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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938466/optogenetic-analysis-of-depolarization-dependent-glucagon-like-peptide-1-release
#1
Catalin Chimerel, Cristian Riccio, Keir Murison, Fiona M Gribble, Frank Reimann
Incretin hormones play an important role in the regulation of food intake and glucose homeostasis. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secreting cells have been demonstrated to be electrically excitable and to fire action potentials (APs) with increased frequency in response to nutrient exposure. However, nutrients can also be metabolised or activate G-protein-coupled receptors, thus potentially stimulate GLP-1 secretion independent of their effects on the plasma membrane potential. Here we used channelrhodopsins to manipulate the membrane potential of GLUTag cells, a well established model of GLP-1 secreting enteroendocrine L-cells...
July 28, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938422/prepubertal-development-of-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-gnrh-neuron-activity-is-altered-by-sex-age-and-prenatal-androgen-exposure
#2
Eden A Dulka, Suzanne M Moenter
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons regulate reproduction though pulsatile hormone release. Disruption of GnRH release as measured via LH pulses occurs in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and in young hyperandrogenemic girls. In adult prenatally androgenized (PNA) mice, which exhibit many aspects of PCOS, increased LH is associated with increased GnRH neuron action potential firing. How GnRH neuron activity develops over the prepubertal period and whether or not this is altered by sex or prenatal androgen treatment are unknown...
September 15, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938398/long-term-recordings-of-arcuate-nucleus-kisspeptin-neurons-reveal-patterned-activity-that-is-modulated-by-gonadal-steroids-in-male-mice
#3
Charlotte Vanacker, Manuel Ricu Moya, R Anthony DeFazio, Michael L Johnson, Suzanne M Moenter
Pulsatile release of GnRH is key to fertility. Pulse frequency is modulated by gonadal steroids and likely arises subsequent to coordination of GnRH neuron firing activity. The source of rhythm generation and the site of steroid feedback remain critical unanswered questions. Arcuate neurons that synthetize kisspeptin, neurokinin B and dynorphin (KNDy neurons) may be involved in both of these processes. We tested the hypotheses that action potential firing in KNDy neurons is episodic and that gonadal steroids regulate this pattern...
July 28, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938084/the-evolving-understanding-of-dopamine-neurons-in-the-substantia-nigra-and-ventral-tegmental-area
#4
Stephanie C Gantz, Christopher P Ford, Hitoshi Morikawa, John T Williams
In recent years, the population of neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra (SN) has been examined at multiple levels. The results indicate that the projections, neurochemistry, and receptor and ion channel expression in this cell population vary widely. This review centers on the intrinsic properties and synaptic regulation that control the activity of dopamine neurons. Although all dopamine neurons fire action potentials in a pacemaker pattern in the absence of synaptic input, the intrinsic properties that underlie this activity differ considerably...
September 22, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938082/pseudacteon-phorid-flies-host-specificity-and-impacts-on-solenopsis-fire-ants
#5
Li Chen, Henry Y Fadamiro
Human commerce has resulted in the spread of the imported fire ants, Solenopsis species, worldwide. Six species of parasitic Pseudacteon phorid flies that are highly host specific to the Solenopsis saevissima complex of Solenopsis fire ants have been successfully released in the southern United States. The presence of Pseudacteon phorid flies, in addition to having direct mortality effects on their host ants, modifies foraging behavior and disrupts interspecific competition between host species and other ant species in the community...
September 22, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938074/native-electron-capture-dissociation-maps-to-iron-binding-channels-in-horse-spleen-ferritin
#6
Owen S Skinner, Michael O McAnally, Richard P Van Duyne, George C Schatz, Kathrin Breuker, Philip D Compton, Neil L Kelleher
Native electron capture dissociation (NECD) is a process during which proteins undergo fragmentation similar to that from radical dissociation methods, but without the addition of exogenous electrons. However, after three initial reports of NECD from the cytochrome c dimer complex, no further evidence of the effect has been published. Here, we report NECD behavior from horse spleen ferritin, a ~490 kDa protein complex ~20-fold larger than the previously studied cytochrome c dimer. Application of front-end infrared excitation (FIRE) in conjunction with low- and high-m/z quadrupole isolation and collisionally activated dissociation (CAD) provides new insights into the NECD mechanism...
September 22, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937579/pyrethroids-inhibit-k2p-channels-and-activate-sensory-neurons-basis-of-insecticide-induced-paraesthesias
#7
Aida Castellanos, Alba Andres, Laura Bernal, Gerard Callejo, Nuria Comes, Arcadi Gual, Jonathan P Giblin, Carolina Roza, Xavier Gasull
Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used for pest control, in agriculture or in human public health commonly as a topical treatment for scabies and head lice. Exposure to pyrethroids such as permethrin or tetramethrin (TM) causes sensory alterations such as transient pain, burning, stinging sensations and paraesthesias. Despite the well-known effects of pyrethroids on sodium channels, actions on other channels that control sensory neuron excitability are less studied. Given the role of two-pore domain potassium (K2P) channels in modulating sensory neuron excitability and firing, both in physiological and pathological conditions, we examined the effect of pyrethroids on K2P channels mainly expressed in sensory neurons...
September 19, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936947/modifier-25-under-fire-are-you-using-it-correctly
#8
Mark T Savarise, Christopher K Senkowski, Teri Romano, Jan Nagle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Bulletin of the American College of Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936706/biodiversity-and-ecology-of-flower-associated-actinomycetes-in-different-flowering-stages-of-protea-repens
#9
Zander R Human, Casparus J Crous, Francois Roets, Stephanus N Venter, Michael J Wingfield, Z Wilhelm de Beer
Actinomycete bacteria have previously been reported from reproductive structures (infructescences) of Protea (sugarbush/suikerbos) species, a niche dominated by fungi in the genera Knoxdaviesia and Sporothrix. It is probable that these taxa have symbiotic interactions, but a lack of knowledge regarding their diversity and general ecology precludes their study. We determined the diversity of actinomycetes within Protea repens inflorescence buds, open inflorescences, young and mature infructescences, and leaf litter surrounding these trees...
September 21, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936697/reactive-oxygen-species-and-glutathione-antioxidants-in-the-testis-of-the-soil-biosentinel-podarcis-sicula-rafinesque-1810
#10
Giulia Guerriero, Gerardino D'Errico, Rossella Di Giaimo, Dea Rabbito, Oladokun Sulaiman Olanrewaju, Gaetano Ciarcia
Important toxicological achievements have been made during the last decades using reptiles. We focus our investigation on gonadal reproductive health of the soil biosentinel Podarcis sicula which is very sensitive to endocrine-disrupting chemicals. The aim of this study is to quantitatively detect, by sensitive microassays, reactive oxygen species and the glutathione antioxidants in the testis and investigate if they are differentially expressed before and after remediation of a site of the "Land of Fires" (Campania, Italy) subject to illicit dumping of unknown material...
September 22, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936169/movement-related-activity-of-human-subthalamic-neurons-during-a-reach-to-grasp-task
#11
Monika Pötter-Nerger, Rene Reese, Frank Steigerwald, Jan Arne Heiden, Jan Herzog, Christian K E Moll, Wolfgang Hamel, Uri Ramirez-Pasos, Daniela Falk, Maximilian Mehdorn, Christian Gerloff, Günther Deuschl, Jens Volkmann
The aim of the study was to record movement-related single unit activity (SUA) in the human subthalamic nucleus (STN) during a standardized motor task of the upper limb. We performed microrecordings from the motor region of the human STN and registered kinematic data in 12 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) undergoing deep brain stimulation surgery (seven women, mean age 62.0 ± 4.7 years) while they intraoperatively performed visually cued reach-to-grasp movements using a grip device. SUA was analyzed offline in relation to different aspects of the movement (attention, start of the movement, movement velocity, button press) in terms of firing frequency, firing pattern, and oscillation...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935586/impairment-of-neural-coordination-in-hippocampal-neuronal-ensembles-after-a-psychotomimetic-dose-of-dizocilpine
#12
Ewa Szczurowska, Nikhil Ahuja, Přemysl Jiruška, Eduard Kelemen, Aleš Stuchlík
The discoordination hypothesis of schizophrenia posits discoordination of neural activity as the central mechanism that underlies some psychotic symptoms (including 'hallmark' cognitive symptoms) of schizophrenia. To test this proposition, we studied the activity of hippocampal neurons in urethane anesthetized Long Evans rats after 0.15mg/kg dizocilpine (MK-801), an N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor antagonist, which can cause psychotic symptoms in humans and cognitive control impairments in animals...
September 18, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934341/correction-land-cover-more-than-monthly-fire-weather-drives-fire-size-distribution-in-southern-qu%C3%A3-bec-forests-implications-for-fire-risk-management
#13
Jean Marchal, Steve G Cumming, Eliot J B McIntire
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0179294.].
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934196/spatiotemporal-network-coding-of-physiological-mossy-fiber-inputs-by-the-cerebellar-granular-layer
#14
Shyam Kumar Sudhakar, Sungho Hong, Ivan Raikov, Rodrigo Publio, Claus Lang, Thomas Close, Daqing Guo, Mario Negrello, Erik De Schutter
The granular layer, which mainly consists of granule and Golgi cells, is the first stage of the cerebellar cortex and processes spatiotemporal information transmitted by mossy fiber inputs with a wide variety of firing patterns. To study its dynamics at multiple time scales in response to inputs approximating real spatiotemporal patterns, we constructed a large-scale 3D network model of the granular layer. Patterned mossy fiber activity induces rhythmic Golgi cell activity that is synchronized by shared parallel fiber input and by gap junctions...
September 21, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933560/unintentional-nontraffic-injury-and-fatal-events-threats-to-children-in-and-around-vehicles
#15
Mark R Zonfrillo, Mackenzie L Ramsay, Janette E Fennell, Amber Rollins
Objective There have been substantial reductions in motor vehicle crash-related child fatalities due to advances in legislation, public safety campaigns, and engineering. Less is known about nontraffic injuries and fatalities to children in and around motor vehicles. The objective of this study was to describe the frequency of various nontraffic incidents, injuries, and fatalities to children using a unique surveillance system and database. Methods Instances of nontraffic injuries and fatalities in the United States to children 0-14 years were tracked from January 1990 - December 2014 using a compilation of sources including media reports, individual accounts from families of affected children, medical examiner reports, police reports, child death review teams, coroner reports, medical professionals, legal professionals, and other various modes of publication...
September 21, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933559/-parallel-investigations-of-blood-and-alveolar-air-in-the-diagnosis-of-lethal-carbon-monoxide-poisoning
#16
Miroslav Bauer, Jiřina Bauerová, Peter Očko, Jozef Šidlo
Carbon monoxide poisonings are the most frequent among fatal gas and volatile substances intoxications. The authors present diagnostic options of fatal carbon monoxide poisoning by parallel blood investigations for the content of karbonylhaemoglobin and determining of the concentration of carbon monoxide in the alveolar air. The analysis of 160 cases of lethal poisonings with carbon monoxide over a period of 20 years was carried out. The cases were divided into subgroups according to the place of death to poisonings in flats, garages, bathrooms, in fires, road traffic accidents and mining accidents...
2017: Soudní Lékarství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933224/progesterone-sharpens-temporal-response-profiles-of-sensory-cortical-neurons-in-animals-exposed-to-traumatic-brain-injury
#17
Benjamin J Allitt, Victoria P A Johnstone, Katrina L Richards, Edwin B Yan, Ramesh Rajan
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) initiates a cascade of pathophysiological changes that are both complex and difficult to treat. Progesterone (P4) is a neuroprotective treatment option that has shown excellent preclinical benefits in the treatment of TBI, but these benefits have not translated well in the clinic. We have previously shown that P4 exacerbates the already hypoactive upper cortical responses in the short-term post-TBI and does not reduce upper cortical hyperactivity in the long term, and we concluded that there is no tangible benefit to sensory cortex firing strength...
July 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932886/immediate-responses-of-the-cockroach-blaptica-dubia-after-the-exposure-to-sulfur-mustard
#18
Tanja Popp, Robin Lüling, Ingrid Boekhoff, Thomas Seeger, Francisco Branoner, Thomas Gudermann, Horst Thiermann, Franz Worek, Dirk Steinritz
The chemical agent sulfur mustard (SM) causes erythema, skin blisters, ulcerations, and delayed wound healing. It is accepted that the underlying molecular toxicology is based on DNA alkylation. With an expected delay, DNA damage causes impairment of protein biosynthesis and disturbance of cell division. However, using the cockroach model Blaptica dubia, the presented results show that alkylating compounds provoke immediate behavior responses along with fast changes in the electrical field potential (EFP) of neurons, suggesting that lesions of DNA are probably not the only effect of alkylating compounds...
September 20, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931930/bistability-and-up-down-state-alternations-in-inhibition-dominated-randomly-connected-networks-of-lif-neurons
#19
Elisa M Tartaglia, Nicolas Brunel
Electrophysiological recordings in cortex in vivo have revealed a rich variety of dynamical regimes ranging from irregular asynchronous states to a diversity of synchronized states, depending on species, anesthesia, and external stimulation. The average population firing rate in these states is typically low. We study analytically and numerically a network of sparsely connected excitatory and inhibitory integrate-and-fire neurons in the inhibition-dominated, low firing rate regime. For sufficiently high values of the external input, the network exhibits an asynchronous low firing frequency state (L)...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931803/laminar-differences-in-decision-related-neural-activity-in-dorsal-premotor-cortex
#20
Chandramouli Chandrasekaran, Diogo Peixoto, William T Newsome, Krishna V Shenoy
Dorsal premotor cortex is implicated in somatomotor decisions. However, we do not understand the temporal patterns and laminar organization of decision-related firing rates in dorsal premotor cortex. We recorded neurons from dorsal premotor cortex of monkeys performing a visual discrimination task with reaches as the behavioral report. We show that these neurons can be organized along a bidirectional visuomotor continuum based on task-related firing rates. "Increased" neurons at one end of the continuum increased their firing rates ~150 ms after stimulus onset and these firing rates covaried systematically with choice, stimulus difficulty, and reaction time-characteristics of a candidate decision variable...
September 20, 2017: Nature Communications
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