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Bacterial persistence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109195/fungal-periprosthetic-joint-infection-following-total-elbow-arthroplasty-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#1
Cory A Kwong, Shannon K T Puloski, Kevin A Hildebrand
BACKGROUND: With improving surgical techniques for total elbow arthroplasty clinical outcomes have improved and its utilization continues to increase. Despite these advances, complication rates remain as high as 24%. Of these complications periprosthetic joint infection is one of the most common and morbid. The rheumatoid elbow remains a leading indication for total elbow arthroplasty. Patients with this condition frequently require immunosuppressive therapy, which places them at higher risk of both typical and atypical infections...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105684/bacterial-microcompartment-directed-polyphosphate-kinase-promotes-stable-polyphosphate-accumulation-in-e-coli
#2
Mingzhi Liang, Stefanie Frank, Heinrich Lünsdorf, Martin J Warren, Michael B Prentice
Processes for the biological removal of phosphate from wastewater rely on temporary manipulation of bacterial polyphosphate levels by phased environmental stimuli. In E. coli polyphosphate levels are controlled via the polyphosphate-synthesizing enzyme polyphosphate kinase (PPK1) and exopolyphosphatases (PPX and GPPA), and are temporarily enhanced by PPK1 overexpression and reduced by PPX overexpression. We hypothesised that partitioning PPK1 from cytoplasmic exopolyphosphatases would increase and stabilise E...
January 20, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100596/genomic-epidemiology-of-penicillin-non-susceptible-pneumococci-with-non-vaccine-serotypes-causing-invasive-disease-in-the-usa
#3
Cheryl P Andam, Patrick K Mitchell, Alanna Callendrello, Qiuzhi Chang, Jukka Corander, Chrispin Chaguza, Lesley McGee, Bernard W Beall, William P Hanage
Conjugate vaccination against seven pneumococcal serotypes (PCV7) reduced disease prevalence due to antibiotic resistant strains throughout the 2000s; however, disease caused by resistant non-vaccine type (NVT) strains increased. Some of these emerging strains were derived from vaccine types (VT) that had changed their capsule by recombination. The introduction of vaccine targeting 13 serotypes (PCV13) in 2010 has led to concern that this scenario will repeat itself. We generated high quality draft genomes from 265 isolates of NVT pneumococci not susceptible to penicillin (PNSP) in 2009 and compared them with 581 isolates from 2012-2013, collected by the Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098783/the-influence-of-the-toxin-antitoxin-mazef-on-growth-and-survival-of-listeria-monocytogenes-under-stress
#4
Thomas D Curtis, Ippei Takeuchi, Lone Gram, Gitte M Knudsen
A major factor in the resilience of Listeria monocytogenes is the alternative sigma factor B (σ(B)). Type II Toxin/Antitoxin (TA) systems are also known to have a role in the bacterial stress response upon activation via the ClpP or Lon proteases. Directly upstream of the σ(B) operon in L. monocytogenes is the TA system mazEF, which can cleave mRNA at UACMU sites. In this study, we showed that the mazEF TA locus does not affect the level of persister formation during treatment with antibiotics in lethal doses, but exerts different effects according to the sub-inhibitory stress added...
January 13, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097816/effect-of-temperature-and-colonization-of-legionella-pneumophila-and-vermamoeba-vermiformis-on-bacterial-community-composition-of-copper-drinking-water-biofilms
#5
Helen Y Buse, Pan Ji, Vicente Gomez-Alvarez, Amy Pruden, Marc A Edwards, Nicholas J Ashbolt
It is unclear how the water-based pathogen, Legionella pneumophila (Lp), and associated free-living amoeba (FLA) hosts change or are changed by the microbial composition of drinking water (DW) biofilm communities. Thus, this study characterized the bacterial community structure over a 7-month period within mature (> 600-day-old) copper DW biofilms in reactors simulating premise plumbing and assessed the impact of temperature and introduction of Lp and its FLA host, Vermamoeba vermiformis (Vv), co-cultures (LpVv)...
January 18, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097306/universal-trichloroacetic-acid-peel-technique-for-light-and-dark-skin
#6
Nabil Fanous, Shadi Zari
Importance: Despite their great potential, medium and deep trichloroacetic acid peels are underused in light-skinned patients and are rarely used in darker-skinned patients because of the widespread fear of pigmentary complications and scarring. This concern has led many physicians to opt for the use of lighter types of peels (glycolic acid peel, Jessner peel, etc) and different lasers and intense light technologies. Trichloroacetic acid peels have been described in numerous publications...
January 12, 2017: JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097102/mechanisms-of-accelerated-liver-fibrosis-progression-during-hiv-infection
#7
REVIEW
Jose D Debes, Paul R Bohjanen, Andre Boonstra
With the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART), a dramatic reduction in HIV-related morbidity and mortality has been observed. However, it is now becoming increasingly clear that liver-related complications, particularly rapid fibrosis development from ART as well as from the chronic HIV infection itself, are of serious concern to HIV patients. The pathophysiology of liver fibrosis in patients with HIV is a multifactorial process whereby persistent viral replication, and bacterial translocation lead to chronic immune activation and inflammation, which ART is unable to fully suppress, promoting production of fibrinogenic mediators and fibrosis...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096484/evolutionary-dynamics-of-pandemic-methicillin-sensitive-staphylococcus-aureus-st398-and-its-international-spread-via-routes-of-human-migration
#8
Anne-Catrin Uhlemann, Paul R McAdam, Sean B Sullivan, Justin R Knox, Hossein Khiabanian, Raul Rabadan, Peter R Davies, J Ross Fitzgerald, Franklin D Lowy
: Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) accounts for the majority of S. aureus infections globally, and yet surprisingly little is known about its clonal evolution. We applied comparative whole-genome sequencing (WGS) analyses to epidemiologically and geographically diverse ST398-MSSA, a pandemic lineage affecting both humans and livestock. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis predicted divergence of human-associated ST398-MSSA ~40 years ago. Isolates from Midwestern pigs and veterinarians differed substantially from those in New York City (NYC)...
January 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096401/ornithine-decarboxylase-regulates-m1-macrophage-activation-and-mucosal-inflammation-via-histone-modifications
#9
Dana M Hardbower, Mohammad Asim, Paula B Luis, Kshipra Singh, Daniel P Barry, Chunying Yang, Meredith A Steeves, John L Cleveland, Claus Schneider, M Blanca Piazuelo, Alain P Gobert, Keith T Wilson
Macrophage activation is a critical step in host responses during bacterial infections. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine metabolism, has been well studied in epithelial cells and is known to have essential roles in many different cellular functions. However, its role in regulating macrophage function during bacterial infections is not well characterized. We demonstrate that macrophage-derived ODC is a critical regulator of M1 macrophage activation during both Helicobacter pylori and Citrobacter rodentium infection...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093527/human-cystic-fibrosis-macrophages-have-defective-calcium-dependent-protein-kinase-c-activation-of-the-nadph-oxidase-an-effect-augmented-by-burkholderia-cenocepacia
#10
Kaivon Assani, Chandra L Shrestha, Frank Robledo-Avila, Murugesan V Rajaram, Santiago Partida-Sanchez, Larry S Schlesinger, Benjamin T Kopp
Macrophage intracellular pathogen killing is defective in cystic fibrosis (CF), despite abundant production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in lung tissue. Burkholderia species can cause serious infection in CF and themselves affect key oxidase components in murine non-CF cells. However, it is unknown whether human CF macrophages have an independent defect in the oxidative burst and whether Burkholderia contributes to this defect in terms of assembly of the NADPH oxidase complex and subsequent ROS production...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089757/disorazoles-block-group-a-streptococcal-invasion-into-epithelial-cells-via-interference-with-the-host-factor-ezrin
#11
Katharina Rox, Manfred Rohde, Gursharan Singh Chhatwal, Rolf Müller
Bacterial pathogens use invasion into human cells as a strategy to escape not only the host's immune response, but also anti-bacterial treatment. This often leads to persistence and enables reinitiation of the infection process at a later time point. Here, we show that a family of myxobacterial metabolites, disorazoles, block invasion of group A Streptococcus (GAS) into human epithelial cells. Mechanistically, disorazoles target ezrin, a host protein involved in linking microfilaments to the membrane, and affect invasion most likely by interfering with dynamic phosphorylation of ezrin...
January 5, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087948/regulation-of-immunity-to-tuberculosis
#12
Susanna Brighenti, Diane J Ordway
Immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis requires a balance between adaptive immune responses to constrain bacterial replication and the prevention of potentially damaging immune activation. Regulatory T (Treg) cells express the transcription factor Foxp3+ and constitute an essential counterbalance of inflammatory Th1 responses and are required to maintain immune homeostasis. The first reports describing the presence of Foxp3-expressing CD4+ Treg cells in tuberculosis (TB) emerged in 2006. Different Treg cell subsets, most likely specialized for different tissues and microenvironments, have been shown to expand in both human TB and animal models of TB...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087648/effect-of-in-vivo-neutralisation-of-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-on-the-efficacy-of-antibiotic-treatment-in-systemic-salmonella-enterica-infections
#13
Omar Rossi, Andrew J Grant, Pietro Mastroeni
Immunity can co-operate with antibiotics, but can also antagonize drug efficacy by segregating the bacteria to areas of the body that are less accessible to antimicrobials, and by selecting for subpopulations with low division rates that are often difficult to eradicate. We studied the effect of an anti-inflammatory/immunosuppressive anti-TNFα treatment, which accelerates bacterial growth in the tissues and inhibits or reverses the formation of granulomas, on the efficacy of ampicillin and ciprofloxacin during a systemic Salmonella enterica infection of the mouse...
January 12, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081189/global-gene-expression-analysis-of-cross-protected-phenotype-of-pectobacterium-atrosepticum
#14
Vladimir Gorshkov, Stanford Kwenda, Olga Petrova, Elena Osipova, Yuri Gogolev, Lucy N Moleleki
The ability to adapt to adverse conditions permits many bacterial species to be virtually ubiquitous and survive in a variety of ecological niches. This ability is of particular importance for many plant pathogenic bacteria that should be able to exist, except for their host plants, in different environments e.g. soil, water, insect-vectors etc. Under some of these conditions, bacteria encounter absence of nutrients and persist, acquiring new properties related to resistance to a variety of stress factors (cross-protection)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081148/characterization-of-multi-drug-resistant-enterococcus-faecalis-isolated-from-cephalic-recording-chambers-in-research-macaques-macaca-spp
#15
Stephanie E Woods, Mia T Lieberman, Francois Lebreton, Elise Trowel, César de la Fuente-Núñez, Joanne Dzink-Fox, Michael S Gilmore, James G Fox
Nonhuman primates are commonly used for cognitive neuroscience research and often surgically implanted with cephalic recording chambers for electrophysiological recording. Aerobic bacterial cultures from 25 macaques identified 72 bacterial isolates, including 15 Enterococcus faecalis isolates. The E. faecalis isolates displayed multi-drug resistant phenotypes, with resistance to ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, bacitracin, and erythromycin, as well as high-level aminoglycoside resistance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079559/strategies-to-alter-the-natural-history-of-childhood-asthma
#16
K A Lee-Sarwar, L B Bacharier, A A Litonjua
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Asthma exhibits significant heterogeneity in occurrence and severity over the lifespan. Our goal is to discuss recent evidence regarding determinants of the natural history of asthma during childhood, and review the rationale behind and status of major efforts to alter its course. RECENT FINDINGS: Variations in microbial exposures are associated with risk of allergic disease, and the use of bacterial lysates may be a promising preventive strategy...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076897/microrna-expression-shows-inflammatory-dysregulation-and-tumor-like-proliferative-responses-in-joints-of-patients-with-post-infectious-lyme-arthritis
#17
Robert B Lochhead, Klemen Strle, Nancy D Kim, Minna J Kohler, Sheila L Arvikar, John M Aversa, Allen C Steere
OBJECTIVE: Lyme arthritis (LA) is caused by infection with Borrelia burgdorferi and usually resolves following spirochetal killing with antibiotics. However, in some patients, arthritis persists after antibiotic therapy. To provide insights into underlying pathogenic processes associated with post-infectious LA, we analyzed differences in microRNA expression between LA patients with active infection compared with those with post-infectious LA. METHODS: MicroRNA expression was assayed in synovial fluid (SF) from LA patients before and after oral and IV antibiotic therapy, and from synovial tissue from post-infectious LA patients obtained months after antibiotic therapy...
January 11, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076744/modern-management-of-acne
#18
Alan J Cooper, Victoria Rebecca Harris
Acne is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous unit resulting from androgen-induced increased sebum production; altered keratinisation; bacterial colonisation of hair follicles on the face, neck, chest and back by Propionibacterium acnes; and an inflammatory response in the skin. The exact way these processes interact and the order in which they occur in the pathogenesis of acne are still unclear. Scarring that occurs from acne, particularly severe acne, can persist a lifetime and have long lasting psychosocial effects...
January 16, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074841/the-mito-damp-cardiolipin-blocks-il-10-production-causing-persistent-inflammation-during-bacterial-pneumonia
#19
Krishnendu Chakraborty, Mahesh Raundhal, Bill B Chen, Christina Morse, Yulia Y Tyurina, Anupriya Khare, Timothy B Oriss, Rachael Huff, Janet S Lee, Claudette M St Croix, Simon Watkins, Rama K Mallampalli, Valerian E Kagan, Anuradha Ray, Prabir Ray
Bacterial pneumonia is a significant healthcare burden worldwide. Failure to resolve inflammation after infection precipitates lung injury and an increase in morbidity and mortality. Gram-negative bacteria are common in pneumonia and increased levels of the mito-damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) cardiolipin can be detected in the lungs. Here we show that mice infected with Klebsiella pneumoniae develop lung injury with accumulation of cardiolipin. Cardiolipin inhibits resolution of inflammation by suppressing production of anti-inflammatory IL-10 by lung CD11b(+)Ly6G(int)Ly6C(lo)F4/80(+) cells...
January 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073586/experimental-comparison-of-point-of-use-filters-for%C3%A2-drinking-water-ultrafiltration
#20
M Totaro, P Valentini, B Casini, M Miccoli, A L Costa, A Baggiani
BACKGROUND: Waterborne pathogens such as Pseudomonas spp. and Legionella spp. may persist in hospital water networks despite chemical disinfection. Point-of-use filtration represents a physical control measure that can be applied in high-risk areas to contain the exposure to such pathogens. New technologies have enabled an extension of filters' lifetimes and have made available faucet hollow-fibre filters for water ultrafiltration. AIM: To compare point-of-use filters applied to cold water within their period of validity...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
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