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Bacterial persistence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227942/the-interaction-between-bacterial-abundance-and-selected-pollutants-concentration-levels-in-an-arctic-catchment-southwest-spitsbergen-svalbard
#1
Klaudia Kosek, Katarzyna Kozak, Krystyna Kozioł, Katarzyna Jankowska, Stanisław Chmiel, Żaneta Polkowska
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been a topic of interest in environmental sciences for >60years. POPs in the Arctic have been investigated since the 1970s, when first atmospheric measurements revealed the presence of these pollutants in the polar regions. Major contaminant transport routes to the Arctic include atmospheric and oceanic transport, as well as inflow from rivers and sea ice. The sources of pollutants, such as industry, power generators, vehicle and ship exhausts, introduce the PAHs, phenols, formaldehyde or metals into the Arctic...
December 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225632/recent-advances-in-root-canal-disinfection-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Zahed Mohammadi, Hamid Jafarzadeh, Sousan Shalavi, Flavio Palazzi
The microbial biofilm is an important factor for human infection. Finding effective antimicrobial strategies should be considered for decreasing antimicrobial resistance and controlling the infectious diseases. Treatment of infected canal systems may not be able to remove all bacteria and so bacterial persistence after treatment may occur. Application of antibacterial nanoparticles may be a potential strategy to improve the elimination of bacteria from the canal. Furthermore, mechanism of action and applications of photodynamic therapy and Photon-induced photoacoustic streaming (PIPS) and GentleWave system was reviewed...
2017: Iranian Endodontic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225362/frequency-of-bacetrial-content-finding-in-persistant-periapical-lesions
#3
Joško Grgurević, Ana Ivanišević Malčić, Arjana Tambić Andrašević, Goranka Prpić Mehičić, Sania Kuzmac, Silvana Jukić
Objectives: To determine the percentage of persistant apical lesions positive for bacterial nucleic acids, to detect microorganisms difficult to cultivate in persistant apical lesions by PCR and relate them to endodontic failure, clinical symptoms and diabetes mellitus. Materials and methods: The samples of persistent apical lesions were collected during apicoectomy. Bacterial ubiquitous primer 16S rRNA was used to detect 16S ribosomal RNA in 36 samples. A species-specific PCR was performed with primers targeted to the bacterial 16S rRNA genes of Prevotella Nigrescens, Pseudoramibacter alactolyticus, and Propionobacterium propionicum...
September 2017: Acta Stomatologica Croatica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225037/understanding-and-sensitizing-density-dependent-persistence-to-quinolone-antibiotics
#4
Arnaud Gutierrez, Saloni Jain, Prerna Bhargava, Meagan Hamblin, Michael A Lobritz, James J Collins
Physiologic and environmental factors can modulate antibiotic activity and thus pose a significant challenge to antibiotic treatment. The quinolone class of antibiotics, which targets bacterial topoisomerases, fails to kill bacteria that have grown to high density; however, the mechanistic basis for this persistence is unclear. Here, we show that exhaustion of the metabolic inputs that couple carbon catabolism to oxidative phosphorylation is a primary cause of growth phase-dependent persistence to quinolone antibiotics...
December 5, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222808/-just-a-spoonful-of-sugar-import-of-sialic-acid-across-bacterial-cell-membranes
#5
REVIEW
Rachel A North, Christopher R Horne, James S Davies, Daniela M Remus, Andrew C Muscroft-Taylor, Parveen Goyal, Weixiao Yuan Wahlgren, S Ramaswamy, Rosmarie Friemann, Renwick C J Dobson
Eukaryotic cell surfaces are decorated with a complex array of glycoconjugates that are usually capped with sialic acids, a large family of over 50 structurally distinct nine-carbon amino sugars, the most common member of which is N-acetylneuraminic acid. Once made available through the action of neuraminidases, bacterial pathogens and commensals utilise host-derived sialic acid by degrading it for energy or repurposing the sialic acid onto their own cell surface to camouflage the bacterium from the immune system...
December 8, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221810/mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-damage-associated-molecular-patterns-damps-in-chronic-inflammatory-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Charles S Dela Cruz, Min-Jong Kang
Inflammation represents a comprehensive host response to external stimuli for the purpose of eliminating the offending agent, minimizing injury to host tissues and fostering repair of damaged tissues back to homeostatic levels. In normal physiologic context, inflammatory response culminates with the resolution of infection and tissue damage response. However, in a pathologic context, persistent or inappropriately regulated inflammation occurs that can lead to chronic inflammatory diseases. Recent scientific advances have integrated the role of innate immune response to be an important arm of the inflammatory process...
December 5, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219814/cellulitis-current-insights-into-pathophysiology-and-clinical-management
#7
D R Cranendonk, A P M Lavrijsen, J M Prins, W J Wiersinga
Cellulitis is a bacterial skin and soft tissue infection which occurs when the physical skin barrier, the immune system and/or the circulatory system are impaired. Diabetes, obesity and old age are associated with defects in all of these areas and as a result are major predisposing factors for cellulitis. In this review, we summarise current insights into the pathophysiology of cellulitis and place the Dutch guidelines on the clinical management of cellulitis of the lower extremities in perspective. Recent evidence on diagnostic strategies is discussed, the importance of which is underscored by findings that venous insufficiency, eczema, deep vein thrombosis and gout are frequently mistaken for cellulitis...
November 2017: Netherlands Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219052/adverse-events-of-proton-pump-inhibitors-potential-mechanisms
#8
Andrea Corsonello, Fabrizia Lattanzio, Silvia Bustacchini, Sabrina Garasto, Annalisa Cozza, Roberto Schepisi, Federica Lenci, Filippo Luciani, Marcello Giuseppe Maggio, Andrea Ticinesi, Valeria Butto, Sara Tagliaferri, Francesco Corica
OBJECTIVE: We aimed at summarizing current evidence about mechanisms for potentially harmful effects of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). METHODS: A Pubmed search was performed, and 207 studies concerning the relationship between use of PPIs and cardiovascular diseases, kidney impairment, nutritional disorders, fractures, infections, functional decline, and mortality were selected and reviewed. RESULTS: PPIs may cause potentially harmful effects by several mechanisms, including endothelial dysfunction, hypomagnesemia, drug interactions, reduced absorption of selected nutrients, increased gastric microbiota and small intestine bacterial overgrowth, reduced immune response, tubular-interstitial inflammation, increased bone turnover, accumulation of amyloid in the brain...
December 7, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218034/replication-of-staphylococcal-resistance-plasmids
#9
REVIEW
Stephen M Kwong, Joshua P Ramsay, Slade O Jensen, Neville Firth
The currently widespread and increasing prevalence of resistant bacterial pathogens is a significant medical problem. In clinical strains of staphylococci, the genetic determinants that confer resistance to antimicrobial agents are often located on mobile elements, such as plasmids. Many of these resistance plasmids are capable of horizontal transmission to other bacteria in their surroundings, allowing extraordinarily rapid adaptation of bacterial populations. Once the resistance plasmids have been spread, they are often perpetually maintained in the new host, even in the absence of selective pressure...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217333/inside-job-staphylococcus-aureus-host-pathogen-interactions
#10
REVIEW
Jessica Horn, Kathrin Stelzner, Thomas Rudel, Martin Fraunholz
Staphylococcus aureus is a notorious opportunistic pathogen causing a plethora of diseases. Recent research established that once phagocytosed by neutrophils and macrophages, a certain percentage of S. aureus is able to survive within these phagocytes which thereby even may contribute to dissemination of the pathogen. S. aureus further induces its uptake by otherwise non-phagocytic cells and the ensuing intracellular cytotoxicity is suggested to lead to tissue destruction, whereas bacterial persistence within cells is thought to lead to immune evasion and chronicity of infections...
November 26, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216546/adsorption-and-degradation-of-sulfadiazine-and-sulfamethoxazole-in-an-agricultural-soil-system-under-an-anaerobic-condition-kinetics-and-environmental-risks
#11
Genxiang Shen, Yu Zhang, Shuangqing Hu, Hongchang Zhang, Zhejun Yuan, Wei Zhang
Sulfonamides, one of the commonest antibiotics, were widely used on humans and livestock to control pathema and bacterial infections resulting in further environmental risks. The present study evaluated the adsorption and degradation of sulfadiazine (SDZ) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) in an agricultural soil system under an anaerobic condition. Low sorption coefficients (Kd, 1.22 L kg-1 for SDZ and 1.23 L kg-1 for SMX) obtained from Freundlich isotherms experiment indicated that poor sorption of both antibiotics may pose a high risk to environment due to their high mobility and possibility of entering surface and ground water...
November 30, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216488/microbial-community-composition-and-pahs-removal-potential-of-indigenous-bacteria-in-oil-contaminated-sediment-of-taean-coast-korea
#12
Dong Wan Lee, Hanbyul Lee, Aslan Hwanhwi Lee, Bong-Oh Kwon, Jong Seong Khim, Un Hyuk Yim, Beom Seok Kim, Jae-Jin Kim
The tidal flats near Sinduri beach in Taean, Korea, have been severely contaminated by heavy crude oils due to the Korea's worst oil spill accident, say the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill, in 2007. Crude oil compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pose significant environmental damages due to their wide distribution, persistence, high toxicity, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity. Microbial community of Sinduri beach sediments samples was analyzed by metagenomic data with 16S rRNA gene amplicons...
December 4, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216299/recombinant-vaccinia-virus-coded-interferon-inhibitor-b18r-expression-refolding-and-a-use-in-a-mammalian-expression-system-with-a-rna-vector
#13
Yuriy G Kim, Aliya Zh Baltabekova, Erzhan E Zhiyenbay, Altynai S Aksambayeva, Zhadyra S Shagyrova, Rinat Khannanov, Erlan M Ramanculov, Alexandr V Shustov
B18R protein of Vaccinia virus binds to type I interferons and inhibits activation of interferon-mediated signal transduction. Cells which have unimpaired interferon signaling such as primary cell cultures or some industrially important cell lines are capable of development of an antiviral state. An establishment of the antiviral state limits replication of RNA-viruses and can suppress replication of RNA vectors. The interferon inhibitor B18R effectively prevents the establishment of the antiviral state. For this reason, B18R has become a ubiquitous component of protocols for epigenetic reprogramming which use transfections of RNA replicons or mRNA...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213262/the-oxidative-stress-agent-hypochlorite-stimulates-c-di-gmp-synthesis-and-biofilm-formation-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#14
Nikola Strempel, Michael Nusser, Anke Neidig, Gerald Brenner-Weiss, Joerg Overhage
The opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is able to survive under a variety of often harmful environmental conditions due to a multitude of intrinsic and adaptive resistance mechanisms, including biofilm formation as one important survival strategy. Here, we investigated the adaptation of P. aeruginosa PAO1 to hypochlorite (HClO), a phagocyte-derived host defense compound and frequently used disinfectant. In static biofilm assays, we observed a significant enhancement in initial cell attachment in the presence of sublethal HClO concentrations...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212851/omics-of-bifidobacteria-research-and-insights-into-their-health-promoting-activities
#15
REVIEW
Francesca Bottacini, Douwe van Sinderen, Marco Ventura
Members of the genus Bifidobacterium include gut commensals that are particularly abundant among the microbial communities residing in the gut of healthy breast-fed infants, where their presence has been linked to many beneficial host effects. Next-generation DNA sequencing and comparative and functional genome methodologies have been shown to be particularly useful in exploring the diversity of this genus. These combined approaches have allowed the identification of genetic features related to bifidobacterial establishment in the gut, involving host-microbe as well as microbe-microbe interactions...
December 6, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211886/bicarbonate-induces-high-level-resistance-to-the-human-antimicrobial-peptide-ll-37-in-staphylococcus-aureus-small-colony-variants
#16
Ping Zhang, John A Wright, Anna Tymon, Sean P Nair
Objectives: Staphylococcus aureus small colony variants (SCVs) cause persistent infections and are resistant to cationic antibiotics. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been suggested as promising alternatives for treating antibiotic-resistant bacteria. We investigated the capacity of the human cationic AMP LL-37 to kill SCVs in the presence of physiological concentrations of bicarbonate, which are reported to alter bacterial membrane permeability and change resistance of bacteria to AMPs...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211122/actinomycosis-is-not-frequent-in-the-periapex-but-is-a-persistent-lesion
#17
Lucas Senhorinho Esteves, Águida Cristina Gomes Henriques, Carolina Ávila Varginha de Moraes E Silva, Maria Cristina Teixeira Cangussu, Eduardo Antônio Gonçalves Ramos, Carlos Estrela, Jean Nunes Dos Santos
Periapical actinomycosis caused by a gram-positive anaerobic pathogen characterizes a typical extra-radicular infection. This study determined the frequency and correlated the content of bacteria colonies with the of periapical actinomycosis size. The study comprised a total of 218 periapical lesions (PL) (cysts, granulomas or abscess). The specimens embedded in paraffin were sliced into 4-µm sections and stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Gram, Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS) and Grocott's stain. The presence of bacterial colonies composed of filamentous structures labeled with the histochemical stains were described as Actinomyces, and for each case, the bacterial colonies were counted and measured...
November 2017: Brazilian Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210987/prophylactic-sublingual-immunization-with-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-subunit-vaccine-incorporating-the-natural-killer-t-cell-agonist-alpha-galactosylceramide-enhances-protective-immunity-to-limit-pulmonary-and-extra-pulmonary-bacterial-burden-in-mice
#18
Arshad Khan, Shailbala Singh, Gloria Galvan, Chinnaswamy Jagannath, K Jagannadha Sastry
Infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) remains a major global concern and the available Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine is poorly efficacious in adults. Therefore, alternative vaccines and delivery strategies focusing on Mtb antigens and appropriate immune stimulating adjuvants are needed to induce protective immunity targeted to the lungs, the primary sites of infections and pathology. We present here evidence in support of mucosal vaccination by the sublingual route in mice using the subunit Mtb antigens Ag85B and ESAT-6 adjuvanted with the glycolipid alpha-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), a potent natural killer T (NKT) cell agonist...
December 6, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209305/unveiling-and-characterizing-early-bilateral-interactions-between-biofilm-and-the-mouse-innate-immune-system
#19
REVIEW
Christiane Forestier, Elisabeth Billard, Geneviève Milon, Pascale Gueirard
A very substantial progress has been made in our understanding of infectious diseases caused by invasive bacteria. Under their planktonic forms, bacteria transiently reside in the otherwise sterile mammal body tissues, as the physiological inflammation insures both their clearance and repair of any tissue damage. Yet, the bacteria prone to experience planktonic to biofilm developmental transition still need to be studied. Of note, sessile bacteria not only persist but also concur preventing the effectors and regulators of the physiological inflammation to operate...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205554/vapa-of-rhodococcus-equi-binds-phosphatidic-acid
#20
Lindsay M Wright, Emily M Carpinone, Terry L Bennett, Mary K Hondalus, Vincent J Starai
Rhodococcus equi is a multi-host, facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen that primarily causes pneumonia in foals less than six months in age and immunocompromised people. Previous studies determined that the major virulence determinant of R. equi is the surface bound virulence associated protein A (VapA). The presence of VapA inhibits the maturation of R. equi-containing phagosomes and promotes intracellular bacterial survival, as determined by the inability of vapA deletion mutants to replicate in host macrophages...
December 4, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
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