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Bacterial persistence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045678/enterococcus-faecalis-modulates-immune-activation-and-slows-healing-during-wound-infection
#1
Kelvin Kian Long Chong, Wei Hong Tay, Baptiste Janela, Adeline Mei Hui Yong, Tze Horng Liew, Leigh Madden, Damien Keogh, Timothy Mark Sebastian Barkham, Florent Ginhoux, David Laurence Becker, Kimberly A Kline
Enterococcus faecalis is one of most frequently isolated bacterial species in wounds yet little is known about its pathogenic mechanisms in this setting. Here, we used a mouse wound excisional model to characterize the infection dynamics of E. faecalis and show that infected wounds result in two different states depending on the initial inoculum. Low dose inocula were associated with short term, low titer colonization whereas high dose inocula were associated with acute bacterial replication and long term persistence...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043803/identification-of-privileged-antichlamydial-natural-products-by-a-ligand-based-strategy
#2
Elina Karhu, Janne Isojärvi, Pia Vuorela, Leena Hanski, Adyary Fallarero
The obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia pneumoniae remains a difficult target for antimicrobial therapy. Owing to the permeability barrier placed by bacterial and host vacuolar membranes, as well as the propensity of the bacterium for persistent infections, treatment failures are common. Despite the urgent need for new antichlamydial compounds, their discovery is challenged by the technically demanding assay procedures and lack of validated targets. An alternative strategy of using naturally occurring compounds and their derivatives against C...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042016/bacteria-causing-pyometra-in-bitch-and-queen-induce-neutrophil-extracellular-traps
#3
M R Rebordão, G Alexandre-Pires, M Carreira, L Adriano, C Carneiro, T Nunes, L Mateus, G Ferreira-Dias
Neutrophils are capable of releasing their DNA in response to infectious agents to form neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) to destroy pathogens. Even though pyometra in queens and bitches is a common disease, its pathogenesis is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of NETs in the endometrium of queens and bitches suffering from pyometra. Pyometra and normal uteri were obtained after ovariohysterectomy from adult queens and bitches in diestrus. Uterine contents were evaluated for bacterial isolation and identification and for NETs presence...
October 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040419/high-rates-of-human-fecal-carriage-of-mcr-1-positive-multi-drug-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-isolates-emerge-in-china-in-association-with-successful-plasmid-families
#4
Lan-Lan Zhong, Hang T T Phan, Cong Shen, Karina Doris-Vihta, Anna E Sheppard, Xi Huang, Kun-Jiao Zeng, Hong-Yu Li, Xue-Fei Zhang, Sandip Patil, Derrick W Crook, A Sarah Walker, Yong Xing, Jia-Lin Lin, Lian-Qiang Feng, Yohei Doi, Yong Xia, Nicole Stoesser, Guo-Bao Tian
Objectives: mcr-1-mediated colistin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae is concerning, as colistin is used in treating multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae infections. Rates of human mcr-1 gastrointestinal carriage have historically been low. We identified trends in human fecal mcr-1-positivity rates and colonization with mcr-1-positive+third-generation cephalosporin-resistant (3GC-R) Enterobacteriaceae in Guangzhou, China, and investigated the genetic contexts of mcr-1 in a subset of mcr-1-positive+3GC-R strains...
October 10, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039290/simulated-use-polytetrafluorethylene-biofilm-model-repeated-rounds-of-complete-reprocessing-lead-to-accumulation-of-organic-debris-and-viable-bacteria
#5
Michelle J Alfa, Harminder Singh, Zoann Nugent, Donald Duerksen, Gale Schultz, Carol Reidy, Pat DeGagne, Nancy Olson
OBJECTIVE Biofilm has been implicated in bacterial persistence and survival after endoscope reprocessing. In this study, we assessed the impact of different methods of reprocessing on organic residues and viable bacteria after repeated rounds of biofilm formation when each was followed by full reprocessing. METHODS ATS-2015, an artificial test soil containing 5-8 Log10 colony-forming units (CFU) of Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, was used to form biofilm in polytetrafluroethylene channels overnight on 5 successive days...
October 17, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038467/self-sensing-in-bacillus-subtilis-quorum-sensing-systems
#6
Tasneem Bareia, Shaul Pollak, Avigdor Eldar
Bacterial cell-cell signalling, or quorum sensing, is characterized by the secretion and groupwide detection of small diffusible signal molecules called autoinducers. This mechanism allows cells to coordinate their behaviour in a density-dependent manner. A quorum-sensing cell may directly respond to the autoinducers it produces in a cell-autonomous and quorum-independent manner, but the strength of this self-sensing effect and its impact on bacterial physiology are unclear. Here, we explore the existence and impact of self-sensing in the Bacillus subtilis ComQXP and Rap-Phr quorum-sensing systems...
October 16, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038128/microbial-composition-predicts-genital-tract-inflammation-and-persistent-bacterial-vaginosis-in-adolescent-south-african-women
#7
Katie Lennard, Smritee Dabee, Shaun L Barnabas, Enock Havyarimana, Anna Blakney, Shameem Z Jaumdally, Gerrit Botha, Nonhlanhla N Mkhize, Linda-Gail Bekker, David A Lewis, Glenda Gray, Nicola Mulder, Jo-Ann S Passmore, Heather B Jaspan
Young African females are at increased risk of HIV acquisition, and genital inflammation or the vaginal microbiome may contribute to this risk. We studied these factors in 168 HIV negative South African adolescent women aged 16-22 years. Unsupervised clustering of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed three clusters (subtypes), one of which was strongly associated with genital inflammation. In a multivariate model, microbiome compositional subtype and hormonal contraception were significantly associated with genital inflammation...
October 16, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034329/comparative-metabolomics-of-mycoplasma-bovis-and-mycoplasma-gallisepticum-reveals-fundamental-differences-in-active-metabolic-pathways-and-suggests-novel-gene-annotations
#8
Y Masukagami, D P De Souza, S Dayalan, C Bowen, S O'Callaghan, K Kouremenos, B Nijagal, D Tull, K A Tivendale, P F Markham, M J McConville, G F Browning, F M Sansom
Mycoplasmas are simple, but successful parasites that have the smallest genome of any free-living cell and are thought to have a highly streamlined cellular metabolism. Here, we have undertaken a detailed metabolomic analysis of two species, Mycoplasma bovis and Mycoplasma gallisepticum, which cause economically important diseases in cattle and poultry, respectively. Untargeted gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of mycoplasma metabolite extracts revealed significant differences in the steady-state levels of many metabolites in central carbon metabolism, while (13)C stable isotope labeling studies revealed marked differences in carbon source utilization...
September 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034326/bacterial-lipopolysaccharide-destabilizes-influenza-viruses
#9
Christopher Bandoro, Jonathan A Runstadler
Depending on the specific viral pathogen, commensal bacteria can promote or reduce the severity of viral infection and disease progression in their hosts. Influenza A virus (IAV) has a broad host range, comprises many subtypes, and utilizes different routes of transmission, including the fecal-oral route in wild birds. It has been previously demonstrated that commensal bacteria can interact with the host's immune system to protect against IAV pathogenesis. However, it is unclear whether bacteria and their products may be interacting directly with IAV to impact virion stability...
September 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034105/changes-of-the-intestinal-microbiome-host-homeostasis-in-hiv-infected-individuals-a-focus-on-the-bacterial-gut-microbiome
#10
REVIEW
Ana Beatriz Dein Terra Mota Ribeiro, Markus M Heimesaat, Stefan Bereswill
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections cause severe CD4+ T cell depletion leading to chronic inflammation and immune activation, impaired barrier function, and microbial translocation. Even under effective antiretroviral therapy, these processes persist, leading to gut microbiome dysbiosis and disturbance of microbiome-host homeostasis. This systematic review aims at analyzing how gut microbiome and host immune system influence each other during HIV pathogenesis. An online search applying the PubMed database was conducted...
September 2017: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032852/limited-influence-of-primary-treated-sewage-waters-on-bacterial-abundance-production-and-community-composition-in-coastal-seawaters
#11
Paolo Paliaga, Marino Korlević, Ingrid Ivančić, Mirjana Najdek
The response of bacteria in terms of abundance, production and community structure to changes induced by the discharge of primary treated sewage waters was investigated combining microbiological, chemical and molecular tools. The primary treatment did not affect substantially the bacterial community structure in wastewaters and did not reduce the concentrations of fecal indicators. The spatial distribution of the sewage plume was governed by vertical stratification and currents. Bacterial abundance and production in the sea receiving waste waters depended predominantly on environmental conditions...
September 23, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032553/phagocytosis-assays-for-borrelia-burgdorferi
#12
Juan Anguita, Ana Carreras-González, Nicolás Navasa
Phagocytosis of Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, is a poorly understood process, despite its importance during the host immune response to infection. Thus, macrophages infiltrate the infected tissues, including the base of the heart and phagocytose the spirochete, therefore contributing to their elimination from infected tissues and leading to inflammation. An impaired bacterial clearance will result in bacterial persistence that may interfere with normal physiology of the heart, such as electrical signals from the heart, resulting in an impaired coordination of the beating of the heart or "heart block...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029332/identification-of-a-novel-subset-of-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-during-chronic-staphylococcal-infection-that-resembles-immature-eosinophils
#13
Oliver Goldmann, Andreas Beineke, Eva Medina
We have previously reported that myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), which are a heterogeneous population of immunosuppressive immature myeloid cells, expanded during chronic Staphylococcus aureus infection and promoted bacterial persistence by inhibiting effector T cells. Two major MDSC subsets including monocytic MDSCs (M-MDSC) and granulocytic MDSCs (G-MDSC) have been described to date. Here, we identified a new subset of MDSC (Eo-MDSC) in S. aureus-infected mice that phenotypically resembles eosinophils...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029218/dose-dependent-effects-on-replication-and-persistence-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium-in-house-flies-diptera-muscidae
#14
Rabecca Chifanzwa, Dana Nayduch
Adult house flies (Musca domestica L.) ingest variable numbers of bacteria when they encounter microbe-rich substrates. Bacterial abundance may affect replication within the fly gut, which subsequently impacts vector potential. This study investigated the dose-dependent replication of GFP-expressing Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ex Kauffmann and Edwards1952) Le Minor and Popoff 1987, (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae) (GFP S. Typhimurium) within the fly alimentary canal. Adult house flies were fed two doses (colony forming units, CFU) of GFP S...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028003/bacterial-secretion-of-d-arginine-controls-environmental-microbial-biodiversity
#15
Laura Alvarez, Alena Aliashkevich, Miguel A de Pedro, Felipe Cava
Bacteria face tough competition in polymicrobial communities. To persist in a specific niche, many species produce toxic extracellular effectors to interfere with the growth of nearby microbes. These effectors include the recently reported non-canonical D-amino acids (NCDAAs). In Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, NCDAAs control cell wall integrity in stationary phase. Here, an analysis of the composition of the extracellular medium of V. cholerae revealed the unprecedented presence of D-Arg. Compared with other D-amino acids, D-Arg displayed higher potency and broader toxicity in terms of the number of bacterial species affected...
October 13, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027998/temporal-dynamics-of-uncultured-viruses-a-new-dimension-in-viral-diversity
#16
Ksenia Arkhipova, Timofey Skvortsov, John P Quinn, John W McGrath, Christopher Cr Allen, Bas E Dutilh, Yvonne McElarney, Leonid A Kulakov
Recent work has vastly expanded the known viral genomic sequence space, but the seasonal dynamics of viral populations at the genome level remain unexplored. Here we followed the viral community in a freshwater lake for 1 year using genome-resolved viral metagenomics, combined with detailed analyses of the viral community structure, associated bacterial populations and environmental variables. We reconstructed 8950 complete and partial viral genomes, the majority of which were not persistent in the lake throughout the year, but instead continuously succeeded each other...
October 13, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027589/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-severe-neurosurgical-patients-with-pyogenic-ventriculitis-caused-by-gram-negative-bacteria
#17
Feng Shang, Yueqiao Xu, Ning Wang, Weitao Cheng, Wenjin Chen, Wanru Duan
The aim of the study is to explore the experiences in diagnosis and treatment of severe neurosurgical patients with pyogenic ventriculitis caused by gram-negative bacteria (G(-)). Nineteen patients with pyogenic ventriculitis were reviewed for their treatment. The bacterial testing results of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the clinical intervention, and the patients' prognosis were evaluated. The bacterial smears of ventricular drainage from all the cases were G(-) bacteria. Head CT and MRI scans confirmed that they were intraventricular empyema...
October 13, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027475/antimould-microbial-and-plant-metabolites-with-potential-use-in-intelligent-food-packaging
#18
Francesca Valerio, Marco Masi, Alessio Cimmino, Seyed Arash Moeini, Paola Lavermicocca, Antonio Evidente
Moulds food infestation is a heavy dangerous problem for human health and also could generate heavy economic losses. The intelligent packaging using eco-friendly biodegradable biofilm incorporating bioactive natural safe compounds represents a new frontier. This manuscript reports the inhibitory activity of 12 bacterial, fungal and plant metabolites against Penicillium roqueforti and Aspergillus niger. Among them α-costic acid and ungeremine (3 and 12) are the most promising as potential biofungicide against both fungal strains...
October 13, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026620/streptococcus-suis-serotype-9-endocarditis-and-subsequent-severe-meningitis-in-a-growing-pig-despite-specific-bactericidal-humoral-immunity
#19
Karoline Rieckmann, Kristin Müller, Annette Moter, Christoph G Baums, Anna Seydel
INTRODUCTION: . Meningitis and endocarditis are common pathologies of Streptococcussuis infections in pigs and humans. S. suis serotype 9 strains contribute substantially to health problems in European pig production, and immune prophylaxis against this serotype is very difficult. CASE PRESENTATION: . We report the clinical course and histopathological picture of a 10-week-old growing pig following experimental intravenous infection with S. suis serotype 9. The piglet showed rapid onset of severe clinical signs of meningitis 11 days post-intravenous challenge following prime-booster vaccination...
May 2017: JMM Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022949/shapu-forty-years-on-mystery-persists
#20
EDITORIAL
Madan P Upadhyay, Bharat R Shrestha
In 1975, our team encountered several cases of severe inflammatory eye disease presenting as a white pupil in a red eye with rapid loss of vision. The eyes became soft within a few days with shallow anterior chamber which we called "Malignant Hypotension" in view of the latter's sinister significance. Unilaterally, little or no pain, predominantly affecting children and difficulty in dilating the pupil and keeping it dilated were some of the other important features. Posterior segment was not visible due to massive exudation in vitreous...
January 2017: Nepalese Journal of Ophthalmology
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