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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087137/nos-interacting-protein-nosip-is-increased-in-the-colon-of-patients-with-hirschsprung-s-disease
#1
Anne-Marie O'Donnell, David Coyle, Prem Puri
PURPOSE: Voltage-dependent K(+) channels (Kv channels) participate in electrical rhythmicity and smooth muscle responses and are regulated by excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. Kv channels also participate in the interstitial cell of Cajal (ICC) and smooth muscle cell (SMC) responses to neural inputs. The Kv family consists of 12 subfamilies, Kv1-Kv12, with five members of the Kv7 family identified to date: Kv7.1-Kv7.5. A recent study identified the potassium channel Kv7.5 as having a role in the excitability of ICC-IM in the mouse colon...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078679/diet-induced-dysmotility-and-neuropathy-in-the-gut-precedes-endotoxemia-and-metabolic-syndrome-the-chicken-and-the-egg-revisited
#2
Yvonne Elikplim Akua Nyavor, Onesmo Begira Balemba
Neuropathy of the enteric nervous system (ENS) is one of the major underlying causes of debilitating gastrointestinal (GI) motility disorders in diabetic patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
January 11, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066135/ameliorative-effects-of-atractylodin-on-intestinal-inflammation-and-co-occurring-dysmotility-in-both-constipation-and-diarrhea-prominent-rats
#3
Changchun Yu, Yongjian Xiong, Dapeng Chen, Yanli Li, Bin Xu, Yuan Lin, Zeyao Tang, Chunling Jiang, Li Wang
Intestinal disorders often co-occur with inflammation and dysmotility. However, drugs which simultaneously improve intestinal inflammation and co-occurring dysmotility are rarely reported. Atractylodin, a widely used herbal medicine, is used to treat digestive disorders. The present study was designed to characterize the effects of atractylodin on amelioration of both jejunal inflammation and the co-occurring dysmotility in both constipation-prominent (CP) and diarrhea-prominent (DP) rats. The results indicated that atractylodin reduced proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in the plasma and inhibited the expression of inflammatory mediators iNOS and NF-kappa B in jejunal segments in both CP and DP rats...
January 2017: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065485/systemic-sclerosis-sine-scleroderma-in-mexican-patients-case-reports
#4
Olga Vera-Lastra, Christian Alexis Sauceda-Casas, María Del Pilar Cruz Domínguez, Sergio Alberto Mendoza Alvarez, Jesús Sepulceda-Delgado
: Systemic sclerosis sine scleroderma (ssSSc) is a form of systemic sclerosis that is characterized by Raynaud's phenomenon (RP), visceral involvement without thickening of skin and anticentromere antibodies (ACA). We studied 10 ssSsc patients with a prevalence of 2%. The clinical signs were: RP 9/10, esophageal manifestations 8/10, pulmonary arterial hypertension 4/10, interstitial lung disease 4/10, cardiac signs 3/10 and ACA 8/10. CONCLUSION: In patients with RP, esophageal dysmotility, interstitial lung disease and pulmonary arterial hypertension should be tested for ACA in order to establish a prompt diagnosis and treatment of ssSSc...
January 3, 2017: Reumatología Clinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043906/heterotrimeric-g-stimulatory-protein-alpha-subunit-is-required-for-intestinal-smooth-muscle-contraction-in-mice
#5
Xiaoteng Qin, Shangming Liu, Qiulun Lu, Meng Zhang, Xiuxin Jiang, Sanyuan Hu, Jingxin Li, Cheng Zhang, Jiangang Gao, Min-Sheng Zhu, Yun Zhang, Wencheng Zhang
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The alpha subunit of the heterotrimeric G stimulatory protein (Gsa), encoded by the guanine nucleotide binding protein, alpha stimulating gene (Gnas, in mice), is expressed ubiquitously and mediates receptor-stimulated production of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and activation of the protein kinase A signaling pathway. We investigated the roles of Gsa in vivo in smooth muscle cells of mice. METHODS: We performed studies of mice with Cre recombinase-mediated disruption of Gnas in smooth muscle cells (Gsa(SMKO) and SM22-CreER(T2), induced in adult mice by tamoxifen)...
December 30, 2016: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035315/lymphocytic-esophagitis-report-of-three-cases-and-review-of-the-literature
#6
Bilel Jideh, Andrew Keegan, Martin Weltman
Lymphocytic esophagitis (LyE) is a rare condition characterised histologically by high numbers of esophageal intraepithelial lymphocytes without significant granulocytes infiltration, in addition to intercellular edema ("spongiosis"). The clinical significance and natural history of LyE is poorly defined although dysphagia is reportedly the most common symptom. Endoscopic features range from normal appearing esophageal mucosa to features similar to those seen in eosinophilic esophagitis, including esophageal rings, linear furrows, whitish exudates, and esophageal strictures/stenosis...
December 16, 2016: World Journal of Clinical Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007791/factors-associated-with-seminal-impairment-in-hiv-infected-men-under-antiretroviral-therapy
#7
A Jerónimo, M B Baza, I Río, M Vera, V Hernando, J Castilla, C Rodriguez, J Del Romero
STUDY QUESTION: How do semen parameters of HIV-infected men under antiretroviral treatment compare with WHO parameters of normal semen, and what factors are associated with any differences? SUMMARY ANSWER: Semen quality in most HIV-infected patients under antiretroviral treatment exceeds WHO limits, but the number falling below them is higher than would be expected in a healthy population. Exposure to efavirenz has a significant association with dysmotility. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Dysmotility is the most frequently described sperm alteration related to HIV infection, and it has recently been linked to treatment with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, particularly to efavirenz...
December 21, 2016: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004474/gastrointestinal-dysmotility-and-pancreatic-insufficiency-in-2-siblings-with-donohue-syndrome
#8
Eirini Kostopoulou, Pratik Shah, Noman Ahmad, Robert Semple, Khalid Hussain
Donohue syndrome is a rare congenital syndrome of insulin-resistance and abnormal glucose homeostasis, caused by mutations in the insulin receptor (INSR) gene. It is characterized by specific phenotypic and clinical features and the diagnosis is based on clinical, biochemical and genetic criteria. We report 2 siblings with Donohue syndrome (cases 1, 2) with multiple clinical and biochemical characteristics. Both patients shared the same mutation and presented with intra-uterine growth restriction, failure to thrive, fasting hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia and episodic post-prandial hyperglycaemia...
December 22, 2016: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003719/cirrhotic-patients-have-worse-bowel-preparation-at-screening-colonoscopy-than-chronic-liver-disease-patients-without-cirrhosis
#9
Anika K Anam, Kunal Karia, Arun B Jesudian, Brian P Bosworth
BACKGROUND: Cirrhosis has been shown in small studies to be a predictor of suboptimal bowel preparation at screening colonoscopy. It has yet to be established whether patients with chronic liver disease in the absence of cirrhosis experience equally poor colon cleansing. Intestinal dysmotility related to cirrhosis might impair bowel preparation in this population more than those with chronic liver disease without cirrhosis. OBJECTIVE: This study compared the quality of bowel preparation in cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic patients with chronic liver disease and determined whether this influenced polyp detection rate...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000223/western-diet-induces-colonic-nitrergic-myenteric-neuropathy-and-dysmotility-in-mice-via-saturated-fatty-acid-and-lps-induced-tlr4-signaling
#10
François Reichardt, Benoit Chassaing, Behtash Ghazi Nezami, Ge Li, Sahar Tabatabavakili, Simon Mwangi, Karan Uppal, Bill Liang, Matam Vijay-Kumar, Dean Jones, Andrew T Gewirtz, Shanthi Srinivasan
Consumption of high-fat diets (HFD) is associated with myenteric neurodegeneration associated with delayed colonic transit and constipation. We examined the hypothesis that both HFD's inherent increase in plasma free fatty acids (FFA) and HFD-induced alteration in gut microbiota contribute to the pathophysiology of these disorders. C57BL/6 mice were fed a Western diet (WD, 35% kcal from fat- enriched in palmitate) or a purified regular diet (RD, 16.9% kcal from fat) for 3, 6, 9 and 12 weeks. Gut microbiota dysbiosis was investigated by fecal LPS measurement and metabolomics (LTQ-FTMS) analysis...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000201/-pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-slow-transit-constipation
#11
Dongxu Zhang, Anlong Zhu
Slow transit constipation (STC) is generally considered as a complex idiopathic disease affected by multiple factors synergistically. Primarily caused by the condition of gut dysmotility, the transit of intestinal contents turned so slow that the moisture absorption increases, defecation frequency decreases, bowel movement is weakened or even disappeared with or without abdominal distension, dry and hard stool. Its etiology and pathogenesis remains unclear.Recently some researches reported the pathogenesis may be associated with the changes of the enteric nervous system (ENS), such as the change or degeneration of intestinal nerve cells, gut glial cell damage and neurotransmitter changes...
December 25, 2016: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990484/initial-experience-of-video-capsule-endoscopy-after-intestinal-transplantation
#12
Jonas Varkey, Mihai Oltean, Andreas Bernd Pischel, Magnus Simrén, Gustaf Herlenius
BACKGROUND: Intestinal transplantation is a procedure which inflicts immunological and infectious complications that affect the transplanted graft, posing both diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) offers easy access to the entire small intestine and presents itself as an interesting option. However, at present, no studies evaluating the usefulness of video capsule endoscopies in this setting have been published. Our aim was to evaluate the usefulness of VCE in detecting complications that arise after intestinal transplantation...
December 2016: Transplantation Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981679/effects-of-antipsychotics-on-intestinal-motility-in-zebrafish-larvae
#13
K A F de Alvarenga, E K Sacramento, D V Rosa, B R Souza, V B de Rezende, M A Romano-Silva
BACKGROUND: Antipsychotics are essential for the treatment of schizophrenia. However, due to side effects, both continuity of treatment and patients' general health can be jeopardized. Some of these drugs, especially clozapine, have a class of side effects attributed to their antimuscarinic properties, such as dysmotility, a condition in which muscles of the digestive system become impaired. Dysmotility may also alter the speed, strength or coordination of the digestive organs, causing distention, disturbing gastrointestinal transit, leading to symptoms such as bloating, nausea, vomiting, and even malnutrition...
December 16, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939576/advanced-glycation-end-products-interfere-with-gastric-smooth-muscle-contractile-marker-expression-via-the-age-rage-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#14
Ting Yu, Yongping Zheng, Yun Wang, Wenjie Xiong, Lin Lin
Excessive production of advanced glycation end products (AGE) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. Smooth muscle (SM) phenotype transition is involved in diabetes-associated gastric motility dysfunction. We investigated whether AGE interfere with gastric antral SM contractile marker expression. Sixteen Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic groups. Sixteen weeks after streptozotocin administration, gastric antral SM strip contractility in the groups were measured...
December 7, 2016: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930657/the-effects-of-auricular-electro-acupuncture-on-ameliorating-the-dysfunction-of-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-networks-and-nnosmrna-expression-in-antrum-of-stz-induced-diabetic-rats
#15
Huan Chen, Weijian Zhu, Jing Lu, Jinqing Fan, Luning Sun, Xiaoke Feng, Hao Liu, Zhaohui Zhang, Yongqing Wang
BACKGROUD: Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) and nNOS play a crucial role in diabetic gastrointestinal dysmotility(DGD). Our previous study found that electro-acupuncture(EA) on ear point 'stomach' could repair the gastric dysrhythmias in rats induced by rectal distention(RD) after meal. However, little were known about the possible effect of auricular electro-acupuncture (AEA) on diabetic rats. Thus, we designed this study to investigate the effect of AEA on streptozotocin(STZ)-induced diabetic rats...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927062/the-possible-role-of-gastrointestinal-endocrine-cells-in-the-pathophysiology-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#16
Magdy El-Salhy, Trygve Hausken, Odd Helge Gilja, Jan Gunnar Hatlebakk
The etiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is unknown, but several factors appear to play a role in its pathophysiology, including abnormalities of the gastrointestinal endocrine cells. The present review illuminates the possible role of gastrointestinal hormones in the pathophysiology of IBS and the possibility of utilizing the current knowledge in treating the disease. Areas covered: Research into the intestinal endocrine cells and their possible role in the pathophysiology of IBS is discussed. Furthermore, the mechanisms underlying the abnormalities in the gastrointestinal endocrine cells in IBS patients are revealed...
December 14, 2016: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922988/minimally-invasive-fundoplication-is-safe-and-effective-in-patients-with-severe-esophageal-hypomotility
#17
Michael B Goldberg, Abbas El-Sayed Abbas, Michael S Smith, Henry P Parkman, Ron Schey, Daniel T Dempsey
OBJECTIVE: Fundoplication is used to treat refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). A subset of patients has coexisting esophageal dysmotility, including aperistalsis or hypoperistalsis. These patients may be at increased risk of dysphagia after fundoplication. To evaluate the outcomes of minimally invasive fundoplication (MIF) in patients with GERD and esophageal hypomotility. METHODS: Retrospective review of all patients who underwent MIF and had severe esophageal hypomotility from January 2003 to June 2013...
November 2016: Innovations: Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916369/expression-of-connexin-26-and-connexin-43-is-reduced-in-hirschsprung-s-disease
#18
David Coyle, Brian Doyle, Justin M Murphy, Anne Marie O'Donnell, John Gillick, Prem Puri
BACKGROUND: Despite having an optimal pull-through operation, some children with Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR) continue to experience persistent bowel symptoms. Coordinated colonic electrical activity depends on intercellular communication between the enteric nerves, interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs), smooth muscle cells, and fibroblast-like (platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha-positive) cells. Gap junctions are low-resistance channels composed of connexin (Cx) proteins which couple cells electrically and chemically...
November 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913098/succinyl-coa-synthetase-sucla2-deficiency-in-two-siblings-with-impaired-activity-of-other-mitochondrial-oxidative-enzymes-in-skeletal-muscle-without-mitochondrial-dna-depletion
#19
Xiaoping Huang, Jirair K Bedoyan, Didem Demirbas, David J Harris, Alexander Miron, Simone Edelheit, George Grahame, Suzanne D DeBrosse, Lee-Jun Wong, Charles L Hoppel, Douglas S Kerr, Irina Anselm, Gerard T Berry
Mutations in SUCLA2 result in succinyl-CoA ligase (ATP-forming) or succinyl-CoA synthetase (ADP-forming) (A-SCS) deficiency, a mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle disorder. The phenotype associated with this gene defect is largely encephalomyopathy. We describe two siblings compound heterozygous for SUCLA2 mutations, c.985A>G (p.M329V) and c.920C>T (p.A307V), with parents confirmed as carriers of each mutation. We developed a new LC-MS/MS based enzyme assay to demonstrate the decreased SCS activity in the siblings with this unique genotype...
November 12, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902697/a-novel-zebrafish-ret-heterozygous-model-of-hirschsprung-disease-identifies-a-functional-role-for-mapk10-as-a-modifier-of-enteric-nervous-system-phenotype-severity
#20
Tiffany A Heanue, Werend Boesmans, Donald M Bell, Koichi Kawakami, Pieter Vanden Berghe, Vassilis Pachnis
Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is characterized by absence of enteric neurons from the distal colon and severe intestinal dysmotility. To understand the pathophysiology and genetics of HSCR we developed a unique zebrafish model that allows combined genetic, developmental and in vivo physiological studies. We show that ret mutant zebrafish exhibit cellular, physiological and genetic features of HSCR, including absence of intestinal neurons, reduced peristalsis, and varying phenotype expressivity in the heterozygous state...
November 2016: PLoS Genetics
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