Yoshikiyo Ito, Tomohiko Kamimura, Nobuyuki Shimono
BACKGROUND: Routine fluoroquinolone prophylaxis in neutropenic patients with hematological malignancies is still controversial, because of antibiotic resistance concerns. The recovery of the fecal microbiota to the initial composition in patients receiving multiple courses of quinolone prophylaxis and repeated chemotherapy has not been evaluated. METHODS: We prospectively examined the changes in the fecal bacterial composition before and after levofloxacin prophylaxis...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717834/characterizing-the-adherence-profiles-of-virulent-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-isolates
#9
Alisha M Aagesen, Sureerat Phuvasate, Yi-Cheng Su, Claudia C Häse
The human pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a leading cause of seafood-borne illness in the USA, and infections with V. parahaemolyticus typically result from eating raw or undercooked oysters. V. parahaemolyticus has been shown to be highly resistant to oyster depuration, suggesting that the bacterium possesses specific mechanisms or factors for colonizing oysters and persisting during depuration. In this study, we characterized eight different V. parahaemolyticus strains for differences in resistance to oyster depuration, biofilm formation, and motility...
July 17, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717092/cerebrospinal-fluid-rhinorrhea-and-subsequent-bacterial-meningitis-due-to-an-atypical-clival-fracture
#10
Rie Tohge, Makio Takahashi
Cases of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea due to clival fracture are rare. We present a case of bacterial meningitis with CSF rhinorrhea after a clival fracture. Heavily T2-weighted images showed a bone flap in the thinned clivus and fluid collection in the sphenoid sinus. CSF rhinorrhea developed at 1 month after mild trauma. The fracture may have been caused by the trauma and/or by the pressure gradient between the intracranial CSF space and the sphenoid sinus. A detailed history to identify trauma and an examination to detect bone defects in the skull base are necessary when patients present with bacterial meningitis and persistent rhinorrhea...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717038/a-human-biofilm-disrupting-monoclonal-antibody-potentiates-antibiotic-efficacy-in-rodent-models-of-both-staphylococcus-aureus-and-acinetobacter-baumannii-infections
#11
Yan Q Xiong, Angeles Estellés, L Li, W Abdelhady, R Gonzales, Arnold S Bayer, Edgar Tenorio, Anton Leighton, Stefan Ryser, Lawrence M Kauvar
Many serious bacterial infections are antibiotic-refractory due to biofilm formation. A key structural component of biofilm is extracellular DNA which is stabilized by bacterial proteins, including those from the DNABII family. TRL1068 is a high affinity human monoclonal antibody against a DNABII epitope conserved across both gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial species. In the current study, the efficacy of TRL1068 for disruption of biofilm was demonstrated in vitro in the absence of antibiotics by scanning electron microscopy...
July 17, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716566/combatting-bacterial-persister-cell-infections-by-auranofin
#12
EDITORIAL
Babak Asghari, Hamid Reza Sadeghi, Hamzeh Mazaherylaghab
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 14, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715646/l-form-bacteria-cohabitants-in-human-blood-significance-for-health-and-diseases
#13
Nadya D Markova
From a historical perspective, intriguing assumptions about unknown "live units" in human blood have attracted the attention of researchers, reflecting their desire to define a new class of microorganisms. Thus, the concept of "blood microbiota" brings about many questions about the nature, origin, and biological significance of the "unusual microbial cohabitants" in human blood. In contrast to current views that bloodstream in healthy humans is sterile, the hypothesis about the existence of microbes as L-forms (cell wall deficient bacteria) in human blood has evolved on the basis of known facts about their unique biology, as observed in our studies and those of other authors...
May 2017: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714889/staphylococcus-aureus-regulator-sigma-b-is-important-to-develop-chronic-infections-in-hematogenous-murine-osteomyelitis-model
#14
Lorena Tuchscherr, Jennifer Geraci, Bettina Löffler
Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen causing bone infections that can become chronic and difficult to treat. Recently, we described the mechanism employed by S. aureus to switch to small colony variants (SCVs) and trigger intracellular bacterial persistence through the global stress regulator SigB. Here, we studied the role of SigB in the formation of chronic osteomyelitis. We used a murine hematogenous osteomyelitis model, where the mice were infected via the tail vein and subsequently developed chronic osteomyelitis...
July 15, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713776/modulation-of-trehalose-dimycolate-and-immune-system-by-rv0774c-protein-enhanced-the-intracellular-survival-of-mycobacterium-smegmatis-in-human-macrophages-cell-line
#15
Arbind Kumar, Varinder Saini, Anjani Kumar, Jasbinder Kaur, Jagdeep Kaur
Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv0774c protein was reported previously to express under stress conditions. Therefore, Rv0774c gene was cloned and expressed in Mycobacterium smegmatis, a surrogate host, to determine its role in bacterial persistence and immune modulation in natural environment. The bacterial colonies expressing Rv0774c (Ms_rv0774c) were larger, smoother, more moist, and flatter than the control ones (Ms_ve). Enhanced survival of Ms_rv0774c after treatment with streptomycin was observed when compared with control...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713431/an-unexpected-cause-of-bradycardia-in-a-patient-with-bacterial-meningitis
#16
Petros Ioannou, Magdalini Velegraki, Stella Soundoulounaki, Achilleas Gikas, Diamantis P Kofteridis
Sinus bradycardia which is a sinus rhythm with a resting heart rate of less than 60 bpm is caused by intrinsic cardiac disorders like sick sinus syndrome or inferior myocardial infarction, metabolic and environmental causes (such as hypothyroidism and electrolyte disorders), medications (such as beta-blockers and amiodarone), infection (such as myocarditis), increased intracranial pressure, and toxic exposure, while it can sometimes be a normal phenomenon, especially during sleep, in athletes, and during pregnancy...
2017: Case Reports in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711576/explaining-coexistence-of-nitrogen-fixing-and-non-fixing-rhizobia-in-legume-rhizobia-mutualism-using-mathematical-modeling
#17
G Moyano, D Marco, D Knopoff, G Torres, C Turner
In the mutualism established between legumes and soil bacteria known as rhizobia, bacteria from soil infect plants roots and reproduce inside root nodules where they fix atmospheric N2 for plant nutrition, receiving carbohydrates in exchange. Host-plant sanctions against non N2 fixing, cheating bacterial symbionts have been proposed to act in the legume-Rhizobium symbiosis, to preserve the mutualistic relationship. Sanctions include decreased rhizobial survival in nodules occupied by cheating rhizobia. Previously, a simple population model experimentally based showed that the coexistence of fixing and cheating rhizobia strains commonly found in field conditions is possible, and that the inclusion of sanctions leads to the extinction of cheating strains in soil...
July 12, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710521/efflux-drug-transporters-at-the-forefront-of-antimicrobial-resistance
#18
REVIEW
Tahmina Rahman, Benjamin Yarnall, Declan A Doyle
Bacterial antibiotic resistance is rapidly becoming a major world health consideration. To combat antibiotics, microorganisms employ their pre-existing defence mechanisms that existed long before man's discovery of antibiotics. Bacteria utilise levels of protection that range from gene upregulation, mutations, adaptive resistance, and production of resistant phenotypes (persisters) to communal behaviour, as in swarming and the ultimate defence of a biofilm. A major part of all of these responses involves the use of antibiotic efflux transporters...
July 14, 2017: European Biophysics Journal: EBJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709130/bacterial-adhesins-the-pathogenic-weapons-to-trick-host-defense-arsenal
#19
REVIEW
Seema Patel, Nithya Mathivanan, Arun Goyal
Adhesins are bacterial proteins with host cell adhesive properties. These proteins occur in diverse architectures, ranging from capsules, vesicles, pili, fimbri, to enzymes. These proteins interact with host cell surface receptor proteins, for cross-membrane- trafficking and the invasion of host cells. Thus, they lead to inflammation and pathogenesis, of chronic as well as acute type. Inhibition of adhesin-mediated immune activation can be possible by mannose supplementation, assembly disruption, and host receptor blockage, among other approaches...
July 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708832/assessing-respiratory-pathogen-communities-in-bighorn-sheep-populations-sampling-realities-challenges-and-improvements
#20
Carson J Butler, William H Edwards, Jessica E Jennings-Gaines, Halcyon J Killion, Mary E Wood, Douglas E McWhirter, J Terrill Paterson, Kelly M Proffitt, Emily S Almberg, P J White, Jay J Rotella, Robert A Garrott
Respiratory disease has been a persistent problem for the recovery of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), but has uncertain etiology. The disease has been attributed to several bacterial pathogens including Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Pasteurellaceae pathogens belonging to the Mannheimia, Bibersteinia, and Pasteurella genera. We estimated detection probability for these pathogens using protocols with diagnostic tests offered by a fee-for-service laboratory and not offered by a fee-for-service laboratory. We conducted 2861 diagnostic tests on swab samples collected from 476 bighorn sheep captured across Montana and Wyoming to gain inferences regarding detection probability, pathogen prevalence, and the power of different sampling methodologies to detect pathogens in bighorn sheep populations...
2017: PloS One
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