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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214378/calcium-signaling-through-l-type-calcium-channels-role-in-pathophysiology-of-spinal-nociceptive-transmission
#1
REVIEW
Olivier Roca-Lapirot, Houda Radwani, Franck Aby, Frédéric Nagy, Marc Landry Pascal Fossat
L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) are ubiquitous channels in the central nervous system. L-type calcium channels (LTCs) are mostly post-synaptic channels regulating neuronal firing and gene expression. They play a role in important physio-pathological processes such as learning and memory, Parkinson's disease, autism and, as recognized more recently, in the pathophysiology of pain processes. Classically, the fundamental role of these channels in cardiovascular functions has limited the use of classical molecules to treat LTC-dependent disorders...
February 18, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214114/effects-of-salvage-logging-on-soil-properties-and-vegetation-recovery-in-a-fire-affected-mediterranean-forest-a-two-year-monitoring-research
#2
F García-Orenes, V Arcenegui, K Chrenková, J Mataix-Solera, J Moltó, A B Jara-Navarro, M P Torres
Post-fire management can have an additional impact on the ecosystem; in some cases, even more severe than the fire. Salvage logging (SL) is a common practice in most fire-affected areas. The management of burnt wood can determine microclimatic conditions and seriously affect soil properties. In some cases, the way of doing it, using heavy machinery, and the vulnerability of soils to erosion and degradation can make this management potentially aggressive to soil. Research was done in "Sierra de Mariola Natural Park" (E Spain)...
February 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213254/chips-how-to-build-and-implement-fluidic-devices-in-flow-based-systems
#3
Víctor Cerdà, Jessica Avivar, Daniel Moreno
The development of automatic analyzers based on flow techniques involves the use and continuous innovation of fluidic devices. New trends tend toward miniaturization of sophisticated fluidic platforms requiring continuous advances in this field. The availability of a mechanic and electronic workshop together with the know-how to build new fluidic devices provides the tools for the creation of innovative instrumentation and stimulates the creativity of analytical chemists. Thus, in this review we present how to build and use flow-based fluidic devices, together with the tools required, such as computerized controlled lathes, milling machines, laser engraver machines, low-temperature co-fired ceramics technology and 3D printers, highlighting their strong and weak points...
May 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213155/high-frequency-stimulation-of-afferent-fibers-generates-asynchronous-firing-in-the-downstream-neurons-in-hippocampus-through-partial-block-of-axonal-conduction
#4
Zhouyan Feng, Zhaoxiang Wang, Zheshan Guo, Wenjie Zhou, Ziyan Cai, Dominique M Durand
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is effective for treating neurological disorders in clinic. However, the therapeutic mechanisms of high-frequency stimulation (HFS) of DBS have not yet been elucidated. Previous studies have suggested that HFS-induced changes in axon conduction could have important contributions to the DBS effects and desiderate further studies. To investigate the effects of prolonged HFS of afferent axons on the firing of downstream neurons, HFS trains of 100 and 200 Hz were applied on the Schaffer collaterals of the hippocampal CA1 region in anaesthetized rats...
February 14, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212623/lysozyme-enhances-the-bactericidal-effect-of-bp100-peptide-against-erwinia-amylovora-the-causal-agent-of-fire-blight-of-rosaceous-plants
#5
Jordi Cabrefiga, Emilio Montesinos
BACKGROUND: Fire blight is an important disease affecting rosaceous plants. The causal agent is the bacteria Erwinia amylovora which is poorly controlled with the use of conventional bactericides and biopesticides. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been proposed as a new compounds suitable for plant disease control. BP100, a synthetic linear undecapeptide (KKLFKKILKYL-NH2), has been reported to be effective against E. amylovora infections. Moreover, BP100 showed bacteriolytic activity, moderate susceptibility to protease degradation and low toxicity...
February 17, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211960/becoming-tobacco-free-changes-in-staff-and-patient-attitudes-and-incident-reports-in-a-large-academic-mental-health-and-addictions-hospital
#6
Lilian Riad-Allen, Sarah Siodmok Dermody, Yarissa Herman, Kim Bellissimo, Peter Selby, Tony Peter George
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Complete tobacco bans in mental health facilities are thought to have the potential for adverse consequences. We evaluated staff and patient attitudes and adverse events associated with implementing Canada's largest, multi-site academic psychiatric hospital tobacco ban. METHODS: A total of 1,173 staff and 422 patients completed an anonymous attitudes survey at prior to implementation (baseline), and 4-6 months and 10-12 months post-implementation...
February 17, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211852/plasmodium-falciparum-crk4-directs-continuous-rounds-of-dna-replication-during-schizogony
#7
Markus Ganter, Jonathan M Goldberg, Jeffrey D Dvorin, Joao A Paulo, Jonas G King, Abhai K Tripathi, Aditya S Paul, Jing Yang, Isabelle Coppens, Rays H Y Jiang, Brendan Elsworth, David A Baker, Rhoel R Dinglasan, Steven P Gygi, Manoj T Duraisingh
Plasmodium parasites, the causative agents of malaria, have evolved a unique cell division cycle in the clinically relevant asexual blood stage of infection(1). DNA replication commences approximately halfway through the intracellular development following invasion and parasite growth. The schizont stage is associated with multiple rounds of DNA replication and nuclear division without cytokinesis, resulting in a multinucleated cell. Nuclei divide asynchronously through schizogony, with only the final round of DNA replication and segregation being synchronous and coordinated with daughter cell assembly(2,3)...
February 17, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211467/displacement-efficiency-of-alternative-energy-and-trans-provincial-imported-electricity-in-china
#8
Yuanan Hu, Hefa Cheng
China has invested heavily on alternative energy, but the effectiveness of such energy sources at substituting the dominant coal-fired generation remains unknown. Here we analyse the displacement of fossil-fuel-generated electricity by alternative energy, primarily hydropower, and by trans-provincial imported electricity in China between 1995 and 2014 using two-way fixed-effects panel regression models. Nationwide, each unit of alternative energy displaces nearly one-quarter of a unit of fossil-fuel-generated electricity, while each unit of imported electricity (regardless of the generation source) displaces ∼0...
February 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210762/-impact-assessment-of-inadequate-hospital-disaster-management-reflection-based-on-a%C3%A2-risk-model
#9
E Pfenninger, H Güzelel
BACKGROUND: According to legal regulations alarm and emergency plans have to be developed and kept current in hospitals. However, often neither the hospital administration, nor the medical employees and nursing staff pay the necessary attention to these alarm and evacuation plans. In particular, risks and consequences - including financial ones - due to insufficient planning, are not adequately considered. OBJECTIVES: Risks in hospitals are assessed based on a risk analysis...
February 16, 2017: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210218/phasic-firing-and-coincidence-detection-by-subthreshold-negative-feedback-divisive-or-subtractive-or-better-both
#10
Gemma Huguet, Xiangying Meng, John Rinzel
Phasic neurons typically fire only for a fast-rising input, say at the onset of a step current, but not for steady or slow inputs, a property associated with type III excitability. Phasic neurons can show extraordinary temporal precision for phase locking and coincidence detection. Exemplars are found in the auditory brain stem where precise timing is used in sound localization. Phasicness at the cellular level arises from a dynamic, voltage-gated, negative feedback that can be recruited subthreshold, preventing the neuron from reaching spike threshold if the voltage does not rise fast enough...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210214/arginine-vasopressin-alters-both-spontaneous-and-phase-locked-synaptic-inputs-to-airway-vagal-preganglionic-neuron-via-activation-of-v1a-receptor-insights-into-stress-related-airway-vagal-excitation
#11
Xianxia Yan, Xingxin Chen, Yuhong Guo, Ding He, Yonghua Chen, Chunmei Xia, Jijiang Wang
The airway vagal preganglionic neurons (AVPNs) in the external formation of the nucleus ambiguus (eNA) play a major role in the vagal control of tracheobronchial smooth muscle tone and maintenance of airway resistance. The eNA receives vasopressinergic projection from the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), the key node for the genesis of psychological stress. Since airway vagal excitation is reportedly to be associated with the psychological stress-induced/exacerbated airway hyperresponsiveness in asthmatics, arginine vasopressin (AVP) might be involved in stress-related airway vagal excitation...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209735/the-epac-phospholipase-c%C3%AE%C2%B5-pathway-regulates-endocannabinoid-signaling-and-cocaine-induced-disinhibition-of-vta-dopamine-neurons
#12
Jiaqing Tong, Xiaojie Liu, Casey Vickstrom, Yan Li, Laikang Yu, Youming Lu, Alan V Smrcka, Qing-Song Liu
Exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) is a direct effector for the ubiquitous second messenger cAMP. Epac activates the phospholipase Cε (PLCε) pathway. PLCβ has been linked to the synthesis of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). Here, we report that Epac facilitates endocannabinoid-mediated retrograde synaptic depression through activation of PLCε. Intracellular loading of a selective Epac agonist 8-CPT-2Me-cAMP into ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons enabled previously ineffective stimuli to induce depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition (DSI) and long-term depression of IPSCs (I-LTD) in the VTA...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208505/solving-the-two-dimensional-fokker-planck-equation-for-strongly-correlated-neurons
#13
Taşkın Deniz, Stefan Rotter
Pairs of neurons in brain networks often share much of the input they receive from other neurons. Due to essential nonlinearities of the neuronal dynamics, the consequences for the correlation of the output spike trains are generally not well understood. Here we analyze the case of two leaky integrate-and-fire neurons using an approach which is nonperturbative with respect to the degree of input correlation. Our treatment covers both weakly and strongly correlated dynamics, generalizing previous results based on linear response theory...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208458/double-inverse-stochastic-resonance-with-dynamic-synapses
#14
Muhammet Uzuntarla, Joaquin J Torres, Paul So, Mahmut Ozer, Ernest Barreto
We investigate the behavior of a model neuron that receives a biophysically realistic noisy postsynaptic current based on uncorrelated spiking activity from a large number of afferents. We show that, with static synapses, such noise can give rise to inverse stochastic resonance (ISR) as a function of the presynaptic firing rate. We compare this to the case with dynamic synapses that feature short-term synaptic plasticity and show that the interval of presynaptic firing rate over which ISR exists can be extended or diminished...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208429/exact-results-for-power-spectrum-and-susceptibility-of-a-leaky-integrate-and-fire-neuron-with-two-state-noise
#15
Felix Droste, Benjamin Lindner
The response properties of excitable systems driven by colored noise are of great interest, but are usually mathematically only accessible via approximations. For this reason, dichotomous noise, a rare example of a colored noise leading often to analytically tractable problems, has been extensively used in the study of stochastic systems. Here, we calculate exact expressions for the power spectrum and the susceptibility of a leaky integrate-and-fire neuron driven by asymmetric dichotomous noise. While our results are in excellent agreement with simulations, they also highlight a limitation of using dichotomous noise as a simple model for more complex fluctuations: Both power spectrum and susceptibility exhibit an undamped periodic structure, the origin of which we discuss in detail...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208338/synchronization-and-long-time-memory-in-neural-networks-with-inhibitory-hubs-and-synaptic-plasticity
#16
Elena Bertolotti, Raffaella Burioni, Matteo di Volo, Alessandro Vezzani
We investigate the dynamical role of inhibitory and highly connected nodes (hub) in synchronization and input processing of leaky-integrate-and-fire neural networks with short term synaptic plasticity. We take advantage of a heterogeneous mean-field approximation to encode the role of network structure and we tune the fraction of inhibitory neurons f_{I} and their connectivity level to investigate the cooperation between hub features and inhibition. We show that, depending on f_{I}, highly connected inhibitory nodes strongly drive the synchronization properties of the overall network through dynamical transitions from synchronous to asynchronous regimes...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208227/integrating-remotely-sensed-fires-for-predicting-deforestation-for-redd
#17
Dolors Armenteras, Cerian Gibbes, Jesús A Anaya, Liliana M Dávalos
Fire is an important tool in tropical forest management, as it alters forest composition, structure, and the carbon budget. The United Nations program on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) aims to sustainably manage forests, as well as conserve and enhance their carbon stocks. Despite the crucial role of fire management, decision-making on REDD+ interventions fails to systematically include fires. Here, we address this critical knowledge gap in two ways. First, we review REDD+ projects and programs to assess the inclusion of fires in monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) systems...
February 16, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207837/factor-contribution-to-fire-occurrence-size-and-burn-probability-in-a-subtropical-coniferous-forest-in-east-china
#18
Tao Ye, Yao Wang, Zhixing Guo, Yijia Li
The contribution of factors including fuel type, fire-weather conditions, topography and human activity to fire regime attributes (e.g. fire occurrence, size distribution and severity) has been intensively discussed. The relative importance of those factors in explaining the burn probability (BP), which is critical in terms of fire risk management, has been insufficiently addressed. Focusing on a subtropical coniferous forest with strong human disturbance in East China, our main objective was to evaluate and compare the relative importance of fuel composition, topography, and human activity for fire occurrence, size and BP...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207176/detecting-state-changes-for-ecosystem-conservation-with-long-term-monitoring-of-species-composition
#19
T J Mason, D A Keith, A D Letten
Effective conservation requires an understanding not only of contemporary vegetation distributions in the landscape, but also cognizance of vegetation transitions over time with the goal of maintaining persistence of all states within the landscape. Using a state and transition model framework, we investigated temporal transitions over 31 years in species composition among five upland swamp vegetation communities in southeastern Australia. We applied fuzzy clustering to document transitions across communities; evaluated the resilience and resistance of communities to change; and explored the relationship between ecosystem states and major environmental factors posited to structure the system...
October 4, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204881/genetic-evidence-for-functional-interaction-of-smc5-6-complex-and-top1-with-spatial-frequency-of-replication-origins-required-for-maintenance-of-chromosome-stability
#20
Ragini Rai, Shikha Laloraya
Replication of linear chromosomes is facilitated by firing of multiple replication origins that ensures timely duplication of the entire chromosome. The Smc5/6 complex is thought to play an important role in replication by its involvement in the restart of collapsed replication forks. Here, we present genetic evidence for functional interaction between replication origin distribution and two subunits of the Smc5/6 complex, Smc6 and Mms21, as well as Top1. An artificial chromosome that has a long arm having low origin density (5ori∆YAC) is relatively unstable compared to the YAC having normal origin distribution in wild-type cells, but is partially stabilized in smc6-56 and top1∆ mutants...
February 16, 2017: Current Genetics
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