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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723708/subclinical-herpesvirus-shedding-among-hiv-1-infected-men-on-antiretroviral-therapy
#1
Arcadio Agudelo-Hernandez, Yue Chen, Arlene Bullotta, William G Buchanan, Cynthia R Klamar-Blain, Luann Borowski, Sharon A Riddler, Charles R Rinaldo, Bernard Jc Macatangay
DESIGN: We evaluated the subclinical shedding of 6 different herpesviruses in antiretroviral drug-treated HIV(+) men who have sex with men (MSM), and determined how this is associated with markers of inflammation and immune activation. METHODS: We obtained blood, semen, throat washing, urine, and stool from 15 antiretroviral-treated HIV-1-infected MSM with CD4 T cell reconstitution, and 12 age-matched HIV(-) MSM from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study at 4 timepoints over 24 weeks to measure DNA levels of cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6), and HHV8...
July 18, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722790/switching-to-a-rilpivirine-emtricitabine-tenofovir-single-tablet-regimen-in-rna-suppressed-patients-infected-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-1-effectiveness-safety-and-costs-at-96%C3%A2-weeks
#2
Paula Arrabal-Durán, Carmen G Rodríguez-González, Esther Chamorro-de-Vega, Paloma Gijón-Vidaurreta, Ana Herranz-Alonso, María Sanjurjo-Sáez
OBJECTIVES: This study evaluates the effectiveness, safety and costs of switching to a rilpivirine/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (RPV/FTC/TDF) regimen in treatment-experienced HIV-1-infected patients with sustained virological suppression. METHODS: Observational, prospective study. Study population included all treatment-experienced patients with sustained virological suppression who switched to RPV/FTC/TDF during 2013 in a tertiary hospital. Patients were followed until they completed 96 weeks of treatment...
July 19, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722631/dengue-virus-coinfection-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-1-infected-patients-on-the-west-coast-of-mexico
#3
Francisco Espinoza-Gómez, Iván Delgado-Enciso, Salvador Valle-Reyes, Rodolfo Ochoa-Jiménez, Conrado Arechiga-Ramírez, José L Gámez-Arroyo, Roberto Vázquez-Campuzano, Carmen Guzmán-Bracho, Clemente Vásquez, Uriel A López-Lemus
Dengue virus infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients is not well studied. Previous reports suggest a transitory inhibition of the HIV-1 viral load, as well as a benign clinical progression of dengue. The follow-up of six HIV-1-infected patients, diagnosed and hospitalized with dengue virus infection in the State of Colima, Mexico, was carried out to analyze the progression of this viral coinfection. The presence of dengue virus serotype 1 was confirmed through molecular tests. No severe complications were observed in any of the patients during dengue virus infection...
June 12, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722475/ann-qsar-workflow-for-predicting-the-inhibition-of-hiv-1-reverse-transcriptase-by-pyridinone-non-nucleoside-derivatives
#4
Abolfazl Barzegar, Elham Zamani-Gharehchamani, Ali Kadkhodaie-Ilkhchi
AIM: Pyridinone derivatives have high potency against non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type-1 strains. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies on a series of pyridinone derivatives acting as NNRTIs are very important in designing the next generation of NNRTIs. Methodology & results: The QSAR models were developed using linear (single and forward stepwise) and combined nonlinear artificial neural network (ANN) approaches...
July 19, 2017: Future Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722007/physical-properties-of-the-hiv-1-capsid-from-all-atom-molecular-dynamics-simulations
#5
Juan R Perilla, Klaus Schulten
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is highly dependent on its capsid. The capsid is a large container, made of ∼1,300 proteins with altogether 4 million atoms. Although the capsid proteins are all identical, they nevertheless arrange themselves into a largely asymmetric structure made of hexamers and pentamers. The large number of degrees of freedom and lack of symmetry pose a challenge to studying the chemical details of the HIV capsid. Simulations of over 64 million atoms for over 1 μs allow us to conduct a comprehensive study of the chemical-physical properties of an empty HIV-1 capsid, including its electrostatics, vibrational and acoustic properties, and the effects of solvent (ions and water) on the capsid...
July 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721397/hivis-dna-or-hivisopt-dna-priming-followed-by-cmdr-vaccinia-based-boosts-induce-both-humoral-and-cellular-murine-immune-responses-to-hiv
#6
J Hinkula, S Petkov, K Ljungberg, D Hallengärd, A Bråve, M Isaguliants, T Falkeborn, S Sharma, V Liakina, M Robb, M Eller, B Moss, G Biberfeld, E Sandström, C Nilsson, K Markland, P Blomberg, B Wahren
BACKGROUND: In order to develop a more effective prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine it is important optimize the components, improve Envelope glycoprotein immunogenicity as well as to explore prime-boost immunization schedules. It is also valuable to include several HIV-1 subtype antigens representing the world-wide epidemic. METHODS: HIVIS-DNA plasmids which include Env genes of subtypes A, B and C together with Gag subtypes A and B and RTmut/Rev of subtype B were modified as follows: the Envelope sequences were shortened, codon optimized, provided with an FT4 sequence and an immunodominant region mutated...
June 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720421/assessment-of-the-hiv-1-reservoir-in-cd4-regulatory-t-cells-by-a-droplet-digital-pcr-based-approach
#7
Gábor Artúr Dunay, Anastasia Solomatina, Silke Kummer, Anja Hüfner, Julia Katharina Bialek, Johanna Maria Eberhard, Eva Tolosa, Joachim Hauber, Julian Schulze Zur Wiesch
The relative contribution of regulatory T cells (Treg) as reservoir of HIV-1 in patients on chronic antiretroviral therapy is unclear to date. The aim of the current study was to assess the total HIV DNA burden and replication competent viral reservoir in Treg in comparison to central and effector memory cells (Tcm and Tem). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained from 10 HIV patients treated with antiretroviral therapy and one HIV elite controller. Droplet Digital PCR (ddPCR) was used to quantify total HIV DNA loads in FACS sorted CD4+ Treg (CD25+CD127lo) as compared with Tcm (CD45RO+CCR7+) and Tem (CD45RO+CCR7-)...
July 15, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720122/enhance-the-performance-of-current-scoring-functions-with-the-aid-of-3d-protein-ligand-interaction-fingerprints
#8
Jie Liu, Minyi Su, Zhihai Liu, Jie Li, Yan Li, Renxiao Wang
BACKGROUND: In structure-based drug design, binding affinity prediction remains as a challenging goal for current scoring functions. Development of target-biased scoring functions provides a new possibility for tackling this problem, but this approach is also associated with certain technical difficulties. We previously reported the Knowledge-Guided Scoring (KGS) method as an alternative approach (BMC Bioinformatics, 2010, 11, 193-208). The key idea is to compute the binding affinity of a given protein-ligand complex based on the known binding data of an appropriate reference complex, so the error in binding affinity prediction can be reduced effectively...
July 18, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720097/a-versatile-papaya-mosaic-virus-papmv-vaccine-platform-based-on-sortase-mediated-antigen-coupling
#9
Ariane Thérien, Mikaël Bédard, Damien Carignan, Gervais Rioux, Louis Gauthier-Landry, Marie-Ève Laliberté-Gagné, Marilène Bolduc, Pierre Savard, Denis Leclerc
BACKGROUND: Flexuous rod-shaped nanoparticles made of the coat protein (CP) of papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) have been shown to trigger innate immunity through engagement of toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7). PapMV nanoparticles can also serve as a vaccine platform as they can increase the immune response to fused peptide antigens. Although this approach shows great potential, fusion of antigens directly to the CP open reading frame (ORF) is challenging because the fused peptides can alter the structure of the CP and its capacity to self assemble into nanoparticles-a property essential for triggering an efficient immune response to the peptide...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719652/long-term-follow-up-of-human-t-cell-responses-to-conserved-hiv-1-regions-elicited-by-dna-simian-adenovirus-mva-vaccine-regimens
#10
Nathifa Moyo, Nicola J Borthwick, Edmund G Wee, Silvia Capucci, Alison Crook, Lucy Dorrell, Tomáš Hanke
BACKGROUND: Durability of vaccine-elicited immune responses is one of the key determinants for vaccine success. Our aim is to develop a vaccination strategy against the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), which induces protective and durable CD8+ T-cell responses. The central theorem of our approach is to focus T cells on highly conserved regions of the HIV-1 proteome and this is achieved through the use of the first-generation conserved vaccine immunogen HIVconsv. This immunogen vectored by plasmid DNA, simian adenovirus and poxvirus MVA was tested in healthy, HIV-1-negative adults in UK and induced high magnitudes of HIVconsv-specific plurifunctional CD8+ T cells capable of in vitro HIV-1 inhibition...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719012/the-impact-of-immunoglobulin-in-acute-hiv-infection-on-the-hiv-reservoir-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
J Tiraboschi, S Ray, K Patel, A Teague, M Pace, P Phalora, N Robinson, E Hopkins, J Meyerowitz, Y Wang, J Cason, S Kaye, J Sanderson, P Klenerman, S Fidler, J Frater, J Fox
OBJECTIVES: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) during acute HIV infection (AHI) restricts the HIV reservoir, but additional interventions are necessary to induce a cure. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is not HIV-specific but is safe and temporarily reduces the HIV reservoir in chronic HIV infection. We present a randomized controlled trial to investigate whether IVIG plus ART in AHI reduces the HIV reservoir and immune activation compared with ART alone. METHODS: Ten men with AHI (Fiebig II-IV) initiated ART (tenofovir, entricitabine, ritonavir boosted darunavir and raltegravir) at HIV-1 diagnosis and were randomized to ART alone or ART plus 5 days of IVIG, once virally suppressed (week 19)...
July 18, 2017: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718069/neurological-involvement-in-patients-with-acute-recent-hiv-1-infection-a-case-control-study
#12
Juan Ambrosioni, Francisca Artigues, David Nicolás, Judit Peñafiel, Fernando Agüero, Christian Manzardo, María Mar Mosquera, Sonsoles Sánchez-Palomino, Elisa De Lazzari, María A Marcos, Montserrat Plana, José M Miró
Primary HIV-1 infection is a relevant period for its virological and epidemiological consequences. Most patients present a symptomatic disease that can be potentially serious, but neurological involvement during primary HIV-1 infection has been poorly studied. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics and outcomes of primary HIV-1 infection patients presenting neurological symptoms and to compare them with primary HIV-1 infection patients without neurological involvement. Retrospective case-control study (1:3) comparing primary HIV-1 infection patients with and without neurological involvement enrolled in the Acute/Recent Hospital Clinic PHI Cohort between 1997 and 2016...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717654/fusion-to-flaviviral-leader-peptide-targets-hiv-1-reverse-transcriptase-for-secretion-and-reduces-its-enzymatic-activity-and-ability-to-induce-oxidative-stress-but-has-no-major-effects-on-its-immunogenic-performance-in-dna-immunized-mice
#13
Anastasia Latanova, Stefan Petkov, Yulia Kuzmenko, Athina Kilpeläinen, Alexander Ivanov, Olga Smirnova, Olga Krotova, Sergey Korolev, Jorma Hinkula, Vadim Karpov, Maria Isaguliants, Elizaveta Starodubova
Reverse transcriptase (RT) is a key enzyme in viral replication and susceptibility to ART and a crucial target of immunotherapy against drug-resistant HIV-1. RT induces oxidative stress which undermines the attempts to make it immunogenic. We hypothesized that artificial secretion may reduce the stress and make RT more immunogenic. Inactivated multidrug-resistant RT (RT1.14opt-in) was N-terminally fused to the signal providing secretion of NS1 protein of TBEV (Ld) generating optimized inactivated Ld-carrying enzyme RT1...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717424/low-active-loading-of-cargo-into-engineered-extracellular-vesicles-results-in-inefficient-mirna-mimic-delivery
#14
Dhruvitkumar S Sutaria, Jinmai Jiang, Ola A Elgamal, Steven M Pomeroy, Mohamed Badawi, Xiaohua Zhu, Ryan Pavlovicz, Ana Clara P Azevedo-Pouly, Jeffrey Chalmers, Chenglong Li, Mitch A Phelps, Thomas D Schmittgen
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) hold great potential as novel systems for nucleic acid delivery due to their natural composition. Our goal was to load EVs with microRNA that are synthesized by the cells that produce the EVs. HEK293T cells were engineered to produce EVs expressing a lysosomal associated membrane, Lamp2a fusion protein. The gene encoding pre-miR-199a was inserted into an artificial intron of the Lamp2a fusion protein. The TAT peptide/HIV-1 transactivation response (TAR) RNA interacting peptide was exploited to enhance the EV loading of the pre-miR-199a containing a modified TAR RNA loop...
2017: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717247/characterization-of-hiv-1-integrase-interaction-with-human-ku70-protein-and-initial-implications-for-drug-targeting
#15
Andrey N Anisenko, Ekaterina S Knyazhanskaya, Artur O Zalevsky, Julia Yu Agapkina, Aleksander I Sizov, Timofey S Zatsepin, Marina B Gottikh
Human Ku70/Ku80 protein is known to influence HIV-1 replication. One of the possible reasons may be the protection of integrase from proteasomal degradation by Ku70 subunit. We demonstrated that recombinant HIV-1 integrase and Ku70 form a stable complex, while no interaction of Ku70 with integrase from prototype foamy virus was observed. By analyzing protein subdomains we determined two binding sites in the structure of both Ku70 and integrase: the 51-160 a.a. region of integrase interacts with residues 251-438 of Ku70, whereas Ku70 N-terminal domain (1-250 a...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716964/a-glun2b-selective-nmdar-antagonist-reverses-synapse-loss-and-cognitive-impairment-produced-by-the-hiv-1-protein-tat
#16
Jonathan D Raybuck, Nicholas J Hargus, Stanley A Thayer
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) affects approximately half of HIV-infected patients. Loss of synaptic connections is a hallmark of many neurocognitive disorders, including HAND. The HIV-1 protein transactivator of transcription (Tat) disrupts synaptic connections both in vitro and in vivo and has been linked to impaired neurocognitive function in humans. In vitro studies have shown that ifenprodil, an antagonist selective for GluN2B-containing NMDARs, reverses synapse loss when applied after Tat...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715971/a-consensus-view-of-escrt-mediated-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-abscission
#17
J Lippincott-Schwartz, E O Freed, S B van Engelenburg
The strong dependence of retroviruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), on host cell factors is no more apparent than when the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery is purposely disengaged. The resulting potent inhibition of retrovirus release underscores the importance of understanding fundamental structure-function relationships at the ESCRT-HIV-1 interface. Recent studies utilizing advanced imaging technologies have helped clarify these relationships, overcoming hurdles to provide a range of potential models for ESCRT-mediated virus abscission...
July 17, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715460/early-infant-diagnosis-of-hiv-1-infection-in-luanda-angola-using-a-new-dna-pcr-assay-and-dried-blood-spots
#18
Francisco Martin, Claudia Palladino, Rita Mateus, Anna Bolzan, Perpétua Gomes, José Brito, Ana Patrícia Carvalho, Yolanda Cardoso, Cristovão Domingos, Vanda Sofia Lôa Clemente, Nuno Taveira
BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis and treatment reduces HIV-1-related mortality, morbidity and size of viral reservoirs in infants infected perinatally. Commercial molecular tests enable the early diagnosis of infection in infants but the high cost and low sensitivity with dried blood spots (DBS) limit their use in sub-Saharan Africa. OBJECTIVES: To develop and validate a sensitive and cheap qualitative proviral DNA PCR-based assay for early infant diagnosis (EID) in HIV-1-exposed infants using DBS samples...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715160/meeting-the-who-90-target-antiretroviral-treatment-efficacy-in-poland-is-associated-with-baseline-clinical-patient-characteristics
#19
Milosz Parczewski, Ewa Siwak, Magdalena Leszczyszyn-Pynka, Iwona Cielniak, Ewa Burkacka, Piotr Pulik, Adam Witor, Karolina Muller, Ewelina Zasik, Anna Grzeszczuk, Maria Jankowska, Małgorzata Lemańska, Anita Olczak, Edyta Grąbczewska, Aleksandra Szymczak, Jacek Gąsiorowski, Bartosz Szetela, Monika Bociąga-Jasik, Paweł Skwara, Magdalena Witak-Jędra, Elżbieta Jabłonowska, Kamila Wójcik-Cichy, Juliusz Kamerys, Małgorzata Janczarek, Dagny Krankowska, Tomasz Mikuła, Katarzyna Kozieł, Dariusz Bielec, Justyna Stempkowska, Aleksandra Kocbach, Wiesława Błudzin, Andrzej Horban
INTRODUCTION: Modern combined antiretroviral therapies (cART) allow to effectively suppress HIV-1 viral load, with the 90% virologic success rate, meeting the WHO target in most clinical settings. The aim of this study was to analyse antiretroviral treatment efficacy in Poland and to identify variables associated with virologic suppression. M: ethods Cross-sectional data on 5152 (56.92% of the countrywide treated at the time-point of analysis) patients on cART for more than six months with at least one HIV-RNA measurement in 2016 were collected from 14 Polish centres...
July 17, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713388/exploiting-natural-cross-reactivity-between-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-1-p17-protein-and-anti-gp41-2f5-antibody-to-induce-hiv-1-neutralizing-responses-in-vivo
#20
Bernard Verrier, Stéphane Paul, Céline Terrat, Liza Bastide, Agathe Ensinas, Capucine Phelip, Blandine Chanut, Laura Bulens-Grassigny, Fabienne Jospin, Christophe Guillon
Anti-p17 antibodies are able to neutralize human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) entry in a mouse model. In this study, we identified a region of sequence similarity between the epitopes of anti-p17 neutralizing antibodies and anti-gp41 neutralizing 2F5 antibody and verified cross-reactivity between p17 and 2F5 in vitro. The p17 sequence was modified to increase sequence identity between the p17 and 2F5 epitopes, which resulted in enhanced cross-reactivity in vitro. Immunogenicity of wild-type and modified p17 was characterized in a rabbit model...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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