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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623943/tumour-biology-of-obesity-related-cancers-understanding-the-molecular-concept-for-better-diagnosis-and-treatment
#1
Seong Lin Teoh, Srijit Das
Obesity continues to be a major global problem. Various cancers are related to obesity and proper understanding of their aetiology, especially their molecular tumour biology is important for early diagnosis and better treatment. Genes play an important role in the development of obesity. Few genes such as leptin, leptin receptor encoded by the db (diabetes), pro-opiomelanocortin, AgRP and NPY and melanocortin-4 receptors and insulin-induced gene 2 were linked to obesity. MicroRNAs control gene expression via mRNA degradation and protein translation inhibition and influence cell differentiation, cell growth and cell death...
September 14, 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512005/effect-of-adiponectin-on-the-steroidogenic-acute-regulatory-protein-p450-side-chain-cleavage-enzyme-and-3%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-gene-expression-progesterone-and-androstenedione-production-by-the-porcine-uterus-during-early-pregnancy
#2
N Smolinska, K Dobrzyn, M Kiezun, K Szeszko, A Maleszka, T Kaminski
Adiponectin and its receptors are expressed in the human and porcine uterus and this endocrine system has important role in the regulation of reproductive processes. The expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD3B1) were observed in the human and porcine uterus during the oestrous cycle and pregnancy. The de novo synthesis of steroids in the uterus might be a crucial factor for effective implantation and maintenance of pregnancy. We hypothesized that adiponectin modulates the expression of key enzymes in the synthesis of the steroids: StAR, P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11A1) and HSD3B1, as well as progesterone (P4) and androstenedione (A4) secretion by the porcine uterus...
June 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27385360/g-protein-coupled-receptors-as-potential-drug-candidates-in-preeclampsia-targeting-the-relaxin-insulin-like-family-peptide-receptor-1-for-treatment-and-prevention
#3
REVIEW
Kirk P Conrad
BACKGROUND: Important roles for G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been identified in the maternal physiological adaptations to pregnancy and in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. On this basis, GPCRs are potential therapeutic targets for preeclampsia. OBJECTIVES AND RATIONALE: In this review, vasopressin and apelin are initially considered in this context before the focus on the hormone relaxin and its cognate receptor, the relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1)...
September 2016: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27365367/the-role-of-relaxin-in-normal-and-abnormal-uterine-function-during-the-menstrual-cycle-and-early-pregnancy
#4
Sarah A Marshall, Sevvandi N Senadheera, Laura J Parry, Jane E Girling
The hormone relaxin is a 6-kDa peptide with high structural similarity to insulin. It is primarily produced by the corpus luteum during pregnancy but is also synthesized by other reproductive organs such as the uterus, decidua, and placenta. Relaxin binds to its receptor RXFP1, which has been localized to a wide variety of reproductive and nonreproductive tissues. The peptide's many uterotropic effects include stimulating uterine growth and vascularization, remodeling extracellular matrix components, and regulating vascular endothelial growth factor in preparation for implantation...
June 29, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27085397/prepubertal-tamoxifen-treatment-affects-development-of-heifer-reproductive-tissues-and-related-signaling-pathways
#5
A Al Naib, H L M Tucker, G Xie, D H Keisler, F F Bartol, R P Rhoads, R M Akers, M L Rhoads
Prepubertal exposure of the developing ovaries and reproductive tract (RT) to estrogen or xenoestrogens can have acute and long-term consequences that compromise the reproductive performance of cattle. This research examined effects of the selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen (TAM) on gene and protein abundance in prepubertal ovaries and RT, with a particular focus on signaling pathways that affect morphology. Tamoxifen was administered to Holstein heifer calves (n=8) daily (0.3mg/kg subcutaneously) from 28 to 120 d of age, when tissues were collected...
July 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26622758/bak-foong-pills-combined-with-metformin-in-the-treatment-of-a-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome-rat-model
#6
Wenhui Liu, Wenpei Liu, Yuling Fu, Yan Wang, Yuanzhen Zhang
The aim of the present study was to investigate the treatment effects and associated mechanism of Bak Foong pills (BFPs) combined with metformin in the treatment of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). BFPs and/or metformin were administrated to treat the PCOS rats, and the weights and morphologies of the ovary, uterus and adrenal gland were measured. The levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), serum testosterone (T), luteinizing hormone, fasting insulin (FIN) and insulin-like growth factor-1 were also measured, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated...
September 2015: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26608222/autocrine-embryotropins-revisited-how-do-embryos-communicate-with-each-other-in-vitro-when-cultured-in-groups
#7
Eline Wydooghe, Leen Vandaele, Sonia Heras, Petra De Sutter, Dieter Deforce, Luc Peelman, Catharina De Schauwer, Ann Van Soom
In the absence of the maternal genital tract, preimplantation embryos can develop in vitro in culture medium where all communication with the oviduct or uterus is absent. In several mammalian species, it has been observed that embryos cultured in groups thrive better than those cultured singly. Here we argue that group-cultured embryos are able to promote their own development in vitro by the production of autocrine embryotropins that putatively serve as a communication tool. The concept of effective communication implies an origin, a signalling agent, and finally a recipient that is able to decode the message...
November 26, 2015: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26559469/gene-expression-profiles-of-some-cytokines-growth-factors-receptors-and-enzymes-gm-csf-ifn%C3%AE-mmp-2-igf-ii-egf-tgf-%C3%AE-igf-iir-during-pregnancy-in-the-cat-uterus
#8
Ozgecan Korkmaz Agaoglu, Ali Reha Agaoglu, Aydin Guzeloglu, Selim Aslan, Ercan Kurar, Seyit Ali Kayis, Sabine Schäfer-Somi
Early pregnancy is one of the most critical periods of pregnancy, and many factors such as cytokines, enzymes, and members of the immune system have to cooperate in a balanced way. In the present study, the gene expression profiles of factors associated with pregnancy such as EGF, transforming growth factor beta, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interferon gamma, insulin-like growth factor 2, insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor, and matrix metalloproteinase 2 were analyzed in uterine tissues of female cats...
March 1, 2016: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26548420/protective-effects-of-bazedoxifene-paired-with-conjugated-estrogens-on-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-dysfunction
#9
Jun Ho Kim, Jin Hyup Lee, Young Jun Kim
Bazedoxifene (BZA) is a novel selective estrogen receptor modulator that exhibits estrogen agonist activity in the bone but estrogen antagonist activity in the breast and uterus. We recently demonstrated that BZA mimics estrogenic actions in reversing metabolic abnormalities while protecting the endometrium from estrogen stimulation in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. However, it is unknown whether BZA, alone or paired with estrogens, can protect pancreatic β-cell function or survival. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the preventive effects of estrogens [17β-estradiol or conjugated estrogens (CE)], BZA and their combinations against β-cell failure...
November 6, 2015: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25513278/dietary-soy-isoflavones-increased-hepatic-protein-disulfide-isomerase-content-and-suppressed-its-enzymatic-activity-in-rats
#10
Chao Wu Xiao, Kevin Donak, Olivia Ly, Carla Wood, Gerard Cooke, Ivan Curran
Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is a multifunctional protein and plays important roles in protein folding, triglyceride transfer, insulin degradation, and thyroid hormone transportation. This study examined the modulation of PDI expression by soy consumption using rat as a model. Sprague-Dawley male and female rats at 50 days (d) of age were fed diets containing either 20% casein or alcohol-washed soy protein isolate (SPI, containing 50 mg isoflavones (ISFs)/kg diet) or SPI plus ISF (250 mg/kg diet) and mated at age of 120 d...
June 2014: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25432925/insulin-like-growth-factor-1-increases-apical-fibronectin-in-blastocysts-to-increase-blastocyst-attachment-to-endometrial-epithelial-cells-in-vitro
#11
Charmaine J Green, Stuart T Fraser, Margot L Day
STUDY QUESTION: Does insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) increase adhesion competency of blastocysts to increase attachment to uterine epithelial cells in vitro? SUMMARY ANSWER: IGF1 increases apical fibronectin on blastocysts to increase attachment and invasion in an in vitro model of implantation. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Fibronectin integrin interactions are important in attachment of blastocysts to uterine epithelial cells at implantation...
February 2015: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25237893/effects-of-metformin-on-endocrine-metabolic-milieus-and-endometrial-expression-of-androgen-receptor-in-patients-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#12
Akiko Ito-Yamaguchi, Ryota Suganuma, Atsuko Kumagami, Shigeatsu Hashimoto, Hiromi Yoshida-Komiya, Keiya Fujimori
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate effects of metformin on endocrine, metabolic parameters and endometrial androgen receptor (AR) expression in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). DESIGN: Prospective observational study. METHODS: We analyzed blood samples from 10 PCOS patients, of whom endometrium was also analyzed in five patients. Before and after three months of metformin treatment, endocrine, glucose metabolic parameters and the endometrial AR expressions were assessed...
January 2015: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24993824/the-g-protein-coupled-receptor-p2y14-influences-insulin-release-and-smooth-muscle-function-in-mice
#13
Jaroslawna Meister, Diana Le Duc, Albert Ricken, Ralph Burkhardt, Joachim Thiery, Helga Pfannkuche, Tobias Polte, Johannes Grosse, Torsten Schöneberg, Angela Schulz
UDP sugars were identified as extracellular signaling molecules, assigning a new function to these compounds in addition to their well defined role in intracellular substrate metabolism and storage. Previously regarded as an orphan receptor, the G protein-coupled receptor P2Y14 (GPR105) was found to bind extracellular UDP and UDP sugars. Little is known about the physiological functions of this G protein-coupled receptor. To study its physiological role, we used a gene-deficient mouse strain expressing the bacterial LacZ reporter gene to monitor the physiological expression pattern of P2Y14...
August 22, 2014: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24985008/feeding-prepubescent-gilts-a-high-fat-diet-induces-molecular-changes-in-the-hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal-axis-and-predicts-early-timing-of-puberty
#14
Yong Zhuo, Dongsheng Zhou, Lianqiang Che, Zhengfeng Fang, Yan Lin, De Wu
OBJECTIVE: The onset of puberty in females has been occurring earlier over the past decades, presumably as a result of improved nutrition in developed countries. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for the early attainment of puberty as a result of nutrition fortification remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hormone and gene expression changes in prepubescent gilts fed a high-fat diet to investigate whether these changes could predict the early timing of puberty...
July 2014: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24939737/bazedoxifene-and-conjugated-estrogen-prevent-diet-induced-obesity-hepatic-steatosis-and-type-2-diabetes-in-mice-without-impacting-the-reproductive-tract
#15
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Jose Barrera, Ken L Chambliss, Mohamed Ahmed, Keiji Tanigaki, Bonne Thompson, Jeffrey G McDonald, Chieko Mineo, Philip W Shaul
Despite the capacity of estrogens to favorably regulate body composition and glucose homeostasis, their use to combat obesity and type 2 diabetes is not feasible, because they promote sex steroid-responsive cancers. The novel selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) bazedoxifene acetate (BZA) uniquely antagonizes both breast cancer development and estrogen-related changes in the female reproductive tract. How BZA administered with conjugated estrogen (CE) or alone impacts metabolism is unknown. The effects of BZA or CE + BZA on body composition and glucose homeostasis were determined in ovariectomized female mice fed a Western diet for 10-12 wk...
August 1, 2014: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24728609/nutrient-restriction-induces-failure-of-reproductive-function-and-molecular-changes-in-hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal-axis-in-postpubertal-gilts
#16
Dongsheng Zhou, Yong Zhuo, Lianqiang Che, Yan Lin, Zhengfeng Fang, De Wu
People on a diet to lose weight may be at risk of reproductive failure. To investigate the effects of nutrient restriction on reproductive function and the underlying mechanism, changes of reproductive traits, hormone secretions and gene expressions in hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis were examined in postpubertal gilts at anestrus induced by nutrient restriction. Gilts having experienced two estrus cycles were fed a normal (CON, 2.86 kg/d) or nutrient restricted (NR, 1 kg/d) food regimens to expect anestrus...
July 2014: Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24676904/dietary-soy-isoflavones-increased-hepatic-protein-disulfide-isomerase-content-and-suppressed-its-enzymatic-activity-in-rats
#17
Chao Wu Xiao, Kevin Donak, Olivia Ly, Carla Wood, Gerard Cooke, Ivan Curran
Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is a multifunctional protein and plays important roles in protein folding, triglyceride transfer, insulin degradation, and thyroid hormone transportation. This study examined the modulation of PDI expression by soy consumption using rat as a model. Sprague-Dawley male and female rats at 50 days (d) of age were fed diets containing either 20% casein or alcohol-washed soy protein isolate (SPI, containing 50 mg isoflavones (ISFs)/kg diet) or SPI plus ISF (250 mg/kg diet) and mated at age of 120 d...
June 2014: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24670778/igf-1-gene-expression-is-differentially-regulated-by-estrogen-receptors-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-in-mouse-endometrial-stromal-cells-and-ovarian-granulosa-cells
#18
Yuki Ogo, Shusuke Taniuchi, Fumiya Ojima, Sayo Hayashi, Itsuo Murakami, Yuka Saito, Sakae Takeuchi, Toshiyuki Kudo, Sumio Takahashi
Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is involved in regulations of reproductive functions in rats and mice. IGF-1 expression is regulated by estrogen in several reproductive organs including the uterus and ovary. Two types of estrogen receptor (ERα and ERβ) are expressed in mouse uteri and ovaries, and it is unclear whether they differently mediate IGF-1 gene transcription. To clarify the roles of ERα and ERβ, mouse endometrial stromal cells and ovarian granulosa cells were treated with ligands specific for individual estrogen receptors...
2014: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24577155/regulation-and-localization-of-transient-receptor-potential-melastatin-2-in-rat-uterus
#19
Changhwan Ahn, Hyun Yang, Eui-Ju Hong, Eui-Bae Jeung
The transient receptor potential channels are membrane-binding proteins that are nonselectively permeable for cations, such as Ca(2+) and Mg(2+), in numerous mammalian cells. The extracellular or intracellular ions play key roles in physiological functions including muscle contraction, cytokine production, insulin release, and apoptosis. Although transient receptor potential melastatin (TRPM) channels are implicated in nonreproductive tissues, the presence of TRPM2 has been reported in endometrium of uterus...
October 2014: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24531613/mdl-1-a-growth-and-tumor-suppressor-slows-aging-and-prevents-germline-hyperplasia-and-hypertrophy-in-c-elegans
#20
Michèle Riesen, Inna Feyst, Nattaphong Rattanavirotkul, Marina Ezcurra, Jennifer M A Tullet, Irene Papatheodorou, Matthias Ziehm, Catherine Au, Ann F Gilliat, Josephine Hellberg, Janet M Thornton, David Gems
In C. elegans, increased lifespan in daf-2 insulin/IGF-1 receptor mutants is accompanied by up-regulation of the MDL-1 Mad basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor. Here we describe the role of mdl-1 in C. elegans germline proliferation and aging. The deletion allele mdl-1(tm311) shortened lifespan, and did so significantly more so in long-lived daf-2 mutants implying that mdl-1(+) contributes to effects of daf-2 on lifespan. mdl-1 mutant hermaphrodites also lay increased numbers of unfertilized oocytes...
February 2014: Aging
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