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stomach esophagus Barrett's esophagus cancer

Richard H Hunt, Mohammad Yaghoobi
The esophagus and stomach are host to their own population of bacteria, which differs in health and disease. Helicobacter pylori uniquely colonizes only gastric mucosa, but an increasing number of bacteria is now isolated from the gastric juice and gastric mucosa, including Lactobacillus. The presence of H pylori alters populations of other gastric bacteria with a marked reduction in diversity. Alterations in intragastric acidity may be the cause or the consequence of changes in the microbial populations of the stomach...
March 2017: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
Moon Kyung Joo, Jong-Jae Park, Hoon Jai Chun
Homeobox genes, including HOX and non-HOX genes, have been identified to be expressed aberrantly in solid tumors. In gastrointestinal (GI) cancers, most studies have focused on the function of non-HOX genes including caudal-related homeobox transcription factor 1 (CDX1) and CDX2. CDX2 is a crucial factor in the development of pre-cancerous lesions such as Barrett's esophagus or intestinal metaplasia in the stomach, and its tumor suppressive role has been investigated in colorectal cancers. Recently, several HOX genes were reported to have specific roles in GI cancers; for example, HOXA13 in esophageal squamous cell cancer and HOXB7 in stomach and colorectal cancers...
October 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Marino Venerito, Riccardo Vasapolli, Peter Malfertheiner
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a Gram negative spiraliform bacterium that is commonly found in the stomach. H. pylori infection is still one of the world's most frequent infections, present in the stomachs of approximately one-half of the world's people. H. pylori infection is etiologically linked to histologic chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and primary B-cell gastric lymphoma (gastric MALT lymphoma) and represents the major risk factor for the development of sporadic non-cardia gastric cancer (GC) of both intestinal and diffuse type...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Juha Kauppi, Jari Räsänen, Eero Sihvo, Urpo Nieminen, Perttu Arkkila, Markku Ahotupa, Jarmo Salo
OBJECTIVES: Oxidative stress (OS) is an essential element in the pathogenesis of Barrett's esophagus (BE) and its transformation to adenocarcinoma (EAC). The state of OS in the proximal stomach of patients with BE and EAC is unknown. Isoprostanes are a specific marker of OS not previously used to determine OS from BE/EAC tissue samples. PATIENTS AND METHODS: OS was measured in 42 patients with BE (n = 9), EAC (n = 9), or both (n = 24) and 15 control patients. A STAT-8-Isoprostane EIA Kit served to identify 8-Isoprostanes (8-IP), and a Glutathione Assay Kit was used to measure glutathione reduced form (GSH) and glutathione oxidized form...
August 2016: Translational Oncology
Maryam Hemmatzadeh, Hamed Mohammadi, Mohammad Karimi, Mohammad Hossein Musavishenas, Behzad Baradaran
Esophageal cancer (EC) is the most invasive disease associated with inclusive poor prognosis. EC usually is found as either adenocarcinoma (EAC) or squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC). ESCC forms in squamous cells and highly occurs in the upper third of the esophagus. EAC appears in glandular cells and ordinarily develops in the lower one third of the esophagus near the stomach. Barrett's esophagus (BE) is a metaplastic precursor of EAC. There is a persistent need for improving our understanding of the molecular basis of this disease...
August 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Lutz Krause, Katia Nones, Kelly A Loffler, Derek Nancarrow, Harald Oey, Yue Hang Tang, Nicola J Wayte, Ann Marie Patch, Kalpana Patel, Sandra Brosda, Suzanne Manning, Guy Lampe, Andrew Clouston, Janine Thomas, Jens Stoye, Damian J Hussey, David I Watson, Reginald V Lord, Wayne A Phillips, David Gotley, B Mark Smithers, David C Whiteman, Nicholas K Hayward, Sean M Grimmond, Nicola Waddell, Andrew P Barbour
The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has risen significantly over recent decades. Although survival has improved, cure rates remain poor, with <20% of patients surviving 5 years. This is the first study to explore methylome, transcriptome and ENCODE data to characterize the role of methylation in EAC. We investigate the genome-wide methylation profile of 250 samples including 125 EAC, 19 Barrett's esophagus (BE), 85 squamous esophagus and 21 normal stomach. Transcriptome data of 70 samples (48 EAC, 4 BE and 18 squamous esophagus) were used to identify changes in methylation associated with gene expression...
April 2016: Carcinogenesis
Ran Qi, Yunfeng Zhou, Xiaozhen Li, Hong Guo, Lei Gao, Lijuan Wu, Yufeng Wang, Qiang Gao
Aim. To detect the expression of dual oxidase (DUOX) 2 in Barrett esophagus, gastric cancer, and colorectal cancer (CRC). Materials and Methods. The endoscopic biopsies were collected from patients with Barrett esophagus, while the curative resection tissues were obtained from patients with gastric cancer, CRC, or hepatic carcinoma. The DUOX2 protein and mRNA levels were detected with immunohistochemistry (IHC) and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The correlation of DUOX2 expression with clinicopathological parameters of tumors was identified...
2016: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Ming Yu, Rachele M O'Leary, Andrew M Kaz, Shelli M Morris, Kelly T Carter, Amitabh Chak, Apoorva Chandar, Joseph E Willis, Helen R Moinova, Sanford D Markowitz, Dean E Brenner, Sharmila Anandabapasathy, Maria Westerhoff, Chao-Jen Wong, Nicholas J Shaheen, Yanwen Chen, Jill S Barnholtz-Sloan, William M Grady
BACKGROUND: Barrett's esophagus (BE) is a preneoplastic condition in which normal esophageal squamous epithelium (SQ) is replaced by specialized intestinal metaplasia. It is the presumed precursor for esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) as well as the strongest risk factor for this cancer. Unfortunately, many patients with BE go undiagnosed under the current BE screening guidelines. The development of noninvasive and accurate BE detection assays could potentially identify many of these undiagnosed BE patients...
December 2015: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Ajay Bansal, Xiaoman Hong, In-Hee Lee, Kausilia K Krishnadath, Sharad C Mathur, Sumedha Gunewardena, Amit Rastogi, Prateek Sharma, Lane K Christenson
OBJECTIVES: Patient outcomes for esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) have not improved despite huge advances in endoscopic therapy because cancers are being diagnosed late. Barrett's esophagus (BE) is the primary precursor lesion for EAC, and thus the non-endoscopic molecular diagnosis of BE can be an important approach to improve EAC outcomes if robust biomarkers for timely diagnosis are identified. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are tissue-specific novel biomarkers that regulate gene expression and may satisfy this requirement...
December 11, 2014: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
Agnieszka Piatek-Guziewicz, Magdalena Przybylska-Feluś, Wojciech Dynowski, Małgorzata Zwolińska-Wcisło, Jakub Lickiewicz, Tomasz Mach
INTRODUCTION: Endoscopic examination of the upper gastrointestinal tract (upper GI) with macroscopic and histopathological evaluation provides essential tool to differentiate the organic and functional causes of dyspepsia. The distinction, however, is often smooth and not fully defined. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency and type of the macroscopic and histopathological changes in the upper GI endoscopy in patients with symptoms of dyspepsia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective study was performed on 212 patients with dyspepsia, at the age of 18-84 years, including 60 patients to 45 years of age (group I) and 152 patients older than 45 (group II) who underwent gastroscopy...
2014: Przegla̧d Lekarski
Liv Jonsson, Charlotta Hedner, Alexander Gaber, Dejan Korkocic, Björn Nodin, Mathias Uhlén, Jakob Eberhard, Karin Jirström
BACKGROUND: High nuclear expression of the RNA-binding motif protein 3 (RBM3) has previously been found to correlate with favourable clinicopathological characteristics and a prolonged survival in several cancer forms. Here, we examined the clinicopathological correlates and prognostic significance of RBM3 expression in tumours from a consecutive cohort of upper gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Immunohistochemical RBM3 expression was analysed in tissue microarrays with primary radiotherapy- and chemotherapy-naive adenocarcinoma of the esophagus, gastroesophageal junction and stomach (n = 173)...
2014: Biomarker Research
Anthony L Komaroff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2014: Harvard Health Letter
A Chwiesko, A Baniukiewicz, J Semeniuk, M Kaczmarski, J Wasielica-Berger, R Milewski, A Dabrowski
Barrett's esophagus (BE), a complication of gastroesophageal reflux disease, is associated with an increased risk of esophageal cancer. Mitogen-activated protein kinases may play an important role in the pathogenesis of this process. We aimed to evaluate mitogen-activated protein kinases activity in esophageal mucosa of patients with BE and find possible relationship between reflux type and BE. Twenty-four patients (mean age: 59 years) with gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms and endoscopically suspected esophageal metaplasia (ESEM) were prospectively enrolled for testing by a multichannel intraluminal impedance monitoring along with a Bilitec 2000...
August 2015: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
Kira G Hartman, James D Bortner, Gary W Falk, Gregory G Ginsberg, Nirag Jhala, Jian Yu, Martín G Martín, Anil K Rustgi, John P Lynch
Gastrointestinal illnesses are a significant health burden for the US population, with 40 million office visits each year for gastrointestinal complaints and nearly 250,000 deaths. Acute and chronic inflammations are a common element of many gastrointestinal diseases. Inflammatory processes may be initiated by a chemical injury (acid reflux in the esophagus), an infectious agent (Helicobacter pylori infection in the stomach), autoimmune processes (graft versus host disease after bone marrow transplantation), or idiopathic (as in the case of inflammatory bowel diseases)...
September 2014: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Richard Fristedt, Alexander Gaber, Charlotta Hedner, Björn Nodin, Mathias Uhlén, Jakob Eberhard, Karin Jirström
INTRODUCTION: The polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (PIGR) has been proposed to be a candidate prognostic biomarker in a few cancer forms, and one previous study reported that reduced PIGR expression signifies more aggressive tumours of the distal esophagus and gastroesophageal junction (GEJ). In the present study, we examined the expression, clinicopathological correlates and prognostic significance of PIGR expression in an extended cohort of adenocarcinoma of the upper gastrointestinal tract...
2014: Journal of Translational Medicine
M D'Hondt, M Steverlynck, H Pottel, A Elewaut, C George, F Vansteenkiste, F Van Rooy, D Devriendt
BACKGROUND: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass hinders post-operative endoscopic evaluation of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Our aims were to determine the prevalence of preoperative endoscopic findings in morbidly obese patients undergoing laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) and to determine the proportion of patients in which these findings changed surgical management. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated electronic medical records of patients undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) with routine antral biopsy for Helicobacter pylori (HP) detection, prior to LRYGB between January 2003 and January 2010 at our institution...
July 2013: Acta Chirurgica Belgica
Johannes Lenglinger, Stephanie Fischer See, Lukas Beller, Enrico P Cosentini, Reza Asari, Fritz Wrba, Martin Riegler, Sebastian F Schoppmann
BACKGROUND: Columnar lined esophagus (CLE) is a marker for gastroesophageal reflux and associates with an increased cancer risk among those with Barrett's esophagus. Recent studies fostered the development of integrated CLE concepts. METHODS: Using PubMed, we conducted a review of studies on novel histopathological concepts of nondysplastic CLE. RESULTS: Two histopathological concepts-the squamo-oxyntic gap (SOG) and the dilated distal esophagus (DDE), currently model our novel understanding of CLE...
October 2013: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
Jiro Watari, Toshihiko Tomita, Tadayuki Oshima, Hirokazu Fukui, Hiroto Miwa
To date, there are many studies on the association between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Here we reviewed the relationship between H. pylori status and the development of reflux esophagitis (RE) or Barrett's esophagus (BE). According to many case-controlled studies, H. pylori infection may play a protective role in the development of RE. However, the frequency of RE development does not increase following successful H. pylori treatment based on the previous studies including meta-analysis and systematic review...
August 2013: Nihon Rinsho. Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine
Sayak Ghatak, Marie Reveiller, Liana Toia, Andrei Ivanov, Tony E Godfrey, Jeffrey H Peters
BACKGROUND: Barrett's esophagus is a preneoplastic metaplasia in which the normal squamous epithelium of the esophagus changes to an intestinal, columnar phenotype due to long-term gastro-esophageal reflux. The major components of this reflux are bile and stomach acid. Previous in vitro studies on the effect of bile and acid on esophageal cells have predominantly relied on transformed esophageal squamous cells or cancer cells grown in monolayer culture. DISCUSSION: In this study, we expanded our previous work using an immortalized primary esophageal squamous cell line (EPC1)...
October 2013: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
Rachel B Lewis, Anupamjit K Mehrotra, Pablo Rodriguez, Marc S Levine
Esophageal neoplasms have a wide spectrum of clinical features, pathologic findings, and imaging manifestations. Leiomyomas are the most common benign esophageal neoplasm, typically appearing as smoothly marginated intramural masses. Fibrovascular polyps arise in the cervical esophagus, gradually elongating as they are pulled inferiorly by esophageal peristalsis. Granular cell tumors are generally incidental small intramural masses with an appearance similar to that of leiomyomas. Malignant esophageal neoplasms are a common cause of cancer mortality, particularly squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma...
July 2013: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
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