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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667004/the-development-of-hiv-vaccines-targeting-gp41-membrane-proximal-external-region-mper-challenges-and-prospects
#1
REVIEW
Huan Liu, Xiaojie Su, Lulu Si, Lu Lu, Shibo Jiang
A human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) vaccine which is able to effectively prevent infection would be the most powerful method of extinguishing pandemic of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Yet, achieving such vaccine remains great challenges. The membrane-proximal external region (MPER) is a highly conserved region of the envelope glycoprotein (Env) gp41 subunit near the viral envelope surface, and it plays a key role in membrane fusion. It is also the target of some reported broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs)...
April 17, 2018: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666450/novel-hla-class-i-associations-with-hiv-1-control-in-a-unique-genetically-admixed-population
#2
Humberto Valenzuela-Ponce, Selma Alva-Hernández, Daniela Garrido-Rodríguez, Maribel Soto-Nava, Thalía García-Téllez, Tania Escamilla-Gómez, Claudia García-Morales, Verónica Sonia Quiroz-Morales, Daniela Tapia-Trejo, Silvia Del Arenal-Sánchez, Francisco-Javier Prado-Galbarro, Ramón Hernández-Juan, Edna Rodríguez-Aguirre, Akio Murakami-Ogasawara, Carlos Mejía-Villatoro, Ingrid Y Escobar-Urias, Rodolfo Pinzón-Meza, Juan Miguel Pascale, Yamitzel Zaldivar, Guillermo Porras-Cortés, Carlos Quant-Durán, Ivette Lorenzana, Rita I Meza, Elsa Y Palou, Marvin Manzanero, Rolando A Cedillos, Carmen Aláez, Mark A Brockman, P Richard Harrigan, Chanson J Brumme, Zabrina L Brumme, Santiago Ávila-Ríos, Gustavo Reyes-Terán
Associations between HLA class I alleles and HIV progression in populations exhibiting Amerindian and Caucasian genetic admixture remain understudied. Using univariable and multivariable analyses we evaluated HLA associations with five HIV clinical parameters in 3,213 HIV clade B-infected, ART-naïve individuals from Mexico and Central America (MEX/CAM cohort). A Canadian cohort (HOMER, n = 1622) was used for comparison. As expected, HLA allele frequencies in MEX/CAM and HOMER differed markedly. In MEX/CAM, 13 HLA-A, 24 HLA-B, and 14 HLA-C alleles were significantly associated with at least one clinical parameter...
April 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666343/interleukin-gene-polymorphisms-and-susceptibility-to-hiv-1-infection-a-meta-analysis
#3
Chrissa G Tsiara, Georgios K Nikolopoulos, Niki L Dimou, Katerina G Pantavou, Pantelis G Bagos, Benedicta Mensah, Michael Talias, Georgia G Braliou, Dimitra Paraskeva, Stefanos Bonovas, Angelos Hatzakis
Some subjects are repeatedly exposed to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), yet they remain uninfected. This suggests the existence of host-resistance mechanisms. The current study synthesizes the evidence regarding the association between interleukin (IL) gene polymorphisms and HIV susceptibility. Medline, Scopus and the Web of Science databases were systematically searched, and a meta-analysis of case-control studies was conducted. Univariate and bivariate methods were used. The literature search identified 42 eligible studies involving 15,727 subjects...
March 2018: Journal of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666227/anti-hiv-1-b-cell-responses-are-dependent-on-b-cell-precursor-frequency-and-antigen-binding-affinity
#4
Pia Dosenovic, Ervin E Kara, Anna-Klara Pettersson, Andrew T McGuire, Matthew Gray, Harald Hartweger, Eddy S Thientosapol, Leonidas Stamatatos, Michel C Nussenzweig
The discovery that humans can produce potent broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) to several different epitopes on the HIV-1 spike has reinvigorated efforts to develop an antibody-based HIV-1 vaccine. Antibody cloning from single cells revealed that nearly all bNAbs show unusual features that could help explain why it has not been possible to elicit them by traditional vaccination and instead would require a sequence of different immunogens. This idea is supported by experiments with genetically modified immunoglobulin (Ig) knock-in mice...
April 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664970/correction-a-single-%C3%AE-octyl-glucoside-molecule-induces-hiv-1-nef-dimer-formation-in-the-absence-of-partner-protein-binding
#5
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0192512.].
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664957/killer-cell-immunoglobulin-like-receptors-associate-with-hiv-1-infection-in-a-narrow-source-han-chinese-cohort
#6
Linghang Wang, Yonghong Zhang, Keyi Xu, Tao Dong, Sarah Rowland-Jones, Louis-Marie Yindom
BACKGROUND: The HIV pandemic remains the most serious challenge to public health worldwide. The hallmark characteristics of the disease is the eventual failure of the immune system to control opportunistic infections and death. However not everyone who has HIV develops the disease at the same rate and so we are studying how the immune system works to control the virus in those who have been infected for decades and remain relatively healthy without the need of anti-retroviral therapy (ART)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664940/identifying-the-assembly-intermediate-in-which-gag-first-associates-with-unspliced-hiv-1-rna-suggests-a-novel-model-for-hiv-1-rna-packaging
#7
Brook C Barajas, Motoko Tanaka, Bridget A Robinson, Daryl J Phuong, Kasana Chutiraka, Jonathan C Reed, Jaisri R Lingappa
During immature capsid assembly, HIV-1 genome packaging is initiated when Gag first associates with unspliced HIV-1 RNA by a poorly understood process. Previously, we defined a pathway of sequential intracellular HIV-1 capsid assembly intermediates; here we sought to identify the intermediate in which HIV-1 Gag first associates with unspliced HIV-1 RNA. In provirus-expressing cells, unspliced HIV-1 RNA was not found in the soluble fraction of the cytosol, but instead was largely in complexes ≥30S. We did not detect unspliced HIV-1 RNA associated with Gag in the first assembly intermediate, which consists of soluble Gag...
April 17, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664930/distinctive-variation-in-the-u3r-region-of-the-5-long-terminal-repeat-from-diverse-hiv-1-strains
#8
Christelle Mbondji-Wonje, Ming Dong, Xue Wang, Jiangqin Zhao, Viswanath Ragupathy, Ana M Sanchez, Thomas N Denny, Indira Hewlett
Functional mapping of the 5'LTR has shown that the U3 and the R regions (U3R) contain a cluster of regulatory elements involved in the control of HIV-1 transcription and expression. As the HIV-1 genome is characterized by extensive variability, here we aimed to describe mutations in the U3R from various HIV-1 clades and CRFs in order to highlight strain specific differences that may impact the biological properties of diverse HIV-1 strains. To achieve our purpose, the U3R sequence of plasma derived virus belonging to different clades (A1, B, C, D, F2) and recombinants (CRF02_AG, CRF01_AE and CRF22_01A1) was obtained using Illumina technology...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664364/second-human-pegivirus-in-hepatitis-c-virus-infected-and-hepatitis-c-virus-hiv-1-co-infected-persons-who-inject-drugs-china
#9
Haiying Wang, Zhengwei Wan, Qiang Sun, Nalin Zhu, Tianyi Li, Xuqi Ren, Xiaoping An, Shuyun Deng, Yue Wu, Xiufen Li, Lin Li, Jingyun Li, Yigang Tong, Shixing Tang
We report the presence of the second human pegivirus (HPgV-2) in Guangdong and Sichuan Provinces in China. The prevalence of HPgV-2 in hepatitis C virus/HIV-1-co-infected persons who inject drugs was 12.9% in Guangdong and 15.9% in Sichuan. This population is at high risk for HPgV-2 infection.
May 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664204/characterization-and-epitope-mapping-of-a-panel-of-monoclonal-antibodies-against-hiv-1-matrix-protein
#10
Zhiqing Zhang, Feng Zhang, Shimeng Bai, Jiaming Qiao, Honglin Shen, Fang Huang, Shuangquan Gao, Shaowei Li, Ying Gu, Ningshao Xia
The HIV-1 Gag precursor protein (p55) is the main structural protein comprising the matrix (MA/p17), capsid (CA/p24), and nucleocapsid (NC/p7) proteins, and is uniquely responsible for virion assembly within the virus life cycle. The MA protein plays a critical role in plasma membrane targeting and envelope glycoprotein (Env) uptake during virion assembly. Yet, when viral infection occurs, the MA protein may also be involved in virion uncoating, dissociating from the plasma membrane, and participating in the nuclear importation process...
April 17, 2018: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663899/hiv-1-drug-resistance-profiles-for-the-hiv-protease-and-reverse-transcriptase-gene-in-patients-receiving-combination-therapy-in-tehran-iran
#11
Leila Sadeghi, Mahin Lolaie, Reza Adl Tabatabai, Saeed Bayanolhagh, Leila Taj, Niloofar Eghbal Ahmadi, Negin Abedinzadeh, Farzaneh Vakili, Ghazaleh Ahmadi, Minoo Mohraz
BACKGROUND: Determination of drug resistant mutations has a crucial role in the management of HIV-1 infected patients. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to evaluate drug resistance profile of RT and PR gene, and find the correlation between drug resistance mutation and ART regimen to intensify physicians ' options for the most effective therapy and help to establish health related policies at the national level in Iran. METHOD: HIV-1 RNA of 34 samples was extracted from plasma and RT Nested- PCR was performed and the final products were sequenced...
April 15, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663494/phylogenetic-analysis-of-htlv-1-in-iranian-blood-donors-hiv-1-positive-patients-and-patients-with-beta-thalassemia
#12
Leila Pirayeshfard, Zohreh Sharifi, Sedigheh Amini-Kafiabad, Nasrin Haghnazari Sadaghiani
BACKGROUND: Human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV) has been associated with various disease types. Since the discovery of the virus in 1980, seven subtypes of the virus have been identified. HTLV is widespread and endemic in some regions, such as Japan, Africa, South America, and northeast Iran. This study aimed to identify HTLV-1 genotype and also to analyze the nucleotide sequence of the LTR region in three groups, including blood donors, HIV-1+ patients, and β-thalassemia patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 2200 samples were collected from blood donors in Tehran (2000 samples), HIV-1+ patients (100 samples) and β-thalassemia patients (100 samples)...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662494/evolution-of-neutralization-response-in-hiv-1-subtype-c-infected-individuals-exhibiting-broad-cross-clade-neutralization-of-hiv-1-strains
#13
Narayanaiah Cheedarla, Babu Hemalatha, Brahmaiah Anangi, Kannan Muthuramalingam, Murugesan Selvachithiram, Pattabiraman Sathyamurthi, Nandagopal Kailasam, Raghavan Varadarajan, Soumya Swaminathan, Srikanth Prasad Tripathy, S Kalyanaraman Vaniambadi, D Ramanathan Vadakkupattu, Luke Elizabeth Hanna
Strain-specific neutralizing antibodies develop in all human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals. However, only 10-30% of infected individuals produce broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). Identification and characterization of these bNAbs and understanding their evolution dynamics are critical for obtaining useful clues for the development of an effective HIV vaccine. Very recently, we published a study in which we identified 12 HIV-1 subtype C-infected individuals from India whose plasma showed potent and broad cross-clade neutralization (BCN) ability (1)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662199/a-single-injection-of-crystallizable-fragment-domain-modified-antibodies-elicits-durable-protection-from-shiv-infection
#14
Rajeev Gautam, Yoshiaki Nishimura, Natalie Gaughan, Anna Gazumyan, Till Schoofs, Alicia Buckler-White, Michael S Seaman, Bruce J Swihart, Dean A Follmann, Michel C Nussenzweig, Malcolm A Martin
In the absence of an effective and safe vaccine against HIV-1, the administration of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) represents a logical alternative approach to prevent virus transmission. Here, we introduced two mutations encoding amino acid substitutions (M428L and N434S, collectively referred to as 'LS') into the genes encoding the crystallizable fragment domains of the highly potent HIV-specific 3BNC117 and 10-1074 bNAbs to increase their half-lives and evaluated their efficacy in blocking infection following repeated low-dose mucosal challenges of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) with the tier 2 SHIVAD8-EO ...
April 16, 2018: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662113/author-correction-analyses-of-hiv-1-integrase-sequences-prior-to-south-african-national-hiv-treatment-program-and-availability-of-integrase-inhibitors-in-cape-town-south-africa
#15
Dominik Brado, Adetayo Emmanuel Obasa, George Mondinde Ikomey, Ruben Cloete, Kamalendra Singh, Susan Engelbrecht, Ujjwal Neogi, Graeme Brendon Jacobs
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.
April 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662026/the-hard-way-towards-an-antibody-based-hiv-1-env-vaccine-lessons-from-other-viruses
#16
REVIEW
Oliver Ringel, Vincent Vieillard, Patrice Debré, Jutta Eichler, Hildegard Büning, Ursula Dietrich
Although effective antibody-based vaccines have been developed against multiple viruses, such approaches have so far failed for the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Despite the success of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) that has turned HIV-1 infection into a chronic disease and has reduced the number of new infections worldwide, a vaccine against HIV-1 is still urgently needed. We discuss here the major reasons for the failure of "classical" vaccine approaches, which are mostly due to the biological properties of the virus itself...
April 15, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661652/next-generation-sequencing-reveals-a-high-frequency-of-cxcr4-utilizing-viruses-in-hiv-1-chronically-infected-drug-experienced-individuals-in-south-africa
#17
Nontokozo D Matume, Denis M Tebit, Laurie R Gray, Marie-Louise Hammarskjold, David Rekosh, Pascal O Bessong
BACKGROUND: Entry inhibitors, such as Maraviroc, bind to CCR5 inhibiting entry of CCR5 utilizing viruses (R5 viruses). In the course of HIV infection, CXCR4 utilizing viruses (X4 viruses) may emerge and outgrow R5 viruses, and potentially limit the effectiveness of Maraviroc. The use of Maraviroc is reserved for salvage therapy in South Africa. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we examined the frequency of R5 and X4 viruses, using next generation sequencing, in patients under treatment to draw inferences on the utility of Maraviroc in a South African population...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661598/vitamin-d-supplementation-bone-turnover-and-inflammation-in-hiv-infected-patients
#18
L Benguella, A Arbault, A Fillion, M Blot, C Piroth, D Denimal, L Duvillard, P Ornetti, P Chavanet, J-F Maillefert, L Piroth
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether vitamin D supplementation could be associated with a modification of inflammatory markers and bone turnover in HIV-1-infected patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients who participated in an initial survey in 2010 and who were followed in the same department were included in a new study in 2012. Between 2010 and 2012, vitamin D supplementation was offered to patients presenting with hypovitaminosis D as per appropriate guidelines. Clinical examinations were performed, and fasting blood samples were taken for inflammation and bone marker evaluations...
April 13, 2018: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661246/risk-factors-and-outcomes-for-the-q151m-and-t69-insertion-hiv-1-resistance-mutations-in-historic-uk-data
#19
Oliver T Stirrup, David T Dunn, Anna Tostevin, Caroline A Sabin, Anton Pozniak, David Asboe, Alison Cox, Chloe Orkin, Fabiola Martin, Patricia Cane
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of HIV-1 resistance to antiretroviral therapies (ART) has declined in high-income countries over recent years, but drug resistance remains a substantial concern in many low and middle-income countries. The Q151M and T69 insertion (T69i) resistance mutations in the viral reverse transcriptase gene can reduce susceptibility to all nucleoside/tide analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors, motivating the present study to investigate the risk factors and outcomes associated with these mutations...
April 16, 2018: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660338/different-molecular-mechanisms-of-htlv-1-and-hiv-ltr-activation-by-tpa
#20
Azhar Jabareen, Manal Salman, Aya Abu-Jaafar, Mahmoud Huleihel
HTLV-1 and HIV-1 are retroviruses involved in different human diseases. However, following infection, these viruses inter into a latent state. Tax and Tat are regarded as trans-activators of HTLV-1 and HIV-1 respectively. As it known, during the latent state the infected cells contain low Tax and Tat protein levels, so the activation of these viruses must be independent of these proteins. Here we focus on exploring the mechanism of activation of these viruses by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), which is a potent activator of protein kinase C (PKC) and considered as a stress-inducing agent...
April 13, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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