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Dysmotility

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231402/ex-vivo-visualization-of-human-ciliated-epithelium-and-quantitative-analysis-of-induced-flow-dynamics-by-using-optical-coherence-tomography
#1
Yuye Ling, Xinwen Yao, Ute A Gamm, Emilio Arteaga-Solis, Charles W Emala, Michael A Choma, Christine P Hendon
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cilia-driven mucociliary clearance is an important self-defense mechanism of great clinical importance in pulmonary research. Conventional light microscopy possesses the capability to visualize individual cilia and its beating pattern but lacks the throughput to assess the global ciliary activities and flow dynamics. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), which provides depth-resolved cross-sectional images, was recently introduced to this area. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fourteen de-identified human tracheobronchial tissues are directly imaged by two OCT systems: one system centered at 1,300 nm with 6...
February 23, 2017: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225647/early-experience-with-single-incision-laparoscopic-total-abdominal-colectomy-in-children
#2
Cristen N Litz, Paul D Danielson, Nicole M Chandler
PURPOSE: Single-incision laparoscopic surgery for pediatric colorectal disease has been shown to be feasible and safe; however, the literature is scarce regarding the outcomes of single-incision laparoscopic total abdominal colectomy (SIL-TAC) in the pediatric population. The purpose of this pilot study was to review our initial experience and outcomes with SIL-TAC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of patients who underwent SIL-TAC from 2013 to 2015 was performed...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220362/the-role-of-impedance-planimetry-in-the-evaluation-of-esophageal-disorders
#3
REVIEW
Nitin K Ahuja, John O Clarke
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Impedance planimetry measures tissue wall distensibility as a function of pressure and cross-sectional area. Recent interest in this technique's relevance to the gastrointestinal tract has been accelerated by the availability of the functional lumen imaging probe, a catheter-based system that dynamically quantitates these biomechanical properties. Herein, we review the device's particular utility in the setting of esophageal pathology, including processes affecting the esophageal body as well as the upper and lower esophageal sphincters...
February 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220074/involvement-of-cannabinoid-signaling-in-vincristine-induced-gastrointestinal-dysmotility-in-the-rat
#4
Gema Vera, Ana E López-Pérez, José A Uranga, Rocío Girón, Ma Isabel Martín-Fontelles, Raquel Abalo
Background: In different models of paralytic ileus, cannabinoid receptors are overexpressed and endogenous cannabinoids are massively released, contributing to gastrointestinal dysmotility. The antitumoral drug vincristine depresses gastrointestinal motility and a similar mechanism could participate in this effect. Therefore, our aim was to determine, using CB1 and CB2 antagonists, whether an increased endocannabinoid tone is involved in vincristine-induced gastrointestinal ileus. Methods: First, we confirmed the effects of vincristine on the gut mucosa, by conventional histological techniques, and characterized its effects on motility, by radiographic means...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213666/patterns-of-abnormal-gastric-pacemaking-after-sleeve-gastrectomy-defined-by-laparoscopic-high-resolution-electrical-mapping
#5
Rachel Berry, Leo K Cheng, Peng Du, Niranchan Paskaranandavadivel, Timothy R Angeli, Terence Mayne, Grant Beban, Gregory O'Grady
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is increasingly being applied to treat obesity. LSG includes excision of the normal gastric pacemaker, which could induce electrical dysrhythmias impacting on post-operative symptoms and recovery, but these implications have not been adequately investigated. This study aimed to define the effects of LSG on gastric slow-wave pacemaking using laparoscopic high-resolution (HR) electrical mapping. METHODS: Laparoscopic HR mapping was performed before and after LSG using flexible printed circuit arrays (64-96 electrodes; 8-12 cm(2); n = 8 patients) deployed through a 12 mm trocar and positioned on the gastric serosa...
February 17, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191707/mechanisms-underlying-reflux-symptoms-and-dysphagia-in-patients-with-joint-hypermobility-syndrome-with-and-without-postural-tachycardia-syndrome
#6
A Fikree, Q Aziz, D Sifrim
BACKGROUND: The joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS) is a common non-inflammatory connective tissue disorder which frequently co-exists with postural tachycardia syndrome (PoTS), a form of orthostatic intolerance. Gastrointestinal symptoms and dysmotility have been reported in PoTS. Dysphagia and reflux are common symptoms in JHS, yet no studies have examined the physiological mechanism for these, subdivided by PoTS status. METHODS: Thirty patients (28 female, ages: 18-62) with JHS and symptoms of reflux (n=28) ± dysphagia (n=25), underwent high-resolution manometry and 24 hour pH-impedance monitoring after questionnaire-based symptom assessment...
February 12, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186337/impaired-intestinal-cholecystokinin-secretion-a-fascinating-but-overlooked-link-between-celiac-disease-and-cholesterol-gallstone-disease
#7
REVIEW
Helen H Wang, Min Liu, Xiaodan Li, Piero Portincasa, David Q-H Wang
BACKGROUND: Celiac disease is a chronic, small intestinal, immune-mediated enteropathy caused by a permanent intolerance to dietary gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. Clinical studies have found that intestinal cholecystokinin secretion and gallbladder emptying in response to a fatty meal are impaired before celiac patients start the gluten-free diet (GFD). DESIGN: However, it was never really appreciated whether celiac disease is associated with gallstones because there were very few studies investigating the mechanism underlying the impact of celiac disease on the pathogenesis of gallstones...
February 10, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185711/impact-of-gastroesophageal-reflux-and-delayed-gastric-emptying-on-pediatric-lung-transplant-outcomes
#8
Fei Jamie Dy, Dawn Freiberger, Enju Liu, Debra Boyer, Gary Visner, Rachel Rosen
BACKGROUND: Gastroesophageal reflux disease is thought to predispose to adverse lung allograft outcomes. However, little is known about the burden of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and gastroparesis in pediatric patients. In this study we describe the burden of reflux and gastroparesis in children undergoing lung transplant, and evaluates their impact on allograft survival and rejection incidence. METHODS: This study is a retrospective analysis of pediatric lung transplant recipients who had combined pH and multichannel intraluminal impedance testing (pH-MII) and gastric-emptying scans (GES)...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185291/review-article-pathogenesis-and-clinical-manifestations-of-gastrointestinal-involvement-in-systemic-sclerosis
#9
REVIEW
S Kumar, J Singh, S Rattan, A J DiMarino, S Cohen, S A Jimenez
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal tract (GIT) involvement is a common cause of debilitating symptoms in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). There are no disease modifying therapies for this condition and the treatment remains symptomatic, largely owing to the lack of a clear understanding of its pathogenesis. AIMS: To investigate novel aspects of the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal involvement in SSc. To summarise existing knowledge regarding the cardinal clinical gastrointestinal manifestations of SSc and its pathogenesis, emphasising recent investigations that may be valuable in identifying potentially novel therapeutic targets...
February 9, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181921/feed-induced-dystonias-in-children-with-severe-central-nervous-system-disorders
#10
Santosh Mordekar, Manjula Velayudhan, David I Campbell
Dystonias can arise from any painful stimuli in neurologically disabled children. Classically, feed induced dystonias from mediastinal pain due to severe gastroesophageal reflux disease are described as Sandifer's spasm. We report a case series of 12 severely neurologically impaired children with enteral feed induced dystonias. Intestinal dysmotility was demonstrated in several. Improvements are seen with jejunal feeds or gut rest with Total Parenteral Nutrition. Use of parenteral nutrition in children with severe neurodisability requires thorough discussion with patient groups and commissioners to give clinicians guidelines to standardise care...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164077/severe-hyponatremia-and-repeated-intestinal-resections-for-intestinal-dysmotility-mimicking-congenital-aganglionic-megacolon-due-to-delay-in-the-diagnosis-of-congenital-hypothyroidism
#11
Gonul Buyukyilmaz, Demet Baltu, Tutku Soyer, Murat Tanyıldız, Huseyin Demirbilek
Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) may present with nonspecific signs and symptoms, though, majority of infants can be asymptomatic. Therefore, understimation and delay in diagnosis may result in severe complications. A 5-month-old female admitted to our clinic with the history of repeated surgical operations due to the diagnosis of congenital aganglionic megacolon. Investigations performed in our clinic revealed the diagnosis of congenital (primary) hypothyroidism due to thyroid agenesis. Histopathologic evaluation of previously resected colon sample revealed normal ganglionic cell included colon...
December 2016: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160390/angiotensin-ii-type-ii-receptors-and-colonic-dysmotility-in-2-4-dinitrofluorobenzenesulfonic-acid-induced-colitis-in-rats
#12
M G Zizzo, M Auteri, A Amato, G Caldara, D Nuzzo, M Di Carlo, R Serio
BACKGROUND: Angiotensin II (Ang II), the main peptide of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), has been suggested to be involved in inflammatory bowel diseases. Since RAS has emerged as gut motility regulator, and dysmotility is associated with intestinal inflammation, our objective was to investigate in rat 2,4-dinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (DNBS)-induced colitis the functionality of RAS and its contribution to colonic motor alterations. METHODS: The effects of Ang II on the longitudinal colonic muscular contractility of control and DNBS-treated rats were characterized in vitro...
February 3, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160388/cardiovascular-autonomic-dysfunction-in-ehlers-danlos-syndrome-hypermobile-type
#13
Alan Hakim, Chris O'Callaghan, Inge De Wandele, Lauren Stiles, Alan Pocinki, Peter Rowe
Autonomic dysfunction contributes to health-related impairment of quality of life in the hypermobile type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (hEDS). Typical signs and symptoms include tachycardia, hypotension, gastrointestinal dysmotility, and disturbed bladder function and sweating regulation. Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction may present as Orthostatic Intolerance, Orthostatic Hypotension, Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome, or Neurally Mediated Hypotension. The incidence, prevalence, and natural history of these conditions remain unquantified, but observations from specialist clinics suggest they are frequently seen in hEDS...
February 4, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C, Seminars in Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155231/charge-syndrome-gastrointestinal-involvement-from-mouth-to-anus
#14
REVIEW
A Hudson, M Macdonald, J N Friedman, K Blake
CHARGE syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder that occurs as a result of a heterozygous loss-of-function mutation in the chromodomain helicase DNA-binding (CHD7) gene, which is important for neural crest cell formation. Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and feeding difficulties are highly prevalent but are often a neglected area of diagnosis, treatment, and research. Cranial nerve dysfunction, craniofacial abnormalities, and other physical manifestations of this syndrome lead to gut dysmotility, sensory impairment, and oral-motor function abnormalities...
October 13, 2016: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144215/functional-disorders-slow-transit-constipation
#15
REVIEW
John Tillou, Vitaliy Poylin
Constipation is a very common complaint, with slow-transit constipation (STC) accounting for a significant proportion of cases. Old age, female gender, psychiatric illness, and history of sexual abuse are all associated with STC. The exact cause of STC remains elusive; however, multiple immune and cellular changes have been demonstrated. Diagnosis requires evidence of slowed colonic transit which may be achieved via numerous modalities. While a variety of medical therapies exist, these are often met with limited success and a minority of patients ultimately require operative intervention...
February 2017: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141904/catheter-based-high-frequency-intraluminal-ultrasound-imaging-is-a-powerful-tool-to-study-esophageal-dysmotility-patients
#16
Cecilio Santander, Elena Perea, María Caldas, Pere Clave
High-resolution manometry (HRM) is currently the most important diagnostic test for esophageal motility disorders, providing information on the contraction pattern of the circular muscle layer, which helps classify these esophageal motor diseases. However, with the increasing development of ultrasound, other techniques, such as high-frequency intraluminal ultrasound (HFIUS), have gained importance. This technique uses a flexible shaft with a central wire integrated into a standard endoscope, which facilitates real-time sonography...
January 31, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116654/autonomic-neuropathy-in-its-many-guises-as-the-initial-manifestation-of-the-antiphospholipid-syndrome
#17
Jill R Schofield
Autonomic disorders have previously been described in association with the antiphospholipid syndrome. The present study aimed to determine the clinical phenotype of patients in whom autonomic dysfunction was the initial manifestation of the antiphospholipid syndrome and to evaluate for autonomic neuropathy in these patients. This was a retrospective study of 22 patients evaluated at the University of Colorado who were found to have a disorder of the autonomic nervous system as the initial manifestation of antiphospholipid syndrome...
January 24, 2017: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105520/type-1-diabetic-patients-with-peripheral-neuropathy-have-pan-enteric-prolongation-of-gastrointestinal-transit-times-and-an-altered-caecal-ph-profile
#18
Adam D Farmer, Anne Grave Pedersen, Birgitte Brock, Poul Erik Jakobsen, Jesper Karmisholt, Sahar D Mohammed, S Mark Scott, Asbjørn Mohr Drewes, Christina Brock
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesised that type 1 diabetic patients with established diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN) would have segmental and/or pan-enteric dysmotility in comparison to healthy age-matched controls. We aimed to investigate the co-relationships between gastrointestinal function, degree of DSPN and clinical symptoms. METHODS: An observational comparison was made between 48 patients with DSPN (39 men, mean age 50 years, range 29-71 years), representing the baseline data of an ongoing clinical trial (representing a secondary analysis of baseline data collected from an ongoing double-blind randomised controlled trial investigating the neuroprotective effects of liraglutide) and 41 healthy participants (16 men, mean age 49 years, range 30-78) who underwent a standardised wireless motility capsule test to assess gastrointestinal transit...
January 20, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087137/nos-interacting-protein-nosip-is-increased-in-the-colon-of-patients-with-hirschsprung-s-disease
#19
Anne-Marie O'Donnell, David Coyle, Prem Puri
PURPOSE: Voltage-dependent K(+) channels (Kv channels) participate in electrical rhythmicity and smooth muscle responses and are regulated by excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. Kv channels also participate in the interstitial cell of Cajal (ICC) and smooth muscle cell (SMC) responses to neural inputs. The Kv family consists of 12 subfamilies, Kv1-Kv12, with five members of the Kv7 family identified to date: Kv7.1-Kv7.5. A recent study identified the potassium channel Kv7.5 as having a role in the excitability of ICC-IM in the mouse colon...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078679/diet-induced-dysmotility-and-neuropathy-in-the-gut-precedes-endotoxemia-and-metabolic-syndrome-the-chicken-and-the-egg-revisited
#20
Yvonne Elikplim Akua Nyavor, Onesmo Begira Balemba
Neuropathy of the enteric nervous system (ENS) is one of the major underlying causes of debilitating gastrointestinal (GI) motility disorders in diabetic patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
January 11, 2017: Journal of Physiology
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