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stomach esophagus Barrett's esophagus cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671160/cardiac-metaplasia-follow-treat-or-ignore
#1
REVIEW
Stuart J Spechler
Over the past two decades, evidence has accumulated to challenge the traditional view that cardiac mucosa, which is comprised exclusively of mucus glands, is the normal lining of the most proximal portion of the stomach (the gastric cardia). There is now considerable evidence to suggest that cardiac mucosa develops as a GERD-induced, squamous-to-columnar esophageal metaplasia in some, if not all, cases. Although cardiac mucosa lacks the goblet cells commonly required for a histologic diagnosis of intestinal metaplasia, cardiac mucosa has many molecular features of an intestinal-type mucosa, and appears to be the precursor of intestinal metaplasia with goblet cells...
April 18, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662006/hyperinsulinemia-promotes-esophageal-cancer-development-in-a-surgically-induced-duodeno-esophageal-reflux-murine-model
#2
Diletta Arcidiacono, Arben Dedja, Cinzia Giacometti, Matteo Fassan, Daniele Nucci, Simona Francia, Federico Fabris, Alice Zaramella, Emily J Gallagher, Mauro Cassaro, Massimo Rugge, Derek LeRoith, Alfredo Alberti, Stefano Realdon
Hyperinsulinemia could have a role in the growing incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and its pre-cancerous lesion, Barrett's Esophagus, a possible consequence of Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease. Obesity is known to mediate esophageal carcinogenesis through different mechanisms including insulin-resistance leading to hyperinsulinemia, which may mediate cancer progression via the insulin/insulin-like growth factor axis. We used the hyperinsulinemic non-obese FVB/N (Friend leukemia virus B strain) MKR (muscle (M)-IGF1R-lysine (K)-arginine (R) mouse model to evaluate the exclusive role of hyperinsulinemia in the pathogenesis of EAC related to duodeno-esophageal reflux...
April 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658052/reduced-%C3%AE-glcnac-glycosylation-on-gastric-gland-mucin-is-a-biomarker-of-malignant-potential-for-gastric-cancer-barrett-s-adenocarcinoma-and-pancreatic-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Kazuhiro Yamanoi, Jun Nakayama
Gastric gland mucin secreted from pyloric gland cells, mucous neck cells, and cardiac gland cells of the gastric mucosa harbors unique O-glycans carrying terminal α1,4-linked N-acetylglucosamine residues (αGlcNAc), which are primarily attached to the scaffold mucin core protein MUC6. αGlcNAc acts as an antibiotic against Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a microbe causing gastric cancer. In addition, mice deficient in A4gnt, which encodes the enzyme α1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (α4GnT) that catalyzes αGlcNAc biosynthesis, spontaneously develop gastric differentiated-type adenocarcinoma, even if not infected by H...
April 16, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607947/multimodality-therapy-including-proton-beam-therapy-for-afp-producing-esophageal-cancer-with-multiple-liver-metastases
#4
Tatsuya Miyazaki, Makoto Sohda, Makoto Sakai, Yuji Kumakura, Tomonori Yoshida, Kengo Kuriyama, Takehiko Yokobori, Masaya Miyazaki, Junko Hirato, Toshiyuki Okumura, Hitoshi Ishikawa, Hideyuki Sakurai, Hiroyuki Kuwano
A 50-year-old man who presented with a fever and epigastralgia was diagnosed to have esophageal carcinoma which was identified as poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma producing AFP with Barrett's esophagus. Computed tomography revealed multiple liver metastases and lymph node metastases surrounding the stomach. We first performed chemotherapy for the systemic lesions and proton beam therapy for the local control of lesions without complete remission and we were able to successfully control the frequently recurring lesions by proton beam therapy, cryotherapy and chemotherapy...
March 30, 2018: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551738/interactions-between-genetic-variants-and-environmental-factors-affect-risk-of-esophageal-adenocarcinoma-and-barrett-s-esophagus
#5
Jing Dong, David M Levine, Matthew F Buas, Rui Zhang, Lynn Onstad, Rebecca C Fitzgerald, Douglas A Corley, Nicholas J Shaheen, Jesper Lagergren, Laura J Hardie, Brian J Reid, Prasad G Iyer, Harvey A Risch, Carlos Caldas, Isabel Caldas, Paul D Pharoah, Geoffrey Liu, Marilie D Gammon, Wong-Ho Chow, Leslie Bernstein, Nigel C Bird, Weimin Ye, Anna H Wu, Lesley A Anderson, Stuart MacGregor, David C Whiteman, Thomas L Vaughan, Aaron P Thrift
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 20 susceptibility loci for esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) and Barrett's esophagus (BE). However, variants in these loci account for a small fraction of cases of EA and BE. Genetic factors might interact with environmental factors to affect risk of EA and BE. We aimed to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that may modify the associations of body mass index (BMI), smoking, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), with risks of EA and BE...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247777/determining-risk-of-barrett-s-esophagus-and-esophageal-adenocarcinoma-based-on-epidemiologic-factors-and-genetic-variants
#6
MULTICENTER STUDY
Jing Dong, Matthew F Buas, Puya Gharahkhani, Bradley J Kendall, Lynn Onstad, Shanshan Zhao, Lesley A Anderson, Anna H Wu, Weimin Ye, Nigel C Bird, Leslie Bernstein, Wong-Ho Chow, Marilie D Gammon, Geoffrey Liu, Carlos Caldas, Paul D Pharoah, Harvey A Risch, Prasad G Iyer, Brian J Reid, Laura J Hardie, Jesper Lagergren, Nicholas J Shaheen, Douglas A Corley, Rebecca C Fitzgerald, David C Whiteman, Thomas L Vaughan, Aaron P Thrift
BACKGROUND & AIMS: We developed comprehensive models to determine risk of Barrett's esophagus (BE) or esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) based on genetic and non-genetic factors. METHODS: We used pooled data from 3288 patients with BE, 2511 patients with EAC, and 2177 individuals without either (controls) from participants in the international Barrett's and EAC consortium as well as the United Kingdom's BE gene study and stomach and esophageal cancer study. We collected data on 23 genetic variants associated with risk for BE or EAC, and constructed a polygenic risk score (PRS) for cases and controls by summing the risk allele counts for the variants weighted by their natural log-transformed effect estimates (odds ratios) extracted from genome-wide association studies...
April 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100443/effects-of-alcohol-consumption-cigarette-smoking-and-betel-quid-chewing-on-upper-digestive-diseases-a-large-cross-sectional-study-and-meta-analysis
#7
Yun-Shiuan Chuang, Meng-Chieh Wu, Fang-Jung Yu, Yao-Kuang Wang, Chien-Yu Lu, Deng-Chyang Wu, Chie-Tong Kuo, Ming-Tsang Wu, I-Chen Wu
Cigarette smoking is a well-known risk factor of upper digestive diseases. Findings on alcohol's effect on these diseases are inconsistent and with the exception of its association with esophageal cancer, little is known about betel quid chewing. This study investigated the association between use of these three substances and upper digestive diseases. We collected data from 9,275 patients receiving upper endoscopies between April 2008 and December 2013. Polynomial regressions were used to analyze the association between risk factors and diseases of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum...
September 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777465/basal-progenitor-cells-bridge-the-development-malignant-cancers-and-multiple-diseases-of-esophagus
#8
REVIEW
Baoshun Lin, Fuan Xie, Zhangwu Xiao, Xiaoqian Hong, Liming Tian, Kuancan Liu
The esophagus is a pivotal organ originating from anterior foregut that links the mouth and stomach. Moreover, its development involves precise regulation of multiple signal molecules and signal transduction pathways. After abnormal regulation of these molecules in the basal cells of the esophagus occurs, multiple diseases, including esophageal atresia with or without tracheoesophageal fistula, Barrett esophagus, gastroesophageal reflux, and eosinophilic esophagitis, will take place as a result. Furthermore, expression changes of signal molecules or signal pathways in basal cells and the microenvironment around basal cells both can initiate the switch of malignant transformation...
May 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425656/considering-the-esophagogastric-junction-as-a-zone
#9
REVIEW
Shin Ichihara, Noriya Uedo, Takuji Gotoda
Siewert's classification of adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) classifies tumors anatomically for determining the appropriate surgical technique. According to this classification, a type II tumor, true carcinoma of the cardia, is defined as a cancer within 1 cm proximal to 2 cm distal of the EGJ. Histological analysis indicates that the cardiac gland is present with a high degree of frequency between 1-2 cm to the gastric side and 1-2 cm to the esophageal side of the EGJ, which means that this zone can be considered as neither the stomach nor the esophagus but rather as a third zone known as the 'EGJ zone'...
April 2017: Digestive Endoscopy: Official Journal of the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164846/the-esophageal-and-gastric-microbiome-in-health-and-disease
#10
REVIEW
Richard H Hunt, Mohammad Yaghoobi
The esophagus and stomach are host to their own population of bacteria, which differs in health and disease. Helicobacter pylori uniquely colonizes only gastric mucosa, but an increasing number of bacteria is now isolated from the gastric juice and gastric mucosa, including Lactobacillus. The presence of H pylori alters populations of other gastric bacteria with a marked reduction in diversity. Alterations in intragastric acidity may be the cause or the consequence of changes in the microbial populations of the stomach...
March 2017: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729732/impact-of-homeobox-genes-in-gastrointestinal-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Moon Kyung Joo, Jong-Jae Park, Hoon Jai Chun
Homeobox genes, including HOX and non-HOX genes, have been identified to be expressed aberrantly in solid tumors. In gastrointestinal (GI) cancers, most studies have focused on the function of non-HOX genes including caudal-related homeobox transcription factor 1 (CDX1) and CDX2. CDX2 is a crucial factor in the development of pre-cancerous lesions such as Barrett's esophagus or intestinal metaplasia in the stomach, and its tumor suppressive role has been investigated in colorectal cancers. Recently, several HOX genes were reported to have specific roles in GI cancers; for example, HOXA13 in esophageal squamous cell cancer and HOXB7 in stomach and colorectal cancers...
October 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27573783/helicobacter-pylori-and-gastric-cancer-timing-and-impact-of-preventive-measures
#12
REVIEW
Marino Venerito, Riccardo Vasapolli, Peter Malfertheiner
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a Gram negative spiraliform bacterium that is commonly found in the stomach. H. pylori infection is still one of the world's most frequent infections, present in the stomachs of approximately one-half of the world's people. H. pylori infection is etiologically linked to histologic chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and primary B-cell gastric lymphoma (gastric MALT lymphoma) and represents the major risk factor for the development of sporadic non-cardia gastric cancer (GC) of both intestinal and diffuse type...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567957/increased-oxidative-stress-in-the-proximal-stomach-of-patients-with-barrett-s-esophagus-and-adenocarcinoma-of-the-esophagus-and-esophagogastric-junction
#13
Juha Kauppi, Jari Räsänen, Eero Sihvo, Urpo Nieminen, Perttu Arkkila, Markku Ahotupa, Jarmo Salo
OBJECTIVES: Oxidative stress (OS) is an essential element in the pathogenesis of Barrett's esophagus (BE) and its transformation to adenocarcinoma (EAC). The state of OS in the proximal stomach of patients with BE and EAC is unknown. Isoprostanes are a specific marker of OS not previously used to determine OS from BE/EAC tissue samples. PATIENTS AND METHODS: OS was measured in 42 patients with BE (n = 9), EAC (n = 9), or both (n = 24) and 15 control patients. A STAT-8-Isoprostane EIA Kit served to identify 8-Isoprostanes (8-IP), and a Glutathione Assay Kit was used to measure glutathione reduced form (GSH) and glutathione oxidized form...
August 2016: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27470391/differential-role-of-micrornas-in-the-pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-esophageal-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Maryam Hemmatzadeh, Hamed Mohammadi, Mohammad Karimi, Mohammad Hossein Musavishenas, Behzad Baradaran
Esophageal cancer (EC) is the most invasive disease associated with inclusive poor prognosis. EC usually is found as either adenocarcinoma (EAC) or squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC). ESCC forms in squamous cells and highly occurs in the upper third of the esophagus. EAC appears in glandular cells and ordinarily develops in the lower one third of the esophagus near the stomach. Barrett's esophagus (BE) is a metaplastic precursor of EAC. There is a persistent need for improving our understanding of the molecular basis of this disease...
August 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26905591/identification-of-the-cimp-like-subtype-and-aberrant-methylation-of-members-of-the-chromosomal-segregation-and-spindle-assembly-pathways-in-esophageal-adenocarcinoma
#15
Lutz Krause, Katia Nones, Kelly A Loffler, Derek Nancarrow, Harald Oey, Yue Hang Tang, Nicola J Wayte, Ann Marie Patch, Kalpana Patel, Sandra Brosda, Suzanne Manning, Guy Lampe, Andrew Clouston, Janine Thomas, Jens Stoye, Damian J Hussey, David I Watson, Reginald V Lord, Wayne A Phillips, David Gotley, B Mark Smithers, David C Whiteman, Nicholas K Hayward, Sean M Grimmond, Nicola Waddell, Andrew P Barbour
The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has risen significantly over recent decades. Although survival has improved, cure rates remain poor, with <20% of patients surviving 5 years. This is the first study to explore methylome, transcriptome and ENCODE data to characterize the role of methylation in EAC. We investigate the genome-wide methylation profile of 250 samples including 125 EAC, 19 Barrett's esophagus (BE), 85 squamous esophagus and 21 normal stomach. Transcriptome data of 70 samples (48 EAC, 4 BE and 18 squamous esophagus) were used to identify changes in methylation associated with gene expression...
April 2016: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26839536/duox2-expression-is-increased-in-barrett-esophagus-and-cancerous-tissues-of-stomach-and-colon
#16
Ran Qi, Yunfeng Zhou, Xiaozhen Li, Hong Guo, Lei Gao, Lijuan Wu, Yufeng Wang, Qiang Gao
Aim. To detect the expression of dual oxidase (DUOX) 2 in Barrett esophagus, gastric cancer, and colorectal cancer (CRC). Materials and Methods. The endoscopic biopsies were collected from patients with Barrett esophagus, while the curative resection tissues were obtained from patients with gastric cancer, CRC, or hepatic carcinoma. The DUOX2 protein and mRNA levels were detected with immunohistochemistry (IHC) and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The correlation of DUOX2 expression with clinicopathological parameters of tumors was identified...
2016: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26545406/methylated-b3gat2-and-znf793-are-potential-detection-biomarkers-for-barrett-s-esophagus
#17
Ming Yu, Rachele M O'Leary, Andrew M Kaz, Shelli M Morris, Kelly T Carter, Amitabh Chak, Apoorva Chandar, Joseph E Willis, Helen R Moinova, Sanford D Markowitz, Dean E Brenner, Sharmila Anandabapasathy, Maria Westerhoff, Chao-Jen Wong, Nicholas J Shaheen, Yanwen Chen, Jill S Barnholtz-Sloan, William M Grady
BACKGROUND: Barrett's esophagus (BE) is a preneoplastic condition in which normal esophageal squamous epithelium (SQ) is replaced by specialized intestinal metaplasia. It is the presumed precursor for esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) as well as the strongest risk factor for this cancer. Unfortunately, many patients with BE go undiagnosed under the current BE screening guidelines. The development of noninvasive and accurate BE detection assays could potentially identify many of these undiagnosed BE patients...
December 2015: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25502391/microrna-expression-can-be-a-promising-strategy-for-the-detection-of-barrett-s-esophagus-a-pilot-study
#18
Ajay Bansal, Xiaoman Hong, In-Hee Lee, Kausilia K Krishnadath, Sharad C Mathur, Sumedha Gunewardena, Amit Rastogi, Prateek Sharma, Lane K Christenson
OBJECTIVES: Patient outcomes for esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) have not improved despite huge advances in endoscopic therapy because cancers are being diagnosed late. Barrett's esophagus (BE) is the primary precursor lesion for EAC, and thus the non-endoscopic molecular diagnosis of BE can be an important approach to improve EAC outcomes if robust biomarkers for timely diagnosis are identified. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are tissue-specific novel biomarkers that regulate gene expression and may satisfy this requirement...
December 11, 2014: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25141579/-endoscopic-and-histopathological-findings-of-the-upper-gastrointestinal-tract-in-patients-with-functional-and-organic-dyspepsia
#19
Agnieszka Piatek-Guziewicz, Magdalena Przybylska-Feluś, Wojciech Dynowski, Małgorzata Zwolińska-Wcisło, Jakub Lickiewicz, Tomasz Mach
INTRODUCTION: Endoscopic examination of the upper gastrointestinal tract (upper GI) with macroscopic and histopathological evaluation provides essential tool to differentiate the organic and functional causes of dyspepsia. The distinction, however, is often smooth and not fully defined. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency and type of the macroscopic and histopathological changes in the upper GI endoscopy in patients with symptoms of dyspepsia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective study was performed on 212 patients with dyspepsia, at the age of 18-84 years, including 60 patients to 45 years of age (group I) and 152 patients older than 45 (group II) who underwent gastroscopy...
2014: Przegla̧d Lekarski
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24963396/high-expression-of-rna-binding-motif-protein-3-in-esophageal-and-gastric-adenocarcinoma-correlates-with-intestinal-metaplasia-associated-tumours-and-independently-predicts-a-reduced-risk-of-recurrence-and-death
#20
Liv Jonsson, Charlotta Hedner, Alexander Gaber, Dejan Korkocic, Björn Nodin, Mathias Uhlén, Jakob Eberhard, Karin Jirström
BACKGROUND: High nuclear expression of the RNA-binding motif protein 3 (RBM3) has previously been found to correlate with favourable clinicopathological characteristics and a prolonged survival in several cancer forms. Here, we examined the clinicopathological correlates and prognostic significance of RBM3 expression in tumours from a consecutive cohort of upper gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Immunohistochemical RBM3 expression was analysed in tissue microarrays with primary radiotherapy- and chemotherapy-naive adenocarcinoma of the esophagus, gastroesophageal junction and stomach (n = 173)...
2014: Biomarker Research
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