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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777271/characteristics-and-outcomes-of-obstetric-brachial-plexus-palsy-in-a-single-saudi-centre-king-faisal-specialists-hospital-and-research-centre-an-experience-of-ten-years
#1
Omar A Al-Mohrej, Nehal A Mahabbat, Asad F Khesheaim, Nezar B Hamdi
BACKGROUND: Obstetric brachial plexus palsy (OBPP) is considered a rare, unpredictable, and unavoidable injury of the upper limb. In this study, we presented a retrospective cohort study over a period of ten years in King Faisal Specialists Hospital and Research Centre (KFSH&RC), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, to assess the characteristics and functional outcomes of OBPP. METHODS: Between January 2005 and December 2015, we carried out 125 repairs of OBPP in KFSH&RC...
May 18, 2018: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774231/semaphorin3a-signaling-is-dispensable-for-motor-axon-reinnervation-of-the-adult-neuromuscular-junction
#2
Jennifer L Shadrach, Brian A Pierchala
The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a specialized synapse that is formed by motor axon innervation of skeletal muscle fibers. The maintenance of motor-muscle connectivity is critical for the preservation of muscle tone and generation of movement. Injury can induce a robust regenerative response in motor axons, but severe trauma or chronic denervation resulting from neurodegenerative disease typically leads to inefficient repair and poor functional recovery. The axon guidance molecule Semaphorin3A (Sema3A) has been implicated as a negative regulator of motor innervation...
May 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772248/scaffolds-for-peripheral-nerve-repair-and-reconstruction
#3
REVIEW
Sheng Yi, Lai Xu, Xiaosong Gu
Trauma-associated peripheral nerve defect is a widespread clinical problem. Autologous nerve grafting, the current gold standard technique for the treatment of peripheral nerve injury, has many internal disadvantages. Emerging studies showed that tissue engineered nerve graft is an effective substitute to autologous nerves. Tissue engineered nerve graft is generally composed of neural scaffolds and incorporating cells and molecules. A variety of biomaterials have been used to construct neural scaffolds, the main component of tissue engineered nerve graft...
May 14, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761344/beyond-the-magic-bullet-current-progress-of-therapeutic-vaccination-in-multiple-sclerosis
#4
Barbara Willekens, Nathalie Cools
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic immune-mediated disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration and impaired repair mechanisms that lead to neurological disability. The crux of MS is the patient's own immune cells attacking self-antigens in the CNS, namely the myelin sheath that protects nerve cells of the brain and spinal cord. Restoring antigen-specific tolerance via therapeutic vaccination is an innovative and exciting approach in MS therapy. Indeed, leveraging the body's attempt to prevent autoimmunity, i...
May 14, 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754627/minimally-invasive-approaches-to-inguinal-hernias
#5
REVIEW
Charlotte M Horne, Ajita S Prabhu
Both the transabdominal preperitoneal approach and the total extraperitoneal approach to inguinal hernias provide an effective means of repairing inguinal hernias. The robotic platform can be used and may help to decrease immediate postoperative pain; however, as this is a fairly new technique, more research will help further determine long-term outcomes. In all methods of fixation, we ensure adequate fixation medially with tacks placed on the Cooper ligament. Awareness of the nerves and vessels helps to guide dissection as well as prevent inadvertent injury during mesh fixation...
June 2018: Surgical Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753817/arch-augmentation-via-median-sternotomy-for-coarctation-of-aorta-with-proximal-arch-hypoplasia
#6
W Hampton Gray, Winfield J Wells, Vaughn A Starnes, S Ram Kumar
BACKGROUND: Coarctation of the aorta can be associated with hypoplasia of the proximal transverse aortic arch. One approach to manage this condition is via left thoracotomy and extended end-to-end anastomosis with the expectation that the proximal arch will grow over time. Our preferred approach is to augment the aorta via midline sternotomy. We hypothesized that this approach is safe, durable and allows reliable growth of the aorta. METHODS: We identified the records of patients with biventricular anatomy who had coarctation of the aorta, hypoplasia of the proximal transverse arch, and no other cardiac lesion that would mandate cardiopulmonary bypass use and midline sternotomy...
May 10, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751848/differentiation-of-adipose-derived-stem-cells-into-schwann-cell-like-cells-through-intermittent-induction-potential-advantage-of-cellular-transient-memory-function
#7
Xun Sun, Yun Zhu, He-Yong Yin, Zhi-Yuan Guo, Feng Xu, Bo Xiao, Wen-Li Jiang, Wei-Min Guo, Hao-Ye Meng, Shi-Bi Lu, Yu Wang, Jiang Peng
BACKGROUND: Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) is a worldwide issue associated with severe social and economic burden. Autologous nerve grafting, the gold standard treatment for peripheral nerve defects, still has a number of technical limitations. Tissue engineering technology is a novel therapeutic strategy, and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are promising seed cells for nerve tissue engineering. However, the efficiency of traditional methods for inducing the differentiation of MSCs to Schwann cell-like cells (SCLCs) remains unsatisfactory...
May 11, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747821/gangliosides-in-axon-stability-and-regeneration
#8
Pablo H H Lopez, Bárbara Beatriz Báez
Gangliosides are a family of sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids highly expressed in the nervous system of vertebrates. Over the last 25years, research has unmasked several of their neurobiological functions but the role of gangliosides in the nervous system remains not fully elucidated. Genetic disruption of genes for key enzymes involved in ganglioside biosynthesis led to the discovery of their diverse functions and highlighted the exquisite structural specificity required in this processes. In the nervous system, gangliosides regulate axonal caliber and organize ion channels at the nodes of Ranvier, a critical step to ensure fast conduction velocity of myelinated fibers...
2018: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747249/-the-surgical-management-of-nasal-skull-base-schwannoma-under-endonasal-endoscope-a-retrospective-review-of-52-cases
#9
L Yang, W D Zhao, Q Liu, H K Zhang, D H Wang
Objective: To discuss the surgical technique and outcome of nasal skull base schwannoma treated under endonasal endoscope. Methods: Fifty-two patients with nasal skull base nonvestibular schwannoma were treated under endonasal endoscope from May 2006 to June 2017 in Shanghai E&ENT Hospital. Of the patients, there were 21 men and 31 women. The age of the patients ranged from 33 to 71 years.Schwannoma mainly came from trigeminal nerve.Clinical symptoms included facial numbness, facial pain, nasal obstruction, headache, hypopsia, diplopia and tinnitus...
April 7, 2018: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744050/iatrogenic-nerve-lesion-following-laparoscopic-surgery-a-case-report
#10
Michele Vecchio, Andrea Santamato, Fortunato Geneovese, Giulia Malaguarnera, Vito Emanuele Catania, Saverio Latteri
Background: Peripheral neuropathy after surgical treatment is an under recognized potential untoward event. Pelvic surgery may be associated with nerve lesions by essentially three main mechanisms: transection, entrapment and pressure-stretching; the latter is the modality most frequently linked to patient's positioning on the operating room table. Presentation of the case: A 25 years old woman, after undergoing a laparoscopic gynaecologic procedure lasted >3 hours, on postoperative day one presented with numbness over her lateral right leg and dorsum of the foot, right foot drop and gait instability due to compression-stretching of the right superficial peroneal nerve...
April 2018: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742690/zenker-diverticulum-experience-in-surgical-treatment-of-large-diverticula
#11
Renata Tabola, Andrzej Lewandowski, Roberto Cirocchi, Katarzyna Augoff, Urszula Kozminska, Bartłomiej Strzelec, Krzysztof Grabowski
The purpose of this retrospective study is to show that transcervical diverticulectomy (TD) in treatment of Zenker diverticulum (ZD) can still be a first choice procedure in selected patients and in experienced hands its safety might be compared to the minimally invasive endoscopic diverticulostomy.The study cohort consisted of 44 patients (18 male, 26 female) operated for (ZD). All the patients underwent open diverticulectomy. The decision to choose open surgical repair depended on surgical risk, age of the patient, size of the diverticular septum (the distance between the top of the diverticulum and its bottom on barium study), and patient's preference...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740965/comparative-evaluation-of-chitosan-nerve-guides-with-regular-or-increased-bendability-for-acute-and-delayed-peripheral-nerve-repair-a-comprehensive-comparison-with-autologous-nerve-grafts-and-muscle-in-vein-grafts
#12
Maria Stößel, Vivien M Wildhagen, Olaf Helmecke, Jennifer Metzen, Charlotte B Pfund, Thomas Freier, Kirsten Haastert-Talini
Reconstruction of joint-crossing digital nerves requires the application of nerve guides with a much higher flexibility than used for peripheral nerve repair along larger bones. Nevertheless, collapse-resistance should be preserved to avoid secondary damage to the regrowing nerve tissue. In recent years, we presented chitosan nerve guides (CNGs) to be highly supportive for the regeneration of critical gap length peripheral nerve defects in the rat. Now, we evidently increased the bendability of regular CNGs (regCNGs) by developing a wavy wall structure, i...
May 8, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738329/transthoracic-arteriovenous-graft-repair-with-the-pectoralis-pecs-ii-nerve-block-for-primary-intraoperative-anesthesia-and-postoperative-analgesia-a-case-report
#13
Gabriel Farkas, Garret Weber, Jonathon Miller, Jeff Xu
The PECS II nerve block is a relatively new regional anesthetic technique that targets the medial and lateral pectoral nerves, as well as the lateral cutaneous branches of the intercostal nerves. It has been described for surgical cases involving the breast, as an adjunct or alternative to neuraxial or paravertebral techniques. This case report describes the first successful use of the PECS II nerve block placed using ultrasound guidance as the primary anesthetic and postoperative analgesic in a non-breast-related chest wall surgery...
May 7, 2018: A&A practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737234/biofabricated-structures-reconstruct-functional-urinary-bladders-in-radiation-injured-rat-bladders
#14
Tetsuya Imamura, Mitsuru Shimamura, Teruyuki Ogawa, Tomonori Minagawa, Takashi Nagai, Sudha Silwal Gautam, Osamu Ishizuka
The ability to repair damaged urinary bladders through the application of bone marrow-derived cells is in the earliest stages of development. We investigated the application of bone marrow-derived cells to repair radiation-injured bladders. We used a three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting robot system to biofabricate bone marrow-derived cell structures. We then determined if the biofabricated structures could restore the tissues and functions of radiation-injured bladders. The bladders of female 10-week-old Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were irradiated with 2-Gy once a week for 5 weeks...
May 8, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736923/reconstruction-of-complex-tissue-defect-of-forearm-with-a-chimeric-flap-composed-of-a-sural-neurocutaneous-flap-and-a-vascularized-fibular-graft-a-case-report
#15
Chunyang Wang, Jia Xu, Gen Wen, Yimin Chai
One-stage reconstruction of composite bone and soft-tissue defects in the forearm remains a tough challenge. Here, we present a case of reconstruction of complex tissue defect at forearm with a chimeric flap consisting of a sural neurocutaneous flap and a fibular graft. A 61-year-old man suffered from a machine crush injury in his left forearm, resulting in a complex tissue defect including extensive dorsomedial soft-tissue, digit extensor muscles of 2-4 fingers, the muscle flexor carpi ulnaris, the ulna bone with 5...
May 7, 2018: Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735332/-the-fascio-cutaneous-fibular-island-flap
#16
A-C Masquelet, J Gaillard, A Cambon-Binder, R Mauprivez
The perforators of the fibular artery provide a well vascularised supra fascial network which allows to raise a proximally or a distally based island fascio cutaneous flap with an adipo-fascial pedicle. We present a short series of five cases of this flap for coverage of soft tissue defects involving the region of the knee, the distal third of the leg and the lateral aspect of the heel. All flaps healed entirely without venous congestion. The advantages of the fascio cutaneous fibular island flap are the supine operative position, the preservation of the sural nerve and the lesser saphenous vein and a pivot point which can be located at the middle third of the leg...
May 4, 2018: Annales de Chirurgie Plastique et Esthétique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734894/-in-situ-vascular-nerve-graft-for-restoration-of-intrinsic-hand-function-an-anatomical-study
#17
Kamran Mozaffarian, Hamid Reza Zemoodeh, Mohammad Zarenezhad, Mohammad Owji
BACKGROUND: In combined high median and ulnar nerve injury, transfer of the posterior interosseous nerve branches to the motor branch of the ulnar nerve (MUN) is previously described in order to restore intrinsic hand function. In this operation a segment of sural nerve graft is required to close the gap between the donor and recipient nerves. However the thenar muscles are not innervated by this nerve transfer. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the superficial radial nerve (SRN) can be used as an "in situ vascular nerve graft" to connect the donor nerves to the MUN and the motor branch of median nerve (MMN) at the same time in order to address all denervated intrinsic and thenar muscles...
June 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery Asian-Pacific Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733569/directing-ipsc-derived-neural-stem-cell-fate-with-3d-biomimetic-hydrogel-for-spinal-cord-injury-repair
#18
Lei Fan, Can Liu, Xiuxing Chen, Yan Zou, Zhengnan Zhou, Chengkai Lin, Guoxin Tan, Lei Zhou, Chengyun Ning, Qiyou Wang
Current treatment approaches for spinal cord injuries (SCIs) are mainly based on cellular transplantation. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) without supply constraints and ethical concerns have emerged as a viable treatment option for repairing neurological disorders. However, the primarily limitations in the neuroregeneration field are uncontrolled cell differentiation, and low cell viability caused by the ischemic environment. The mechanical property of three-dimensional (3D) hydrogel can be easily controlled and shared similar characteristics with nerve tissue, thus promoting cell survival and controlled cell differentiation...
May 7, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732992/current-status-of-stem-cell-therapies-in-tissue-repair-and-regeneration
#19
Tapan Kumar Giri, Amit Alexander, Mukta Agrawal, Swarnalata Saraf, Shailendra Saraf, Ajazuddin
Tissue engineering is a multi-disciplinary field such as material science, life science, and bioengineering that are necessary to make artificial tissue or rejuvenate damaged tissue. Numerous tissue repair techniques and substitute now exist even though it has several shortcomings; these shortcomings give a good reason for the continuous research for more acceptable tissue-engineered substitutes. The search for and use of a suitable stem cell in tissue engineering is a promising concept. Stem cells have a distinctive capability to differentiate and self-renew that make more suitable for cell-based therapies in tissue repair and regeneration...
May 1, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730097/ultrasound-diagnosis-of-postoperative-complications-of-nerve-repair
#20
Caterina Fantoni, Carmen Erra, Eduardo Marcos Fernandez Marquez, Andrea Ortensi, Andrea Faiola, Daniele Coraci, Giulia Piccinini, Luca Padua
BACKGROUND: Peripheral nerve injuries often undergo surgical repair, but poor postoperative functional recovery is frequently observed. CASE DESCRIPTION: We describe four cases of traumatic nerve lesions in whom postoperative recovery was prevented by complications such as detachment of nerve sutures or neuroma growth. To the best of our knowledge no similar cases have been reported in literature so far. It is important an early diagnosis of such condition because it prevents recovery and delays re-intervention, which should be performed before complete muscle denervation and atrophy...
May 3, 2018: World Neurosurgery
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