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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522033/placenta-directed-gene-therapy-for-fetal-growth-restriction
#1
REVIEW
Tara Krishnan, Anna L David
Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a serious pregnancy complication affecting ∼8% of all pregnancies. There is no treatment to increase fetal growth in the uterus. Gene therapy presents a promising treatment strategy for FGR, with the use of adenoviral vectors encoding for proteins such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and insulin-like growth factor demonstrating improvements in fetal growth, placental function, and neonatal outcome in preclinical studies. Safety assessments suggest no adverse risk to the mother or fetus for VEGF maternal gene therapy; a clinical trial is in development...
May 15, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467127/markers-of-obesity-and-growth-in-preeclamptic-and-normotensive-pregnant-women
#2
S Kharb, J Bala, S Nanda
The objective of the study was to analyse leptin, IGF-1, Apo A, lipoproteins, haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in maternal sera and venous umbilical cord sera of newborn babies of 25 preeclamptics (group II), and 25 normotensive pregnant women (group I) as markers of obesity and growth in preeclamptic and normotensive pregnant women. Apo A I and II levels were estimated by competitive immunoassay using direct chemiluminiscence technology. Haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1), leptin and IGF-1 were analysed by ELISA. Maternal and cord blood levels of homocysteine, folic acid, lipid profile (namely, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, VLDL-C and HDL-C), Haem oxygenase 1 were higher in preeclamptic women as compared to normotensive pregnant women...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428227/mechanisms-in-endocrinology-the-multiple-facets-of-gh-lessons-from-lifetime-untreated-isolated-gh-deficiency-due-to-ghrh-receptor-mutation
#3
Manuel Aguiar-Oliveira, Anita Ho Souza, Carla R Oliveira, Viviane C Campos, Luiz A Oliveira-Neto, Roberto Salvatori
Twenty years ago, we described a kindred of 105 individuals with isolated GH deficiency (IGHD) in Itabaianinha County, in Brazilian northeast, due to a homozygous mutation in the GH-releasing hormone receptor gene. These subjects exhibit markedly reduced GH responsiveness to stimulatory tests, and anterior pituitary hypoplasia. Serum concentrations of IGF-I, IGF binding protein type 3, and the acid-labile subunit are markedly reduced, with a lesser reduction of IGF-II. The most striking physical findings of these IGHD individuals are the proportionate short stature, doll facies, high-pitched voice, and visceral obesity with reduced fat free mass...
April 20, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336389/metformin-ameliorates-uterine-defects-in-a-rat-model-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#4
Yuehui Zhang, Min Hu, Fanci Meng, Xiaoyan Sun, Hongfei Xu, Jiao Zhang, Peng Cui, Njomeza Morina, Xin Li, Wei Li, Xiao-Ke Wu, Mats Brännström, Ruijin Shao, Håkan Billig
Adult rats treated concomitantly with insulin and human chorionic gonadotropin exhibit endocrine, metabolic, and reproductive abnormalities that are very similar to those observed in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients. In this study, we used this rat model to assess the effects of metformin on PCOS-related uterine dysfunction. In addition to reducing androgen levels, improving insulin sensitivity, and correcting the reproductive cycle, metformin treatment induced morphological changes in the PCOS-like uterus...
April 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161306/a-randomized-clinical-trial-of-exercise-during-pregnancy%C3%A2-to%C3%A2-prevent-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-and%C3%A2-improve-pregnancy-outcome-in-overweight-and%C3%A2-obese%C3%A2-pregnant-women
#5
Chen Wang, Yumei Wei, Xiaoming Zhang, Yue Zhang, Qianqian Xu, Yiying Sun, Shiping Su, Li Zhang, Chunhong Liu, Yaru Feng, Chong Shou, Kym J Guelfi, John P Newnham, Huixia Yang
BACKGROUND: Obesity and being overweight are becoming epidemic, and indeed, the proportion of such women of reproductive age has increased in recent times. Being overweight or obese prior to pregnancy is a risk factor for gestational diabetes mellitus, and increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome for both mothers and their offspring. Furthermore, the combination of gestational diabetes mellitus with obesity/overweight status may increase the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome attributable to either factor alone...
April 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109592/short-communication-limitations-of-glucose-tolerance-tests-in-the-assessment-of-peripheral-tissue-insulin-sensitivity-during-pregnancy-and-lactation-in-dairy-heifers
#6
J De Koster, M Van Eetvelde, K Hermans, W Van den Broeck, M Hostens, G Opsomer
The aim of the present study was to point at the limitations of glucose tolerance tests (GTT) to assess peripheral tissue insulin sensitivity in dairy heifers in different physiological states (pregnancy and lactation). Intravenous GTT were performed in 5 nonpregnant, nonlactating heifers, 5 heifers at the end of pregnancy (12-7 d before calving), and 5 lactating primiparous cows (11-14 d after calving). Glucose and insulin concentrations were determined and area under the curve (AUC) and clearance rate of glucose and insulin were calculated...
March 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102491/shedding-new-light-on-female-fertility-the-role-of-vitamin-d
#7
REVIEW
Giovanna Muscogiuri, Barbara Altieri, Cristina de Angelis, Stefano Palomba, Rosario Pivonello, Annamaria Colao, Francesco Orio
In the last decades several studies suggested that vitamin D is involved in the modulation of the reproductive process in women due to the expression of VDR and 1α-hydroxylase in reproductive tissues such as ovary, uterus, placenta, pituitary and hypothalamus. Vitamin D has also a role in the regulation of sex hormone steroidogenesis. Increasing evidence suggests that vitamin D might have a regulatory role in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-associated symptoms, including ovulatory dysfunction, insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism...
January 19, 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091641/effects-of-pomegranate-extract-in-supplementing-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-therapy-on-idiopathic-central-precocious-puberty-in-chinese-girls-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-double-blind-clinical-trial
#8
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Jinsheng Liu, Jiulai Tang
Central precocious puberty (CPP) without organic abnormality is called idiopathic CPP (ICPP). The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effects of pomegranate extract in supplementing gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analog therapy on ICPP-affected girls in the Chinese population. 286 girls, diagnosed with ICPP were initially enrolled into this trial, and among them 225 eligible patients were randomized to receive a combinational GnRH analog treatment supplemented with either a placebo or pomegranate extract on a daily basis for a period of 3 months...
February 22, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777110/altered-expression-of-mirnas-in-the-uterus-from-a-letrozole-induced-rat-pcos-model
#9
Chunjin Li, Lu Chen, Yun Zhao, Shuxiong Chen, Lulu Fu, Yanwen Jiang, Shan Gao, Zhuo Liu, Fengge Wang, Xiaoling Zhu, Jiahui Rao, Jing Zhang, Xu Zhou
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) causes female subfertility with ovarian disorders and may be associated with increased rate of early-pregnancy failure. Rat PCOS models were established using letrozole to understand the uterine pathogenesis of PCOS. The differential expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) was observed in rat uterus with PCOS. After estrous cycles were disrupted, significantly abnormal ovarian morphology and hormone level were observed in rats with PCOS. A total of 148 miRNAs differentially expressed were identified in the uterus from the letrozole-induced rat model compared with the control...
January 20, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665193/interaction-of-bombesin-and-its-fragments-with-gold-nanoparticles-analyzed-using-surface-enhanced-raman-spectroscopy
#10
REVIEW
Agnieszka Tąta, Aleksandra Szkudlarek, Younkyoo Kim, Edyta Proniewicz
This work demonstrates the application of commercially available stable surface composed of gold nanograins with diameters ranging from 70 to 226nm deposited onto silicon wafer for surface-enhanced Raman scattering investigations of biologically active compounds, such as bombesin (BN) and its fragments. BN is an important neurotransmitter involved in a complex signaling pathways and biological responses; for instance, hypertensive action, contractive on uterus, colon or ileum, locomotor activity, stimulation of gastric and insulin secretion as well as growth promotion of various tumor cell lines, including: lung, prostate, stomach, colon, and breast...
February 15, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623943/tumour-biology-of-obesity-related-cancers-understanding-the-molecular-concept-for-better-diagnosis-and-treatment
#11
REVIEW
Seong Lin Teoh, Srijit Das
Obesity continues to be a major global problem. Various cancers are related to obesity and proper understanding of their aetiology, especially their molecular tumour biology is important for early diagnosis and better treatment. Genes play an important role in the development of obesity. Few genes such as leptin, leptin receptor encoded by the db (diabetes), pro-opiomelanocortin, AgRP and NPY and melanocortin-4 receptors and insulin-induced gene 2 were linked to obesity. MicroRNAs control gene expression via mRNA degradation and protein translation inhibition and influence cell differentiation, cell growth and cell death...
November 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27514375/transcriptomics-of-liver-and-muscle-in-holstein-cows-genetically-divergent-for-fertility-highlight-differences-in-nutrient-partitioning-and-inflammation-processes
#12
Bruce Moran, Sean B Cummins, Christopher J Creevey, Stephen T Butler
BACKGROUND: The transition between pregnancy and lactation is a major physiological change for dairy cows. Complex systemic and local processes involving regulation of energy balance, galactopoiesis, utilisation of body reserves, insulin resistance, resumption of oestrous cyclicity and involution of the uterus can affect animal productivity and hence farm profitability. Here we used an established Holstein dairy cow model of fertility that displayed genetic and phenotypic divergence in calving interval...
2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512005/effect-of-adiponectin-on-the-steroidogenic-acute-regulatory-protein-p450-side-chain-cleavage-enzyme-and-3%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-gene-expression-progesterone-and-androstenedione-production-by-the-porcine-uterus-during-early-pregnancy
#13
N Smolinska, K Dobrzyn, M Kiezun, K Szeszko, A Maleszka, T Kaminski
Adiponectin and its receptors are expressed in the human and porcine uterus and this endocrine system has important role in the regulation of reproductive processes. The expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD3B1) were observed in the human and porcine uterus during the oestrous cycle and pregnancy. The de novo synthesis of steroids in the uterus might be a crucial factor for effective implantation and maintenance of pregnancy. We hypothesized that adiponectin modulates the expression of key enzymes in the synthesis of the steroids: StAR, P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11A1) and HSD3B1, as well as progesterone (P4) and androstenedione (A4) secretion by the porcine uterus...
June 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27461373/molecular-characterization-of-insulin-resistance-and-glycolytic-metabolism-in-the-rat-uterus
#14
Yuehui Zhang, Xue Sun, Xiaoyan Sun, Fanci Meng, Min Hu, Xin Li, Wei Li, Xiao-Ke Wu, Mats Brännström, Ruijin Shao, Håkan Billig
Peripheral insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism are the primary features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, how insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism affect uterine function and contribute to the pathogenesis of PCOS are open questions. We treated rats with insulin alone or in combination with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and showed that peripheral insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism alter uterine morphology, cell phenotype, and cell function, especially in glandular epithelial cells...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27432359/murine-uterine-decidualization-is-a-novel-function-of-autoimmune-regulator-beyond-immune-tolerance
#15
Vasanthi Soumya, Renjini A Padmanabhan, Shiny Titus, Malini Laloraya
PROBLEM: Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy, candidiasis, and ectodermal dystrophy (APECED, APS-1) patients characterized by Aire (autoimmune regulator) mutations and Aire homozygous knockouts (Aire(-/-) ) exhibit infertility. It is not clear as to what contributes to infertility in the above. METHOD OF STUDY: This study investigates the expression of "AIRE in the uterus" and its contribution to early pregnancy of mice by using quantitative real-time PCR analysis, immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and in vivo Aire silencing experiments...
September 2016: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27385360/g-protein-coupled-receptors-as-potential-drug-candidates-in-preeclampsia-targeting-the-relaxin-insulin-like-family-peptide-receptor-1-for-treatment-and-prevention
#16
REVIEW
Kirk P Conrad
BACKGROUND: Important roles for G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been identified in the maternal physiological adaptations to pregnancy and in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. On this basis, GPCRs are potential therapeutic targets for preeclampsia. OBJECTIVES AND RATIONALE: In this review, vasopressin and apelin are initially considered in this context before the focus on the hormone relaxin and its cognate receptor, the relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1)...
September 2016: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27365367/the-role-of-relaxin-in-normal-and-abnormal-uterine-function-during-the-menstrual-cycle-and-early-pregnancy
#17
Sarah A Marshall, Sevvandi N Senadheera, Laura J Parry, Jane E Girling
The hormone relaxin is a 6-kDa peptide with high structural similarity to insulin. It is primarily produced by the corpus luteum during pregnancy but is also synthesized by other reproductive organs such as the uterus, decidua, and placenta. Relaxin binds to its receptor RXFP1, which has been localized to a wide variety of reproductive and nonreproductive tissues. The peptide's many uterotropic effects include stimulating uterine growth and vascularization, remodeling extracellular matrix components, and regulating vascular endothelial growth factor in preparation for implantation...
June 29, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27085397/prepubertal-tamoxifen-treatment-affects-development-of-heifer-reproductive-tissues-and-related-signaling-pathways
#18
A Al Naib, H L M Tucker, G Xie, D H Keisler, F F Bartol, R P Rhoads, R M Akers, M L Rhoads
Prepubertal exposure of the developing ovaries and reproductive tract (RT) to estrogen or xenoestrogens can have acute and long-term consequences that compromise the reproductive performance of cattle. This research examined effects of the selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen (TAM) on gene and protein abundance in prepubertal ovaries and RT, with a particular focus on signaling pathways that affect morphology. Tamoxifen was administered to Holstein heifer calves (n=8) daily (0.3mg/kg subcutaneously) from 28 to 120 d of age, when tissues were collected...
July 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26794276/measuring-the-biological-effect-of-presurgical-metformin-treatment-in-endometrial-cancer
#19
V N Sivalingam, S Kitson, R McVey, C Roberts, P Pemberton, K Gilmour, S Ali, A G Renehan, H C Kitchener, E J Crosbie
BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies in endometrial cancer (EC) show that metformin reduces cellular proliferation by PI3K-AKT-mTOR inhibition. We tested the hypothesis that short-term presurgical metformin reduces cellular proliferation in atypical endometrial hyperplasia (AEH) and endometrioid EC, and assessed the feasibility of using phosphorylated PI3K-AKT-mTOR proteins as tissue end points. METHODS: Women with AEH or EC received metformin 850 mg twice a day or no drug in the presurgical window between diagnosis and hysterectomy...
February 2, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26787031/effects-of-a-combination-therapy-of-sclerostin-antibody-iii-and-raloxifene-on-bone-formation-markers-in-ovariectomized-rats
#20
Hayam Ibrahim Gad Allam
OBJECTIVE: To determine the systemic effect of sclerostin monoclonal antibody (Scl-AbIII) administration on markers of bone formation and compare it with a combination of sclerostin antibody and raloxifene. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Medical College Animal House at King Khaled University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from January to November 2014. METHODOLOGY: Forty-five female rats were divided into 5 groups equally; 1 control group and 4 groups of ovariectomized (OVX) rats: control OVX rats and OVX rats treated by Scl-AbIII, raloxifene or Scl-AbIII+raloxifene one month after ovariectomy, continued for 4 weeks...
January 2016: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
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