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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792464/debriefs-teams-learning-from-doing-in-context
#1
Joseph A Allen, Roni Reiter-Palmon, John Crowe, Cliff Scott
Debriefs are a type of work meeting in which teams discuss, interpret, and learn from recent events during which they collaborated. In a variety of forms, debriefs are found across a wide range of organizational types and settings. Well-conducted debriefs can improve team effectiveness by 25% across a variety of organizations and settings. For example, the U.S. military adopted debriefs decades ago to promote learning and performance across the various services. Subsequently, debriefs have been introduced in the medical field, the fire service, aviation, education, and in a variety of organizational training and simulation environments...
May 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792462/extreme-teams-toward-a-greater-understanding-of-multiagency-teamwork-during-major-emergencies-and-disasters
#2
Nicola Power
Major emergencies are extreme team decision making environments. They are complex, dynamic, high-stakes and fast paced events, wherein successful resolution is contingent upon effective teamwork. Not only do emergency teams coordinate at the intrateam level (e.g., police team), but they are increasingly required to operate at the interteam level (e.g., police, fire and ambulance teams). This is in response to the desire for networked and cost-effective practice and due to the evolving nature of modern threats, such as extreme weather events and terrorist attacks, which require a multi- rather than single-agency response...
May 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792126/neuropathological-profile-of-the-pentylenetetrazol-ptz-kindling-model
#3
E Samokhina, Alexander Samokhin
Epilepsy is a complex neurological disease characterized by spontaneous episodes of abnormal, simultaneous firing of a neuronal population and disturbances of consciousness (so-called seizures) of unknown cause. Antiepileptic drugs are only symptomatic treatment, and there is a strong demand for the search of an alternative treatment of epilepsy. For this purpose, animal models of epilepsy are an important prerequisite. There are various animal models with chronic brain dysfunctions thought to reflect the processes underlying human epilepsy...
May 23, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791746/molecular-and-cellular-characterization-of-nachr-subtypes-in-the-arcuate-nucleus-of-the-mouse-hypothalamus
#4
Cali A Calarco, Zhiying Li, Seth R Taylor, Somin Lee, Wenliang Zhou, Jeffrey M Friedman, Yann S Mineur, Cecilia Gotti, Marina R Picciotto
Nicotine, acting through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), increases the firing rate of both orexigenic agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and anorexigenic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC), yet nicotine and other nAChR agonists decrease food intake in mice. Viral-mediated knockdown of β4 nAChR subunit in all neuronal cell types in the ARC prevents the nicotinic agonist cytisine from decreasing food intake, but it is not known whether the β4 subunit is selectively expressed in anorexogenic neurons or how other nAChR subtypes are distributed in this nucleus...
May 23, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791395/fiber-optic-fabry-perot-pressure-sensor-based-on-low-temperature-co-fired-ceramic-technology-for-high-temperature-applications
#5
Jia Liu, Pinggang Jia, Huixin Zhang, Xiaodan Tian, Hao Liang, Yingping Hong, Ting Liang, Wenyi Liu, Jijun Xiong
In this study, a novel batch-producible fiber-optic Fabry-Perot (FP) pressure sensor based on a low-temperature co-fired ceramic technology is proposed and experimentally demonstrated for high-temperature applications. The sensor is fabricated by inserting a well-cut single-mode fiber (SMF) into a zirconia fiber ferrule, followed by insertion of the overall structure into an alumina sensor head. The FP cavity in the sensor is formed by placing the end face of the SMF in parallel to the diaphragm. The external pressure can be detected by demodulating the FP cavity length of the sensor...
May 20, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791042/behavioral-state-specific-neurons-in-the-mouse-medulla-involved-in-sleep-wake-switching
#6
K Sakai
The medullary reticular formation (RF) is involved in the maintenance of several vital physiological functions and level of vigilance. In the present study in non-anesthetized, head-fixed mice, I examined the role of medullary RF neurons in the control of sleep-wake states, i.e. wakefulness (W), slow-wave sleep (SWS), and paradoxical (or rapid eye movement) sleep (PS). I showed, for the first time, that the mouse medullary RF contains presumed SWS-promoting, SWS-on neurons that remain silent during W, display a sharp increase in discharge rate at sleep onset, and discharge tonically and selectively during SWS...
May 23, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790938/the-low-threshold-calcium-channel-cav3-2-mediates-burst-firing-of-mature-dentate-granule-cells
#7
Mael Dumenieu, Oleg Senkov, Andrey Mironov, Emmanuel Bourinet, Michael R Kreutz, Alexander Dityatev, Martin Heine, Arthur Bikbaev, Jeffrey Lopez-Rojas
Mature granule cells are poorly excitable neurons that were recently shown to fire action potentials, preferentially in bursts. It is believed that the particularly pronounced short-term facilitation of mossy fiber synapses makes granule cell bursting a very effective means of properly transferring information to CA3. However, the mechanism underlying the unique bursting behavior of mature granule cells is currently unknown. Here, we show that Cav3.2 T-type channels at the axon initial segment are responsible for burst firing of mature granule cells in rats and mice...
April 18, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789932/the-cognitive-nuances-of-surprising-events-exposure-to-unexpected-stimuli-elicits-firing-variations-in-neurons-of-the-dorsal-ca1-hippocampus
#8
Ornella Valenti, Nace Mikus, Thomas Klausberger
The ability to recognize novel situations is among the most fascinating and vital of the brain functions. A hypothesis posits that encoding of novelty is prompted by failures in expectancy, according to computation matching incoming information with stored events. Thus, unexpected changes in context are detected within the hippocampus and transferred to downstream structures, eliciting the arousal of the dopamine system. Nevertheless, the precise locus of detection is a matter of debate. The dorsal CA1 hippocampus (dCA1) appears as an ideal candidate for operating a mismatch computation and discriminating the occurrence of diverse stimuli within the same environment...
May 22, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789405/the-mauthner-cell-in-a-fish-with-top-performance-and-yet-flexibly-tuned-c-starts-ii-physiology
#9
Peter Machnik, Kathrin Leupolz, Sabine Feyl, Wolfram Schulze, Stefan Schuster
The parallel occurrence in archerfish of fine-tuned and yet powerful predictive C-starts as well as of kinematically identical escape C-starts makes archerfish an interesting system to test hypotheses on the roles played by the Mauthner cells, a pair of giant reticulospinal neurons. In this study we show that the archerfish Mauthner cell shares all hallmark physiological properties with that of goldfish. Visual and acoustic inputs are received by the ventral and lateral dendrite, respectively, and cause complex postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) even in surgically anaesthetised fish...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789378/subthalamic-nucleus-neurons-differentially-encode-early-and-late-aspects-of-speech-production
#10
W J Lipski, A Alhourani, T Pirnia, P W Jones, C Dastolfo-Hromack, L B Helou, D J Crammond, S Shaiman, M W Dickey, L L Holt, R S Turner, J A Fiez, R M Richardson
Basal ganglia-thalamocortical loops mediate all motor behavior, yet little detail is known about the role of basal ganglia nuclei in speech production. Using intracranial recording during deep brain stimulation surgery in humans with Parkinson's disease, we tested the hypothesis that the firing rate of subthalamic nucleus neurons is modulated in sync with motor execution aspects of speech. Nearly half of seventy-nine unit recordings exhibited firing rate modulation, during a syllable reading task across twelve subjects (male and female)...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789376/optogenetic-activation-of-colon-epithelium-of-the-mouse-produces-high-frequency-bursting-in-extrinsic-colon-afferents-and-engages-visceromotor-responses
#11
Payal A Makadia, Sarah A Najjar, Jami L Saloman, Peter Adelman, Bin Feng, Joseph F Margiotta, Kathryn M Albers, Brian M Davis
Epithelial cells of the colon provide a vital interface between the internal environment (lumen of the colon) and colon parenchyma. To examine epithelial-neuronal signaling at this interface, we analyzed mice in which channelrhodopsin (ChR2) was targeted to either TRPV1-positive afferents or to villin expressing colon epithelial cells. Expression of a ChR2-EYFP fusion protein was directed to either primary sensory neurons or to colon epithelial cells by crossing Ai32 mice with TRPV1-Cre or villin-Cre mice, respectively...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789374/identification-and-characterization-of-a-novel-spontaneously-active-bursty-gabaergic-interneuron-in-the-mouse-striatum
#12
Maxime Assous, Thomas W Faust, Robert Assini, Fulva Shah, Yacouba Sidibe, James M Tepper
The recent availability of different transgenic mouse lines coupled with other modern molecular techniques has led to the discovery of an unexpectedly large cellular diversity and synaptic specificity in striatal interneuronal circuitry. Prior research has described three spontaneously active interneuron types in mouse striatal slices; the cholinergic interneuron, the neuropeptide Y-low threshold spike interneuron, and the tyrosine hydroxylase interneurons (THINs). Using transgenic Htr3a-Cre mice we now characterize a fourth population of spontaneously active striatal GABAergic interneurons termed spontaneously active bursty interneurons (SABI) because of their unique burst-firing pattern in cell-attached recordings...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788971/differential-regulation-of-nimodipine-sensitive-and-insensitive-ca-2-influx-by-the-na-ca-2-exchanger-and-mitochondria-in-the-rat-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-neurons
#13
Pi-Cheng Cheng, Yi-Chi Wang, Ya-Shuan Chen, Ruo-Ciao Cheng, Jyh-Jeen Yang, Rong-Chi Huang
BACKGROUND: Transmembrane Ca2+ influx is critical for molecular rhythmicity, metabolic activity, and neuropeptide release in the central clock of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). We previously reported that both the Na+ /Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) and mitochondria play a role in regulating intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis in the rat SCN neurons. Here we present evidence to show differential regulation by NCX and mitochondria of nimodipine-sensitive and -insensitive Ca2+ influx. METHODS: Ratiometric Ca2+ imaging was used to measure change in [Ca2+ ]i and patch clamp recordings to study spontaneous firing, membrane potential, and voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels in neurons from reduced SCN slice preparations...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788507/obesity-and-health-in-the-north-american-fire-service-research-points-the-way-to-positive-culture-change
#14
Maria Korre, Denise Smith, Stefanos N Kales
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 17, 2018: Occupational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788505/measurement-of-natural-radionuclides-and-external-radiation-exposure-due-to-fly-ash-from-a-coal-fired-power-plant-spain-deposited-on-soils-comparison-using-two-different-measurement-techniques
#15
J A Corbacho, A Baeza
The evaluation of the radiological impact in soils due to the fly-ash ponds using both in situ techniques and laboratory based measurements is presented. In order to check the in situ techniques capabilities for monitoring this type of industries, a comparison between both techniques was performed. A characterization of external radiation exposure in the fly-ash pond and in its surrounding soils was made. The associated external radiological hazard due to the fly-ash pond has been evaluated. In situ techniques could be used to determine the radiological impact on soils due to fly-ash deposition, but its use could be limited due to the associated uncertainties...
May 17, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787725/sensory-coding-neurons-that-wire-together-fire-longer
#16
Aarush Mohit Mittal, Swikriti Saran Singh, Nitin Gupta
Sensory neurons for smell and taste in insects reside in sensilla. Experiments in bumblebees reveal an unusual benefit of this arrangement: interaction between co-housed gustatory neurons promotes bursting in their responses and delays their adaptation.
May 21, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787617/intact-memory-for-local-and-distal-cues-in-male-and-female-rats-that-lack-adult-neurogenesis
#17
Desiree R Seib, Erin Chahley, Oren Princz-Lebel, Jason Scott Snyder
The dentate gyrus is essential for remembering the fine details of experiences that comprise episodic memory. Dentate gyrus granule cells receive highly-processed sensory information and are hypothesized to perform a pattern separation function, whereby similar sensory inputs are transformed into orthogonal neural representations. Behaviorally, this is believed to enable distinct memory for highly interfering stimuli. Since the dentate gyrus is comprised of a large number of adult-born neurons, which have unique synaptic wiring and neurophysiological firing patterns, it has been proposed that neurogenesis may contribute to this process in unique ways...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787562/a-thirty-year-fine-scale-characterization-of-area-burned-in-canadian-forests-shows-evidence-of-regionally-increasing-trends-in-the-last-decade
#18
Nicholas C Coops, Txomin Hermosilla, Michael A Wulder, Joanne C White, Douglas K Bolton
Fire as a dominant disturbance has profound implications on the terrestrial carbon cycle. We present the first ever multi-decadal, spatially-explicit, 30 meter assessment of fire regimes across the forested ecoregions of Canada at an annual time-step. From 1985 to 2015, 51 Mha burned, impacting over 6.5% of forested ecosystems. Mean annual area burned was 1,651,818 ha and varied markedly (σ = 1,116,119), with 25% of the total area burned occurring in three years: 1989, 1995, and 2015. Boreal forest types contained 98% of the total area burned, with the conifer-dominated Boreal Shield containing one-third of all burned area...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787444/french-policies-for-victim-management-during-mass-radiological-accidents-attacks
#19
Diane Riccobono, Marco Valente, Michel Drouet, Franck Calamai, Amandine Abriat
In the current international context, emergency medical services have to be prepared for chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear events. Emergency response to radiological or nuclear events requires coordination between many components: the fire brigade, emergency medical services (including nurses and physicians), police, hospitals, etc. To optimize efficiency, victim management in France is governed by specific policies and planned responses. This plan for radiological/nuclear event response is inspired by military chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear victim management in the operational theatre and is based on extraction (removal to a safe environment), first triage, decontamination, second triage, treatment, substance identification, and training...
July 2018: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787245/structure-and-dynamics-of-a-graphene-melt
#20
Wenjie Xia, Fernando Vargas Lara, Sinan Keten, Jack F Douglas
We explore the structural and dynamic properties of bulk materials composed of graphene nanosheets using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. Remarkably, our results show clear evidence that the bulk graphene materials exhibit fluid-like behaviors similar to linear polymer melts at elevated temperatures and that these materials transform into a glassy-like "foam" state at temperatures below the glass-transition temperature (T_g) of these materials. Distinct from an isolated graphene sheet, which exhibits a relatively flat shape with fluctuations, we find that graphene sheets in a melt state structurally adopt more "crumpled" configurations and correspondingly smaller sizes, as normally found for ordinary polymers in the melt...
May 22, 2018: ACS Nano
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