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Xin Zhang, Lei Peng, Zhao-Peng Ni, Tian-Xiao Ni, Yi-Liang Huang, Yang Zhou
Experimental research was conducted to study the fire resistance of steel tubular columns used in prefabricated and modular construction. In order to achieve high-efficient prefabrication and fast on-site installation, membrane protections using board products and thermal insulation blankets are adopted as the favorable protection method. Three protected tubular columns were tested in a full-scale column furnace with axial load applied. The study variables were different membranes, including fiber reinforced calcium silicate (FRCS) boards, rock wool and aluminum silica (Fiberfrax) insulations...
March 16, 2018: Materials
Rupesh K Chikara, Erik C Chang, Yi-Chen Lu, Dar-Shong Lin, Chin-Teng Lin, Li-Wei Ko
A reward or punishment can modulate motivation and emotions, which in turn affect cognitive processing. The present simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging-electroencephalography study examines neural mechanisms of response inhibition under the influence of a monetary reward or punishment by implementing a modified stop-signal task in a virtual battlefield scenario. The participants were instructed to play as snipers who open fire at a terrorist target but withhold shooting in the presence of a hostage...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Martha L Streng, Laurentiu S Popa, Timothy J Ebner
It is hypothesized that the cerebellum implements a forward internal model that transforms motor commands into predictions about upcoming movements. The predictions are compared with sensory feedback to generate sensory prediction errors critical to controlling movements. The simple spike firing of cerebellar Purkinje cells both lead and lag movement consistent with representations of motor predictions and sensory feedback. This study tests whether this leading and lagging modulation provides the prediction and sensory feedback necessary to compute sensory prediction errors...
March 15, 2018: Nature Communications
Felix Weissenberger, Marcelo Matheus Gauy, Johannes Lengler, Florian Meier, Angelika Steger
In computational neuroscience, synaptic plasticity rules are often formulated in terms of firing rates. The predominant description of in vivo neuronal activity, however, is the instantaneous rate (or spiking probability). In this article we resolve this discrepancy by showing that fluctuations of the membrane potential carry enough information to permit a precise estimate of the instantaneous rate in balanced networks. As a consequence, we find that rate based plasticity rules are not restricted to neuronal activity that is stable for hundreds of milliseconds to seconds, but can be carried over to situations in which it changes every few milliseconds...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
James P Roach, Aleksandra Pidde, Eitan Katz, Jiaxing Wu, Nicolette Ognjanovski, Sara J Aton, Michal R Zochowski
Network oscillations across and within brain areas are critical for learning and performance of memory tasks. While a large amount of work has focused on the generation of neural oscillations, their effect on neuronal populations' spiking activity and information encoding is less known. Here, we use computational modeling to demonstrate that a shift in resonance responses can interact with oscillating input to ensure that networks of neurons properly encode new information represented in external inputs to the weights of recurrent synaptic connections...
March 15, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Zhen Tian, Jingqi Yuan, Xiang Zhang, Lei Kong, Jingcheng Wang
The coordinated control system (CCS) serves as an important role in load regulation, efficiency optimization and pollutant reduction for coal-fired power plants. The CCS faces with tough challenges, such as the wide-range load variation, various uncertainties and constraints. This paper aims to improve the load tacking ability and robustness for boiler-turbine units under wide-range operation. To capture the key dynamics of the ultra-supercritical boiler-turbine system, a nonlinear control-oriented model is developed based on mechanism analysis and model reduction techniques, which is validated with the history operation data of a real 1000 MW unit...
March 12, 2018: ISA Transactions
Irene Navarro-Lobato, Lisa Genzel
Alternations of up and down can be seen across many different levels during sleep. Neural firing-rates, synaptic markers, molecular pathways, and gene expression all show differential up and down regulation across brain areas and sleep stages. And also the hallmarks of sleep - sleep stage specific oscillations - are characterized themselves by up and down as seen within the slow oscillation or theta cycles. In this review, we summarize the up and down of sleep covering molecules to electrophysiology and present different theories how this up and down could be regulated by the up and down of sleep oscillations...
March 12, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
William Bullock, E Reed Smith, Craig Heligman
A number of recent incidents in the United States resulted in a large number of citizens reporting to the Emergency Room seeking reassurance that they were okay. These citizens are being referred to in the medical community as the "Worried Well." We conducted a review of a transportation incident involving a chemical release and fire, which resulted in over 100 people reporting to the local emergency room for evaluation. Few, if any of the patients seen in the hospital had a potential exposure to the chemical or combustion byproducts...
January 2018: Journal of Emergency Management: JEM
Kevin C Kemp, Rimi Dey, Johan Verhagen, Neil J Scolding, Maria M Usowicz, Alastair Wilkins
Bone marrow-derived cells are known to infiltrate the adult brain and fuse with cerebellar Purkinje cells. Histological observations that such heterotypic cell fusion events are substantially more frequent following cerebellar injury suggest they could have a role in the protection of mature brain neurons. To date, the possibility that cell fusion can preserve or restore the structure and function of adult brain neurons has not been directly addressed; indeed, though frequently suggested, the possibility of benefit has always been rather speculative...
March 14, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
Ina Schlathölter, Melanie Jänsch, Henryk Flachowsky, Giovanni Antonio Lodovico Broggini, Magda-Viola Hanke, Andrea Patocchi
The approach presented here can be applied to reduce the time needed to introduce traits from wild apples into null segregant advanced selections by one-fourth. Interesting traits like resistances to pathogens are often found within the wild apple gene pool. However, the long juvenile phase of apple seedlings hampers the rapid introduction of these traits into new cultivars. The rapid crop cycle breeding approach used in this paper is based on the overexpression of the birch (Betula pendula) MADS4 transcription factor in apple...
March 14, 2018: Planta
Jie-Wei Luo, Cong-Huai Lin, Yao-Bin Zhu, Xing-Yu Zheng, Yong-Xi Wu, Wei-Wei Chen, Xiao Yang
Structural changes in symbiotic human microorganisms can affect host phenotype. Liver-fire hyperactivity syndrome (LFHS) presents as bitter taste, halitosis, xerostomia, odontalgia, and other oral symptoms. LFHS is associated with hypertension (EH). In this study, tongue flora was analyzed to further understand the intrinsic relationship between tongue flora and LFHS. Samples of tongue coating, from 16 patients with EH-LFHS, 16 with EH-non-LFHS, and 16 controls, were obtained; then, 16S rRNA variable (V3-V4) regions were amplified and sequenced by MiSeq PE300 Sequencing...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Jodi R Paul, Hira A Munir, Thomas van Groen, Karen L Gamble
Disruption of circadian rhythms is commonly reported in individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Neurons in the primary circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), exhibit daily rhythms in spontaneous neuronal activity which are important for maintaining circadian behavioral rhythms. Disruption of SCN neuronal activity has been reported in animal models of other neurodegenerative disorders; however, the effect of AD on SCN neurophysiology remains unknown. In this study we examined circadian behavioral and electrophysiological changes in a mouse model of AD, using male mice from the Tg-SwDI line which expresses human amyloid precursor protein with the familial Swedish (K670N/M671L), Dutch (E693Q), Iowa (D694N) mutations...
March 11, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Mei Mei, Haojun Song, Lina Chen, Bin Hu, Ru Bai, Diandou Xu, Ying Liu, Yuliang Zhao, Chunying Chen
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have suggested that elevated levels of air pollution contribute to an increased incidence or severity of asthma. Although late-onset adult asthma seems to be more attributable to environmental risk factors, limited data is available on the impact of early-life exposure to size-fractionated ambient particulate matter (PM) on asthma in adults. We aimed to determine the effect on the development and exacerbation of asthma in the adult after the mice were exposed as juveniles to three size-fractionated ambient particulates collected from Beijing...
March 14, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Ine Vandewauw, Katrien De Clercq, Marie Mulier, Katharina Held, Silvia Pinto, Nele Van Ranst, Andrei Segal, Thierry Voet, Rudi Vennekens, Katharina Zimmermann, Joris Vriens, Thomas Voets
Acute pain represents a crucial alarm signal to protect us from injury. Whereas the nociceptive neurons that convey pain signals were described more than a century ago, the molecular sensors that detect noxious thermal or mechanical insults have yet to be fully identified. Here we show that acute noxious heat sensing in mice depends on a triad of transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels: TRPM3, TRPV1, and TRPA1. We found that robust somatosensory heat responsiveness at the cellular and behavioural levels is observed only if at least one of these TRP channels is functional...
March 14, 2018: Nature
Paola Contessa, John Letizi, Gianluca De Luca, Joshua C Kline
The control of motor unit firing behavior during fatigue is still debated in the literature. Most studies agree that the central nervous system increases the excitation to the motoneuron pool to compensate for decreased force contributions of individual motor units and sustain muscle force output during fatigue. However, some studies claim that motor units may decrease their firing rates despite increased excitation, contradicting the direct relationship between firing rates and excitation that governs the voluntary control of motor units...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Neal Bhatia, Leon Kircik
Optimizing combinations for psoriasis means asking patients to take control of their disease. It means balancing potency of steroids for the short-run to put out the fire and bring relief and maintaining the clearance for the long-run to reduce recurrence potential. Successful combinations are built on tolerability, ease of application, and the efficacy demonstrated by the synergy of the sum of the parts over being used separately. <p><em>J Drugs Dermatol. 2018;17(3):342-346.</em></p>...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
The Lancet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 10, 2018: Lancet
Maria M Buckley, Dervla O'Malley
Background and Objectives: Bidirectional signaling between the gastrointestinal tract and the brain is vital for maintaining whole-body homeostasis. Moreover, emerging evidence implicates vagal afferent signaling in the modulation of host physiology by microbes, which are most abundant in the colon. This study aims to optimize and advance dissection and recording techniques to facilitate real-time recordings of afferent neural signals originating in the distal colon. New Protocol: This paper describes a dissection technique, which facilitates extracellular electrophysiological recordings from visceral pelvic, spinal and vagal afferent neurons in response to stimulation of the distal colon...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Hyejin An, Hyun-Chool Shin
It is essential to build a system to generate proper neural stimulus signals with adjusting parameters. We developed a stimulator with up to four channels for separate settings in periodic and non-periodic modes. The device can support a closed-loop experimental system which utilizes neural information in real time as a feedback for controlling stimuli. To confirm whether stimulating signals are properly produced and delivered inside the brain, two experiments with rats were conducted. We observed that the change of firing rates and the cross-power spectral density increased after stimulation which meant that electric signals were transferred well and that they affected the neurons' activities...
February 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
Li-Yuan Chen, Maxime Lévesque, Mauro Cataldi, Massimo Avoli
The muscarinic receptor agonist carbachol (CCh) can induce activity in the theta range (4 - 15 Hz) in the entorhinal cortex (EC), but the underlying network mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we investigated the interplay between interneurons and principal cells in the EC during CCh-induced theta-like field oscillations in an in vitro brain slice preparation using tetrodes. Field oscillations at 10.1 Hz (IQR = 9.5 - 10.9 Hz) occurred during bath application of CCh (100 μM; n = 32 experiments) and were associated with single-unit (n = 189) firing...
March 10, 2018: Neuroscience
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