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Dysmotility

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042668/signalling-mechanisms-in-paf-induced-intestinal-failure
#1
Ingmar Lautenschläger, Yuk Lung Wong, Jürgen Sarau, Torsten Goldmann, Karina Zitta, Martin Albrecht, Inéz Frerichs, Norbert Weiler, Stefan Uhlig
Capillary leakage syndrome, vasomotor disturbances and gut atony are common clinical problems in intensive care medicine. Various inflammatory mediators and signalling pathways are involved in these pathophysiological alterations among them platelet-activating factor (PAF). The related signalling mechanisms of the PAF-induced dysfunctions are only poorly understood. Here we used the model of the isolated perfused rat small intestine to analyse the role of calcium (using calcium deprivation, IP-receptor blockade (2-APB)), cAMP (PDE-inhibition plus AC activator), myosin light chain kinase (inhibitor ML-7) and Rho-kinase (inhibitor Y27632) in the following PAF-induced malfunctions: vasoconstriction, capillary and mucosal leakage, oedema formation, malabsorption and atony...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035879/advanced-glycation-end-products-impair-ca2-mobilization-and-sensitization-in-colonic-smooth-muscle-cells-via-the-camp-pka-pathway
#2
Ting Yu, Yun Wang, Dong Qian, Xiaomeng Sun, Yurong Tang, Xiaoxue Shen, Lin Lin
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Excessive production of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) has been implicated in diabetes-related complications. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism by which AGEs potentially contribute to diabetes-associated colonic dysmotility. METHODS: Control and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic groups were treated with aminoguanidine (AG). The colonic transit time and contractility of circular muscle strips was measured. ELISA, immunohistochemistry and western blotting were used to measure Nε-carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) levels...
October 16, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030799/gastric-peroral-endoscopic-pyloromyotomy-therapy-for-refractory-gastroparesis
#3
REVIEW
Petros C Benias, Mouen A Khashab
Purpose of review Gastroparesis is a complex dysmotility disorder in which a number of normal gastric emptying mechanisms can be affected. The pylorus as an apparatus is particularly important since it stands as the last final gateway for gastric emptying. As such, pyloric interventions seem to be successful in reducing symptoms and also improving emptying of solids, an effect not observed with other medical interventions. Recent findings Gastric peroral endoscopic myotomy (G-POEM) is a novel technique which offers the promise of mimicking the success of a traditional surgical pyloroplasty, while embracing the minimally invasive paradigm of flexible endoscopic surgery...
October 14, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986022/bacterial-overgrowth-dysbiosis-inflammation-and-dysmotility-in-the-cystic-fibrosis-intestine
#4
Jill Dorsey, Tanja Gonska
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 16, 2017: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985842/increased-population-of-immature-enteric-glial-cells-in-the-resected-proximal-ganglionic-bowel-of-hirschsprung-s-disease-patients
#5
Gakuto Tani, Christian Tomuschat, Anne Marie O'Donnell, David Coyle, Prem Puri
BACKGROUND: Enteric glial cells are essential for normal gastrointestinal function. Abnormalities in glial structure, development, or function lead to disturbances in gastrointestinal physiology. Fatty acid-binding protein 7 (FABP7) is a marker of immature enteric glial cells, whereas S100 is expressed only by mature glial cells. Patients with Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR) often suffer from dysmotility and enterocolitis despite proper surgery. We designed this study to determine the distribution and expression of glial cells in patients with HSCR compared to normal controls...
October 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957388/prolonged-intestinal-transit-and-diarrhea-in-patients-with-an-activating-gucy2c-mutation
#6
Hilde L von Volkmann, Ingeborg Brønstad, Odd Helge Gilja, Rune R Tronstad, Dag Andre Sangnes, Ragnar Nortvedt, Trygve Hausken, Georg Dimcevski, Torunn Fiskerstrand, Kim Nylund
INTRODUCTION: Increased intestinal hydration by activation of the epithelial enzyme linked receptor guanylate cyclase C (GC-C) is a pharmacological principle for treating constipation. Activating mutations in the GUCY2C gene encoding GC-C cause Familial GUCY2C diarrhea syndrome (FGDS) which has been diagnosed with severe dysmotility. AIM: To investigate gut motility and hormones before and after a meal in FGDS patients and compare with healthy controls (HC). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Bristol stool chart and stool frequency was assessed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956250/hypopharyngeal-applications-of-a-new-flexible-robotic-system-in-otolaryngology
#7
Janet Ren Chao, Joseph Goodman, Andrew Fuson, Nahir J Romero, Arjun Joshi
This case report describes the use a new flexible robotic system in otolaryngology, the FlexRobot(®) for cricopharyngeal myotomy in cadaver dissections, and for the treatment of a patient with esophageal stenosis and secondary dysphagia and dysphonia. The Flexrobot(®) facilitates access to the hypopharynx with increased proximity to the surgical field and improved optics, allowing more exact dilatation and injection in our patient. It also would allow surgeons to reach deep inside the cavity of the hypopharynx into anatomical regions that are typically inaccessible without an open approach, as shown in our cadaveric procedure, where full exposure of the posterior aspect of the cricopharyngeus and isolation of the muscle belly were achieved...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Robotic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953168/bipedicle-flaps-for-posterior-elbow-reconstruction
#8
Kyle J Chepla, Shirley Shue, Bram R Kafuman
Chronic posterior elbow soft tissue defects often require soft tissue reconstruction because of exposure of the underlying triceps tendon and proximal ulna. Current options for soft tissue coverage require sacrifice of a local muscle or microsurgery. The purpose of this study is to evaluate patient and surgical outcomes after reconstruction of small-sized to medium-sized (<50 cm) posterior elbow defects with bipedicle advancement flaps. A retrospective chart review was performed for 3 patients who underwent posterior elbow reconstruction with bipedicle flaps...
September 25, 2017: Techniques in Hand & Upper Extremity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941004/comparison-between-small-bowel-manometric-patterns-and-full-thickness-biopsy-histopathology-in-severe-intestinal-dysmotility
#9
C Malagelada, T B Karunaratne, A Accarino, R F Cogliandro, S Landolfi, A Gori, E Boschetti, J R Malagelada, V Stanghellini, F Azpiroz, R De Giorgio
BACKGROUND: Intestinal manometry is the current standard for direct evaluation of small bowel dysmotility. Patients with abnormal motility can either be diagnosed of pseudo-obstruction when there are radiological findings mimicking mechanical intestinal obstruction or of enteric dysmotility when these findings are absent. The aim of the present study was to prospectively compare small bowel manometric abnormalities with histopathological findings in intestinal full-thickness biopsies in patients with severe dysmotility disorders...
September 22, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936406/gut-microbiome-based-therapeutics-in-liver-cirrhosis-basic-consideration-for-the-next-step
#10
REVIEW
Hiroshi Fukui
Infections account for significant morbidity and mortality in liver cirrhosis and most are related to the gut microbiome. Fecal dysbiosis, characterized by an overgrowth of potentially pathogenic bacteria and a decrease in autochthonous non-pathogenic bacteria, becomes prominent with the progression of liver cirrhosis. In cirrhotic patients, disruption of the intestinal barrier causes intestinal hyperpermeability (i.e. leaky gut), which is closely related to gut dysmotility, dysbiosis and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and may induce pathological bacterial translocation...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927774/chronic-intestinal-pseudo-obstruction-in-a-child-with-treacher-collins-syndrome
#11
E Giabicani, J Lemale, L Dainese, S Boudjemaa, A Coulomb, P Tounian, B Dubern
BACKGROUND: Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) mainly presents with severe craniofacial developmental abnormalities characterized by a combination of bilateral downward-slanting palpebral fissures, colobomas of the lower eyelids, hypoplasia of the facial bones, cleft palate, malformation of the external ears, atresia of the external auditory canals, and bilateral conductive hearing loss. It is due to mutations in Treacher Collins syndrome 1 (TCOF1) (5q32-q33.1) and Polymerase RNA 1 polypeptides D and C (POLR1D [13q12...
September 15, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918445/pre-emptive-intestinal-transplant-the-surgeon-s-point-of-view
#12
REVIEW
Augusto Lauro, Ignazio R Marino, Kishore R Iyer
Pre-emptive transplantation is a well-established practice for certain types of end-organ failure such as in the use of kidney transplantation. For irreversible intestinal failure, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) remains the gold standard, due to the suboptimal long-term results of intestinal transplantation. As such, the only role for pre-emptive transplantation, if at all, will be for patients identified to be at high risk of complications and mortality while on definitive long-term TPN. In these patients, the timing of early listing and transplantation could become life-saving, taking into account that mortality on the waiting list is still the highest for intestinal candidates...
September 16, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913777/diabetes-and-the-small-intestine
#13
REVIEW
Jonathan Gotfried, Stephen Priest, Ron Schey
Diabetes mellitus (DM) and its associated complications are becoming increasingly prevalent. Gastrointestinal symptoms associated with diabetes is known as diabetic enteropathy (DE) and may manifest as either diarrhea, fecal incontinence, constipation, dyspepsia, nausea, and vomiting or a combination of symptoms. The long-held belief that vagal autonomic neuropathy is the primary cause of DE has recently been challenged by newer theories of disease development. Specifically, hyperglycemia and the resulting oxidative stress on neural networks, including the nitrergic neurons and interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), are now believed to play a central role in the development of DE...
September 15, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912019/a-nigro-vagal-pathway-controls-gastric-motility-and-is-affected-in-a-rat-model-of-parkinsonism
#14
Laura Anselmi, Luca Toti, Cecilia Bove, Jessica Hampton, R Alberto Travagli
BACKGROUND & AIMS: In most patients with Parkinson's disease, gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunctions, such as gastroparesis and constipation, are prodromal to the cardinal motor symptoms of the disease. Sporadic Parkinson's disease has been proposed to develop following ingestion of neurotoxicants that affect the brain-gut axis via the vagus nerve, and then travel to higher centers compromising the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), and, later, the cerebral cortex. We aimed to identify the pathway that connects the brainstem vagal nuclei and the SNpc, and to determine whether this pathway is compromised in a rat model of Parkinsonism...
September 11, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910997/paediatric-nuclear-medicine-imaging
#15
Lorenzo Biassoni, Marina Easty
Background: Nuclear medicine imaging explores tissue viability and function by using radiotracers that are taken up at cellular level with different mechanism. This imaging technique can also be used to assess blood flow and transit through tubular organs. Nuclear medicine imaging has been used in paediatrics for decades and this field is continuously evolving. Sources of data: The data presented comes from clinical experience and some milestone papers on the subject...
September 1, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893560/endoscopic-mucosal-resection-is-superior-to-rectal-suction-biopsy-for-analysis-of-enteric-ganglia-in-constipation-and-dysmotility
#16
Kenneth Barshop, Field F Willingham, William R Brugge, Lawrence R Zukerberg, Braden Kuo
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patients with chronic constipation or motility disorders may be referred for rectal suction biopsy (RSB) to rule out Hirschsprung's disease (HD). RSB may not be successful beyond infancy due to the increased thickness of rectal mucosa. Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) could improve the diagnostic yield for HD when compared with traditional RSB because of the larger and deeper samples acquired for analysis. METHODS: In this prospective, single-center study, patients referred for RSB were offered enrollment for concurrent EMR...
September 8, 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881879/spectrum-of-esophageal-dysmotility-in-systemic-sclerosis-on-high-resolution-esophageal-manometry-as-defined-by-chicago-classification
#17
N Aggarwal, R Lopez, S Gabbard, N Wadhwa, P Devaki, P N Thota
The classic manometric findings in systemic sclerosis are aperistalsis of the esophageal body with hypotensive lower esophageal sphincter. These changes contribute to gastroesophageal reflux disease in these patients. With widespread use of high-resolution esophageal manometry, diverse abnormalities are seen. The aim of this study is to characterize esophageal dysmotility in patients with systemic sclerosis undergoing high-resolution esophageal manometry and compare demographic features and diagnostic test results among patients with varying degrees of esophageal dysmotility...
December 1, 2017: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831595/juvenile-systemic-sclerosis-experience-from-a-tertiary-care-center-from-india
#18
Narendra Kumar Bagri, Dinesh Raj, Jasmeet Kaur, Harish Punia, Isha Saini, Rakesh Lodha, S K Kabra
Juvenile systemic sclerosis (JSSc) is a rare disorder with paucity of information on its treatment and longterm  outcome. Herein, we are sharing our experience with this rare entity. Case records of children, diagnosed to have systemic sclerosis attending Pediatric Rheumatology Clinic at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi from January 1998 to June 2016 were reviewed. The demographic, clinical, laboratory, treatment and outcome details were recorded. Disease outcome was classified arbitrarily as controlled, partly controlled or non-responsive/progressive based on: (A) ability to perform activities of daily life (ADL) and (B) presence or absence of musculoskeletal symptoms, skin changes (ulceration/progressive digital pitting/gangrene), and visceral organ involvement (dyspahgia, cardiopulmonary symptoms)...
August 22, 2017: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831387/tissue-remodeling-in-chronic-eosinophilic-esophageal-inflammation-parallels-in-asthma-and-therapeutic-perspectives
#19
REVIEW
Quan M Nhu, Seema S Aceves
Chronic eosinophilic inflammation is associated with tissue remodeling and fibrosis in a number of chronic T-helper 2 (Th2)-mediated diseases including eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and asthma. Chronic inflammation results in dysregulated tissue healing, leading to fibrosis and end organ dysfunction, manifesting clinically as irreversible airway obstruction in asthma and as esophageal rigidity, strictures, narrowing, dysmotility, dysphagia, and food impactions in EoE. Current therapies for EoE and asthma center on reducing inflammation-driven tissue remodeling and fibrosis with corticosteroids, coupled with symptomatic control and allergen avoidance...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828195/critically-ill-patients-and-gut-motility-are-we-addressing-it
#20
REVIEW
Alfredo Vazquez-Sandoval, Shekhar Ghamande, Salim Surani
Gastrointestinal (GI) dysmotility is a common problem in the critically ill population. It can be a reflection and an early sign of patient deterioration or it can be an independent cause of morbidity and mortality. GI dysmotility can be divided for clinical purposes on upper GI dysmotility and lower GI dysmotility. Upper GI dysmotility manifests by nausea, feeding intolerance and vomiting; its implications include aspiration into the airway of abdominal contents and underfeeding. Several strategies to prevent and treat this condition can be tried and they include prokinetics and post-pyloric feeds...
August 6, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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