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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777110/altered-expression-of-mirnas-in-the-uterus-from-a-letrozole-induced-rat-pcos-model
#1
Chunjin Li, Lu Chen, Yun Zhao, Shuxiong Chen, Lulu Fu, Yanwen Jiang, Shan Gao, Zhuo Liu, Fengge Wang, Xiaoling Zhu, Jiahui Rao, Jing Zhang, Xu Zhou
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) causes female subfertility with ovarian disorders and may be associated with increased rate of early-pregnancy failure. Rat PCOS models were established using letrozole to understand the uterine pathogenesis of PCOS. The differential expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) was observed in rat uterus with PCOS. After estrous cycles were disrupted, significantly abnormal ovarian morphology and hormone level were observed in rats with PCOS. A total of 148 miRNAs differentially expressed were identified in the uterus from the letrozole-induced rat model compared with the control...
October 21, 2016: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665193/interaction-of-bombesin-and-its-fragments-with-gold-nanoparticles-analyzed-using-surface-enhanced-raman-spectroscopy
#2
Agnieszka Tąta, Aleksandra Szkudlarek, Younkyoo Kim, Edyta Proniewicz
This work demonstrates the application of commercially available stable surface composed of gold nanograins with diameters ranging from 70 to 226nm deposited onto silicon wafer for surface-enhanced Raman scattering investigations of biologically active compounds, such as bombesin (BN) and its fragments. BN is an important neurotransmitter involved in a complex signaling pathways and biological responses; for instance, hypertensive action, contractive on uterus, colon or ileum, locomotor activity, stimulation of gastric and insulin secretion as well as growth promotion of various tumor cell lines, including: lung, prostate, stomach, colon, and breast...
September 20, 2016: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623943/tumour-biology-of-obesity-related-cancers-understanding-the-molecular-concept-for-better-diagnosis-and-treatment
#3
Seong Lin Teoh, Srijit Das
Obesity continues to be a major global problem. Various cancers are related to obesity and proper understanding of their aetiology, especially their molecular tumour biology is important for early diagnosis and better treatment. Genes play an important role in the development of obesity. Few genes such as leptin, leptin receptor encoded by the db (diabetes), pro-opiomelanocortin, AgRP and NPY and melanocortin-4 receptors and insulin-induced gene 2 were linked to obesity. MicroRNAs control gene expression via mRNA degradation and protein translation inhibition and influence cell differentiation, cell growth and cell death...
September 14, 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27514375/transcriptomics-of-liver-and-muscle-in-holstein-cows-genetically-divergent-for-fertility-highlight-differences-in-nutrient-partitioning-and-inflammation-processes
#4
Bruce Moran, Sean B Cummins, Christopher J Creevey, Stephen T Butler
BACKGROUND: The transition between pregnancy and lactation is a major physiological change for dairy cows. Complex systemic and local processes involving regulation of energy balance, galactopoiesis, utilisation of body reserves, insulin resistance, resumption of oestrous cyclicity and involution of the uterus can affect animal productivity and hence farm profitability. Here we used an established Holstein dairy cow model of fertility that displayed genetic and phenotypic divergence in calving interval...
2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512005/effect-of-adiponectin-on-the-steroidogenic-acute-regulatory-protein-p450-side-chain-cleavage-enzyme-and-3%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-gene-expression-progesterone-and-androstenedione-production-by-the-porcine-uterus-during-early-pregnancy
#5
N Smolinska, K Dobrzyn, M Kiezun, K Szeszko, A Maleszka, T Kaminski
Adiponectin and its receptors are expressed in the human and porcine uterus and this endocrine system has important role in the regulation of reproductive processes. The expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD3B1) were observed in the human and porcine uterus during the oestrous cycle and pregnancy. The de novo synthesis of steroids in the uterus might be a crucial factor for effective implantation and maintenance of pregnancy. We hypothesized that adiponectin modulates the expression of key enzymes in the synthesis of the steroids: StAR, P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11A1) and HSD3B1, as well as progesterone (P4) and androstenedione (A4) secretion by the porcine uterus...
June 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27461373/molecular-characterization-of-insulin-resistance-and-glycolytic-metabolism-in-the-rat-uterus
#6
Yuehui Zhang, Xue Sun, Xiaoyan Sun, Fanci Meng, Min Hu, Xin Li, Wei Li, Xiao-Ke Wu, Mats Brännström, Ruijin Shao, Håkan Billig
Peripheral insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism are the primary features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, how insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism affect uterine function and contribute to the pathogenesis of PCOS are open questions. We treated rats with insulin alone or in combination with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and showed that peripheral insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism alter uterine morphology, cell phenotype, and cell function, especially in glandular epithelial cells...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27432359/murine-uterine-decidualization-is-a-novel-function-of-autoimmune-regulator-beyond-immune-tolerance
#7
Vasanthi Soumya, Renjini A Padmanabhan, Shiny Titus, Malini Laloraya
PROBLEM: Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy, candidiasis, and ectodermal dystrophy (APECED, APS-1) patients characterized by Aire (autoimmune regulator) mutations and Aire homozygous knockouts (Aire(-/-) ) exhibit infertility. It is not clear as to what contributes to infertility in the above. METHOD OF STUDY: This study investigates the expression of "AIRE in the uterus" and its contribution to early pregnancy of mice by using quantitative real-time PCR analysis, immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and in vivo Aire silencing experiments...
September 2016: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27385360/g-protein-coupled-receptors-as-potential-drug-candidates-in-preeclampsia-targeting-the-relaxin-insulin-like-family-peptide-receptor-1-for-treatment-and-prevention
#8
REVIEW
Kirk P Conrad
BACKGROUND: Important roles for G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been identified in the maternal physiological adaptations to pregnancy and in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. On this basis, GPCRs are potential therapeutic targets for preeclampsia. OBJECTIVES AND RATIONALE: In this review, vasopressin and apelin are initially considered in this context before the focus on the hormone relaxin and its cognate receptor, the relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1)...
September 2016: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27365367/the-role-of-relaxin-in-normal-and-abnormal-uterine-function-during-the-menstrual-cycle-and-early-pregnancy
#9
Sarah A Marshall, Sevvandi N Senadheera, Laura J Parry, Jane E Girling
The hormone relaxin is a 6-kDa peptide with high structural similarity to insulin. It is primarily produced by the corpus luteum during pregnancy but is also synthesized by other reproductive organs such as the uterus, decidua, and placenta. Relaxin binds to its receptor RXFP1, which has been localized to a wide variety of reproductive and nonreproductive tissues. The peptide's many uterotropic effects include stimulating uterine growth and vascularization, remodeling extracellular matrix components, and regulating vascular endothelial growth factor in preparation for implantation...
June 29, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27085397/prepubertal-tamoxifen-treatment-affects-development-of-heifer-reproductive-tissues-and-related-signaling-pathways
#10
A Al Naib, H L M Tucker, G Xie, D H Keisler, F F Bartol, R P Rhoads, R M Akers, M L Rhoads
Prepubertal exposure of the developing ovaries and reproductive tract (RT) to estrogen or xenoestrogens can have acute and long-term consequences that compromise the reproductive performance of cattle. This research examined effects of the selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen (TAM) on gene and protein abundance in prepubertal ovaries and RT, with a particular focus on signaling pathways that affect morphology. Tamoxifen was administered to Holstein heifer calves (n=8) daily (0.3mg/kg subcutaneously) from 28 to 120 d of age, when tissues were collected...
July 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26794276/measuring-the-biological-effect-of-presurgical-metformin-treatment-in-endometrial-cancer
#11
V N Sivalingam, S Kitson, R McVey, C Roberts, P Pemberton, K Gilmour, S Ali, A G Renehan, H C Kitchener, E J Crosbie
BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies in endometrial cancer (EC) show that metformin reduces cellular proliferation by PI3K-AKT-mTOR inhibition. We tested the hypothesis that short-term presurgical metformin reduces cellular proliferation in atypical endometrial hyperplasia (AEH) and endometrioid EC, and assessed the feasibility of using phosphorylated PI3K-AKT-mTOR proteins as tissue end points. METHODS: Women with AEH or EC received metformin 850 mg twice a day or no drug in the presurgical window between diagnosis and hysterectomy...
February 2, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26787031/effects-of-a-combination-therapy-of-sclerostin-antibody-iii-and-raloxifene-on-bone-formation-markers-in-ovariectomized-rats
#12
Hayam Ibrahim Gad Allam
OBJECTIVE: To determine the systemic effect of sclerostin monoclonal antibody (Scl-AbIII) administration on markers of bone formation and compare it with a combination of sclerostin antibody and raloxifene. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Medical College Animal House at King Khaled University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from January to November 2014. METHODOLOGY: Forty-five female rats were divided into 5 groups equally; 1 control group and 4 groups of ovariectomized (OVX) rats: control OVX rats and OVX rats treated by Scl-AbIII, raloxifene or Scl-AbIII+raloxifene one month after ovariectomy, continued for 4 weeks...
January 2016: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26622758/bak-foong-pills-combined-with-metformin-in-the-treatment-of-a-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome-rat-model
#13
Wenhui Liu, Wenpei Liu, Yuling Fu, Yan Wang, Yuanzhen Zhang
The aim of the present study was to investigate the treatment effects and associated mechanism of Bak Foong pills (BFPs) combined with metformin in the treatment of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). BFPs and/or metformin were administrated to treat the PCOS rats, and the weights and morphologies of the ovary, uterus and adrenal gland were measured. The levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), serum testosterone (T), luteinizing hormone, fasting insulin (FIN) and insulin-like growth factor-1 were also measured, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated...
September 2015: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26608222/autocrine-embryotropins-revisited-how-do-embryos-communicate-with-each-other-in-vitro-when-cultured-in-groups
#14
Eline Wydooghe, Leen Vandaele, Sonia Heras, Petra De Sutter, Dieter Deforce, Luc Peelman, Catharina De Schauwer, Ann Van Soom
In the absence of the maternal genital tract, preimplantation embryos can develop in vitro in culture medium where all communication with the oviduct or uterus is absent. In several mammalian species, it has been observed that embryos cultured in groups thrive better than those cultured singly. Here we argue that group-cultured embryos are able to promote their own development in vitro by the production of autocrine embryotropins that putatively serve as a communication tool. The concept of effective communication implies an origin, a signalling agent, and finally a recipient that is able to decode the message...
November 26, 2015: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26559469/gene-expression-profiles-of-some-cytokines-growth-factors-receptors-and-enzymes-gm-csf-ifn%C3%AE-mmp-2-igf-ii-egf-tgf-%C3%AE-igf-iir-during-pregnancy-in-the-cat-uterus
#15
Ozgecan Korkmaz Agaoglu, Ali Reha Agaoglu, Aydin Guzeloglu, Selim Aslan, Ercan Kurar, Seyit Ali Kayis, Sabine Schäfer-Somi
Early pregnancy is one of the most critical periods of pregnancy, and many factors such as cytokines, enzymes, and members of the immune system have to cooperate in a balanced way. In the present study, the gene expression profiles of factors associated with pregnancy such as EGF, transforming growth factor beta, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interferon gamma, insulin-like growth factor 2, insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor, and matrix metalloproteinase 2 were analyzed in uterine tissues of female cats...
March 1, 2016: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26548420/protective-effects-of-bazedoxifene-paired-with-conjugated-estrogens-on-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-dysfunction
#16
Jun Ho Kim, Jin Hyup Lee, Young Jun Kim
Bazedoxifene (BZA) is a novel selective estrogen receptor modulator that exhibits estrogen agonist activity in the bone but estrogen antagonist activity in the breast and uterus. We recently demonstrated that BZA mimics estrogenic actions in reversing metabolic abnormalities while protecting the endometrium from estrogen stimulation in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. However, it is unknown whether BZA, alone or paired with estrogens, can protect pancreatic β-cell function or survival. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the preventive effects of estrogens [17β-estradiol or conjugated estrogens (CE)], BZA and their combinations against β-cell failure...
November 6, 2015: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26459667/phosphatidylinositide-3-kinase-inhibition-a-new-potential-target-for-the-treatment-of-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome
#17
Krushangi N Shah, Snehal S Patel
CONTEXT: Quercetin, a flavonoid, has been tried in traditional medicine for treating many disorders and reported to have inhibitory action on PI3 kinase. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the effect of quercetin on testosterone propionate induced polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) model, which shows both metabolic and endocrine features of PCOS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Female pre-pubertal Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal control, PCOS control, quercetin, and metformin treated...
2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26447211/increased-risk-for-the-development-of-preeclampsia-in-obese-pregnancies-weighing-in-on-the-mechanisms
#18
REVIEW
Frank T Spradley, Ana C Palei, Joey P Granger
Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-specific disorder typically presenting as new-onset hypertension and proteinuria. While numerous epidemiological studies have demonstrated that obesity increases the risk of PE, the mechanisms have yet to be fully elucidated. Growing evidence from animal and human studies implicate placental ischemia in the etiology of this maternal syndrome. It is thought that placental ischemia is brought about by dysfunctional cytotrophoblast migration and invasion into the uterus and subsequent lack of spiral arteriole widening and placental perfusion...
December 1, 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26417939/adam12-and-papp-a-candidate-regulators-of-trophoblast-invasion-and-first-trimester-markers-of-healthy-trophoblasts
#19
Julian K Christians, Alexander G Beristain
Proper placental development and function is crucial for a healthy pregnancy, and there has been substantial research to identify markers of placental dysfunction for the early detection of pregnancy complications. Low first-trimester levels of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 12 (ADAM12) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) have been consistently associated with the subsequent development of preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction. These molecules are both metalloproteinases secreted by the placenta that cleave insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs), although ADAM12 also has numerous other substrates...
March 3, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26305333/rac1-regulates-endometrial-secretory-function-to-control-placental-development
#20
Juanmahel Davila, Mary J Laws, Athilakshmi Kannan, Quanxi Li, Robert N Taylor, Milan K Bagchi, Indrani C Bagchi
During placenta development, a succession of complex molecular and cellular interactions between the maternal endometrium and the developing embryo ensures reproductive success. The precise mechanisms regulating this maternal-fetal crosstalk remain unknown. Our study revealed that the expression of Rac1, a member of the Rho family of GTPases, is markedly elevated in mouse decidua on days 7 and 8 of gestation. To investigate its function in the uterus, we created mice bearing a conditional deletion of the Rac1 gene in uterine stromal cells...
August 2015: PLoS Genetics
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