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Bacterial persistence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545061/microbiota-induced-peritrophic-matrix-regulates-midgut-homeostasis-and-prevents-systemic-infection-of-malaria-vector-mosquitoes
#1
Faye H Rodgers, Mathilde Gendrin, Claudia A S Wyer, George K Christophides
Manipulation of the mosquito gut microbiota can lay the foundations for novel methods for disease transmission control. Mosquito blood feeding triggers a significant, transient increase of the gut microbiota, but little is known about the mechanisms by which the mosquito controls this bacterial growth whilst limiting inflammation of the gut epithelium. Here, we investigate the gut epithelial response to the changing microbiota load upon blood feeding in the malaria vector Anopheles coluzzii. We show that the synthesis and integrity of the peritrophic matrix, which physically separates the gut epithelium from its luminal contents, is microbiota dependent...
May 17, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543707/viable-bacteria-persist-on-antibiotic-spacers-following-two-stage-revision-for-periprosthetic-joint-infection
#2
Dongzhu Ma, Robert M Q Shanks, Charles M Davis, David W Craft, Thomas K Wood, Brian R Hamlin, Kenneth L Urish
Treatment in periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) remains challenging. The failure rate of two-stage revision and irrigation and debridement with component retention in PJI suggests that biofilm cells have a high tolerance to antibiotic chemotherapy. Previous work has demonstrated that biofilm cells have high antibiotic tolerance in vitro, but there is little clinical evidence to support these observations. The aim of this study was to determine if retrieved antibiotic spacers from two-stage revision total knee arthroplasty for PJI have evidence of remaining viable bacteria...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542586/antigen-delivery-to-dendritic-cells-shapes-human-cd4-and-cd8-t-cell-memory-responses-to-staphylococcus-aureus
#3
Julia Uebele, Christoph Stein, Minh-Thu Nguyen, Anja Schneider, Franziska Kleinert, Olga Tichá, Gabriele Bierbaum, Friedrich Götz, Isabelle Bekeredjian-Ding
Intracellular persistence of Staphylococcus aureus favors bacterial spread and chronic infections. Here, we provide evidence for the existence of human CD4+ and CD8+ T cell memory against staphylococcal antigens. Notably, the latter could provide a missing link in our understanding of immune control of intracellular S. aureus. The analyses showed that pulsing of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDC) with native staphylococcal protein antigens induced release of Th2-associated cytokines and mediators linked to T regulatory cell development (G-CSF, IL-2 and IL-10) from both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, thus revealing a state of tolerance predominantly arising from preformed memory T cells...
May 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542173/metabolic-and-fitness-determinants-for-in-vitro-growth-and-intestinal-colonization-of-the-bacterial-pathogen-campylobacter-jejuni
#4
Beile Gao, Hanne Vorwerk, Claudia Huber, Maria Lara-Tejero, Juliane Mohr, Andrew L Goodman, Wolfgang Eisenreich, Jorge E Galán, Dirk Hofreuter
Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading infectious causes of food-borne illness around the world. Its ability to persistently colonize the intestinal tract of a broad range of hosts, including food-producing animals, is central to its epidemiology since most infections are due to the consumption of contaminated food products. Using a highly saturated transposon insertion library combined with next-generation sequencing and a mouse model of infection, we have carried out a comprehensive genome-wide analysis of the fitness determinants for growth in vitro and in vivo of a highly pathogenic strain of C...
May 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542110/pneumonia-after-liver-transplantation
#5
Stephanie A K Angarita, Tara A Russell, Fady M Kaldas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pneumonia occurs in 8-23% of patients after liver transplantation and contributes considerably to their morbidity and mortality. With the increasing acuity of liver transplantation patients in the current era, pneumonias, particularly ventilator-associated pneumonias, and multidrug-resistant pathogens, are of growing concern. RECENT FINDINGS: Postliver transplantation pneumonia cause varies with the timing of infection. In the early period (<1 month postliver transplantation), nosocomial pneumonias, including ventilator-associated pneumonias and multidrug-resistant species are most common...
May 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541799/limited-engraftment-of-donor-microbiome-via-one-time-fecal-microbial-transplantation-in-treated-hiv-infected-individuals
#6
Ivan Vujkovic-Cvijin, Rachel L Rutishauser, Montha Pao, Peter W Hunt, Susan V Lynch, Joseph M McCune, Ma Somsouk
BACKGROUND: Many HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) exhibit persistent systemic inflammation, which predicts morbidity and mortality. ART-treated subjects concurrently exhibit marked compositional alterations in the gut bacterial microbiota and the degree of dysbiosis correlates with systemic inflammation. Whether interventions to modulate the microbiome can affect systemic inflammation is unknown. METHODS: An open-label fecal microbial transplantation (FMT) was delivered by colonoscopy to asymptomatic HIV-infected ART-suppressed individuals without antibiotic pre-treatment...
May 25, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540732/mouse-model-of-colonization-of-the-digestive-tract-with-acinetobacter-baumannii-and-subsequent-pneumonia
#7
Noémie Coron, Silvie Pavlickova, Angélique Godefroy, Hélène Pailhoriès, Marie Kempf, Viviane Cassisa, Laurent Marsollier, Estelle Marion, Marie-Laure Joly-Guillou, Matthieu Eveillard
AIM: Implementing a mouse model of Acinetobacter baumannii (AB) digestive colonization and studying the propensity of an intestinal reservoir of AB to be at the origin of pneumonia. MATERIALS & METHODS: After a disruption of the digestive flora by piperacillin-tazobactam, two multidrug-resistant AB strains were intranasally inoculated to two cohorts of ten mice daily. For each strain, five mice were rendered transiently neutropenic. RESULTS & CONCLUSION: One strain persisted several weeks in the digestive tract, even after stopping piperacillin-tazobactam injections, leading to the hypothesis that some AB strains can authentically colonize the gut...
May 25, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539477/bacterial-colonization-and-succession-in-a-newly-opened-hospital
#8
Simon Lax, Naseer Sangwan, Daniel Smith, Peter Larsen, Kim M Handley, Miles Richardson, Kristina Guyton, Monika Krezalek, Benjamin D Shogan, Jennifer Defazio, Irma Flemming, Baddr Shakhsheer, Stephen Weber, Emily Landon, Sylvia Garcia-Houchins, Jeffrey Siegel, John Alverdy, Rob Knight, Brent Stephens, Jack A Gilbert
The microorganisms that inhabit hospitals may influence patient recovery and outcome, although the complexity and diversity of these bacterial communities can confound our ability to focus on potential pathogens in isolation. To develop a community-level understanding of how microorganisms colonize and move through the hospital environment, we characterized the bacterial dynamics among hospital surfaces, patients, and staff over the course of 1 year as a new hospital became operational. The bacteria in patient rooms, particularly on bedrails, consistently resembled the skin microbiota of the patient occupying the room...
May 24, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536573/mqsr-mqsa-toxin-antitoxin-system-regulates-persistence-and-biofilm-formation-in-pseudomonas-putida-kt2440
#9
Chenglong Sun, Yunxue Guo, Kaihao Tang, Zhongling Wen, Baiyuan Li, Zhenshun Zeng, Xiaoxue Wang
Bacterial toxin/antitoxin (TA) systems have received increasing attention due to their prevalence, diverse structures, and important physiological functions. In this study, we identified and characterized a type II TA system in a soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida KT2440. This TA system belongs to the MqsR/MqsA family. We found that PP_4205 (MqsR) greatly inhibits cell growth in P. putida KT2440 and Escherichia coli, the antitoxin PP_4204 (MqsA) neutralizes the toxicity of the toxin MqsR, and the two genes encoding them are co-transcribed...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534905/antimicrobial-peptide-inspired-nh125-analogues-bacterial-and-fungal-biofilm-eradicating-agents-and-rapid-killers-of-mrsa-persisters
#10
Akash Basak, Yasmeen Abouelhassan, Ran Zuo, Hussain Yousaf, Yousong Ding, Robert W Huigens
During microbial infection, antimicrobial peptides are utilized by the immune response to rapidly eradicate microbial pathogens through the destruction of cellular membranes. Inspired by antimicrobial peptides, quaternary ammonium cationic (QAC) compounds have emerged as agents capable of destroying bacterial membranes leading to rapid bacterial death, including the eradication of persistent, surface-attached bacterial biofilms. NH125, an imidazolium cation with a sixteen membered fatty tail, was recently reported to eradicate persister cells and was our starting point for the development of novel antimicrobial agents...
May 23, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533985/metabarcoding-monitoring-analysis-the-pros-and-cons-of-using-co-extracted-environmental-dna-and-rna-data-to-assess-offshore-oil-production-impacts-on-benthic-communities
#11
Olivier Laroche, Susanna A Wood, Louis A Tremblay, Gavin Lear, Joanne I Ellis, Xavier Pochon
Sequencing environmental DNA (eDNA) is increasingly being used as an alternative to traditional morphological-based identification to characterize biological assemblages and monitor anthropogenic impacts in marine environments. Most studies only assess eDNA which, compared to eRNA, can persist longer in the environment after cell death. Therefore, eRNA may provide a more immediate census of the environment due to its relatively weaker stability, leading some researchers to advocate for the use of eRNA as an additional, or perhaps superior proxy for portraying ecological changes...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532808/immune-response-of-staphylococcus-aureus-strains-in-a-mouse-mastitis-model-is-linked-to-adaptive-capacity-and-genotypic-profiles
#12
Elizabet A L Pereyra, Sofía C Sacco, Andrea Duré, Celina Baravalle, María S Renna, Carolina S Andreotti, Stefan Monecke, Luis F Calvinho, Bibiana E Dallard
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequently isolated major pathogens from intramammary infections (IMI) worldwide. The mechanisms by which S. aureus IMI are established and maintained in dairy cows involve both bacterial escape strategies and modulation of the host immune response. Moreover, it was shown that different S. aureus strains have varying effects on the immune response. The aim of this study was to investigate the immune response in a mouse mastitis model of two S. aureus strains isolated from bovine IMI with different clinical manifestation (persistent-P or non-persistent-NP), phenotypic and genotypic profile...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532790/a-safe-and-molecular-tagged-brucella-canis-ghosts-confers-protection-against-virulent-challenge-in-mice
#13
Jing Qian, Zhaoyang Bu, Xulong Lang, Guangmou Yan, Yanling Yang, Xiuran Wang, Xinglong Wang
Canine brucellosis, caused by Brucella canis, is a persistent infectious reproductive disease in dogs. The absence of effective treatment to the intracellular pathogen and the irreversible consequence of infection makes the need of a specific vaccine urgent. Bacterial ghosts (BGs) are the empty envelopes of bacteria with no genome content inside, which emerge as a proper vaccine candidate due to its intact outer antigen. It is generally derived from a genetically engineered strain, through the expression of Bacteriophage phiX174 lysis E gene upon induction...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530469/rapid-bacterial-detection-during-endodontic-treatment
#14
D B Herzog, N A Hosny, S A Niazi, G Koller, R J Cook, F Foschi, T F Watson, F Mannocci, F Festy
Bacteria present in the root canal (RC) space following an RC treatment (RCT) can lead to persistent infections, resulting in treatment failure and the need for reintervention or extraction. Currently, there are no standardized methods in use to clinically detect bacterial presence within RC spaces. The use of paper point sampling and fluorescence staining was shown to be a rapid method, able to detect residual bacteria following treatment. The study demonstrated that Calcein acetoxymethyl (AM) proved to be a suitable dye for detecting vital bacteria within mature endodontic biofilms, with an improved sensitivity over colony-forming unit counting in a stressed biofilm model...
June 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529864/allograft-bone-as-antibiotic-carrier
#15
REVIEW
Heinz Winkler, Peter Haiden
The treatment of chronic bone and joint infections is characterized by obstinate persistency of the causing microorganisms and resulting long term disability to patients, associated with remarkable costs for the health care system. Difficulties derive from biofilm formed on dead bone and eventual implants, with resistance against immunological defences and antimicrobial substances. Biofilm embedded bacteria require up to 1000 times the antibiotic concentration of planktonic bacteria for elimination. Systemic antibiotic treatment alone cannot provide the concentrations required and surgical intervention is always prerequisite for potentially providing a cure...
2017: J Bone Jt Infect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529326/persistent-bacterial-infections-and-persister-cells
#16
REVIEW
Robert A Fisher, Bridget Gollan, Sophie Helaine
Many bacteria can infect and persist inside their hosts for long periods of time. This can be due to immunosuppression of the host, immune evasion by the pathogen and/or ineffective killing by antibiotics. Bacteria can survive antibiotic treatment if they are resistant or tolerant to a drug. Persisters are a subpopulation of transiently antibiotic-tolerant bacterial cells that are often slow-growing or growth-arrested, and are able to resume growth after a lethal stress. The formation of persister cells establishes phenotypic heterogeneity within a bacterial population and has been hypothesized to be important for increasing the chances of successfully adapting to environmental change...
May 22, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528201/x-linked-carriers-of-chronic-granulomatous-disease-illness-lyonization-and-stability
#17
Beatriz E Marciano, Christa S Zerbe, E Liana Falcone, Li Ding, Suk See DeRavin, Janine Daub, Samantha Kreuzburg, Lynne Yockey, Sally Hunsberger, Ladan Foruraghi, Lisa A Barnhart, Kabir Matharu, Victoria Anderson, Dirk N Darnell, Cathleen Frein, Danielle L Fink, Karen P Lau, Debra A Long Priel, John I Gallin, Harry L Malech, Gulbu Uzel, Alexandra F Freeman, Douglas B Kuhns, Sergio D Rosenzweig, Steven M Holland
BACKGROUND: Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is characterized by recurrent life-threatening bacterial and fungal infections and aberrant inflammation. Mutations in CYBB cause X-linked CGD and account for 65%-70% of cases in western countries. OBJECTIVE: To understand the clinical manifestations associated with the X-linked CGD carrier state. METHODS: We undertook a comprehensive retrospective study of 162 affected females. We examined dihydrorhodamine oxidation (DHR) data for percent (%) X chromosome inactivation...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526786/impact-of-acanthamoeba-cysts-on-stress-resistance-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium-yersinia-enterocolitica-4-o-3-listeria-monocytogenes-1-2a-and-escherichia-coli-o-26
#18
Ellen Lambrecht, Julie Baré, Koen Sabbe, Kurt Houf
The formation of robust resting cysts enables Acanthamoeba to resist harsh environmental conditions. This study investigated to what extent these cysts are resistant to physical and chemical stresses as applied in food industry cleaning and disinfection procedures. Moreover it was assessed whether certain intracystic meatborne bacterial pathogens are more stress-resistant than free-living bacterial monocultures and if intracystic passage and subsequent association with trophozoites induces cross-tolerance towards other stressors...
May 19, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526497/mixed-species-biofilms-of-fusobacterium-necrophorum-and-porphyromonas-levii-impair-the-oxidative-response-of-bovine-neutrophils-in-vitro
#19
Joey S Lockhart, Andre G Buret, Howard Ceri, Douglas G Storey, Stefanie J Anderson, Douglas W Morck
Biofilms composed of anaerobic bacteria can result in persistent infections and chronic inflammation. Host immune cells have difficulties clearing biofilm-related infections and this can result in tissue damage. Neutrophils are a vital component of the innate immune system and help clear biofilms. The comparative neutrophilic response to biofilms versus planktonic bacteria remains incompletely understood, particularly in the context of mixed infections. The objective of this study was to generate mixed species anaerobic bacterial biofilms composed of two opportunistic pathogens, Fusobacterium necrophorum and Porphyromonas levii, and evaluate neutrophil responses to extracellular fractions from both biofilms and planktonic cell co-cultures of the same bacteria...
May 16, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524019/in-vitro-ability-of-mastitis-causing-pathogens-to-form-biofilms
#20
Sarah Schönborn, Nicole Wente, Jan-Hendrik Paduch, Volker Krömker
This Research Communication describes the study of in vitro biofilm formation of mastitis causing pathogens. Biofilms are communities of bacteria that are attached to a surface and to each other and are embedded in a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substances. Biofilm formation is an important virulence factor that may result in recurrent or persistent udder infections and treatment failure through increased resistance to antibiotics and protection against host defences. In the present study 252 bacterial isolates from milk samples from bovine udder quarters with intramammary infections were examined with Congo Red agar (CRA) method and tube method (TM) for their ability to form biofilms...
May 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
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