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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919813/a-prospective-double-blinded-randomized-comparison-of-ultrasound-guided-femoral-nerve-block-with-lateral-femoral-cutaneous-nerve-block-versus-standard-anesthetic-management-for-pain-control-during-and-after-traumatic-femur-fracture-repair-in-the-pediatric-population
#1
Nicole M Elsey, Joseph D Tobias, Kevin E Klingele, Ralph J Beltran, Tarun Bhalla, David Martin, Giorgio Veneziano, Julie Rice, Dmitry Tumin
BACKGROUND: Traumatic injury of the femur resulting in femoral fracture may result in significant postoperative pain. As with other causes of acute pain, regional anesthesia may offer a benefit over conventional therapy with intravenous opioids. This study prospectively assesses the effects of femoral nerve blockade with a lateral femoral cutaneous nerve block (FN-LFCN) on intraoperative anesthetic requirements, postoperative pain scores, and opioid requirements. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventeen pediatric patients (age 2-18 years) undergoing surgical repair of a traumatic femur fracture fulfilled the study criteria and were randomly assigned to general anesthesia with either an FN-LFCN block (n = 10) or intravenous opioids (n = 7)...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918266/nanomedicine-for-safe-healing-of-bone-trauma-opportunities-and-challenges
#2
REVIEW
Shahed Behzadi, Gaurav A Luther, Mitchel B Harris, Omid C Farokhzad, Morteza Mahmoudi
Historically, high-energy extremity injuries resulting in significant soft-tissue trauma and bone loss were often deemed unsalvageable and treated with primary amputation. With improved soft-tissue coverage and nerve repair techniques, these injuries now present new challenges in limb-salvage surgery. High-energy extremity trauma is pre-disposed to delayed or unpredictable bony healing and high rates of infection, depending on the integrity of the soft-tissue envelope. Furthermore, orthopedic trauma surgeons are often faced with the challenge of stabilizing and repairing large bony defects while promoting an optimal environment to prevent infection and aid bony healing...
September 4, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917662/successful-optic-nerve-regeneration-in-the-senescent-zebrafish-despite-age-related-decline-of-cell-intrinsic-and-extrinsic-response-processes
#3
Jessie Van Houcke, Ilse Bollaerts, Emiel Geeraerts, Benjamin Davis, An Beckers, Inge Van Hove, Kim Lemmens, Lies De Groef, Lieve Moons
Dysfunction of the central nervous system (CNS) in neurodegenerative diseases or after brain lesions seriously affects life quality of a growing number of elderly, since the adult CNS lacks the capacity to replace or repair damaged neurons. Despite intensive research efforts, full functional recovery after CNS disease and/or injury remains challenging, especially in an aging environment. As such, there is a rising need for an aging model in which the impact of aging on successful regeneration can be studied...
August 24, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914740/the-role-of-precisely-matching-fascicles-in-the-quick-recovery-of-nerve-function-in-long-peripheral-nerve-defects
#4
Liwei Yan, Zhi Yao, Tao Lin, Qingtang Zhu, Jian Qi, Liqiang Gu, Jintao Fang, Xiang Zhou, Xiaolin Liu
Peripheral nerve injury therapy in the clinic remains less than satisfactory. The gold standard of treatment for long peripheral nerve defects is autologous nerve grafts; however, numerous clinical complications are associated with this treatment. As tissue engineering has developed, tissue-engineered nerve grafts (TENGs) have shown potential applications as alternatives to autologous nerve grafts. To verify the important role of the biomimetic pathway of fascicle design in TENGs, we designed an animal model to study the role of the precise matching of fascicles in the effectiveness of nerve function recovery...
October 18, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914336/patterns-of-cutaneous-nerve-fibre-loss-and-regeneration-in-type-2-diabetes-with-painful-and-painless-polyneuropathy
#5
Gidon J Bönhof, Alexander Strom, Sonja Püttgen, Bernd Ringel, Jutta Brüggemann, Kálmán Bódis, Karsten Müssig, Julia Szendroedi, Michael Roden, Dan Ziegler
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The determinants and mechanisms of the development of diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy as a painful (DSPN+p) or painless (DSPN-p) entity remain unclear. We examined the degree of cutaneous nerve fibre loss and regeneration in individuals with type 2 diabetes with DSPN+p or DSPN-p compared with individuals with recent-onset type 2 diabetes and corresponding healthy volunteers. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, skin biopsies taken from the distal lateral calf were obtained from individuals with recent-onset type 2 diabetes (n = 32) from the German Diabetes Study, with DSPN+p (n = 34) and DSPN-p (n = 32) from the PROPANE study, and volunteers with normal glucose tolerance (n = 50)...
September 15, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904214/after-nerve-injury-lineage-tracing-shows-that-myelin-and-remak-schwann-cells-elongate-extensively-and-branch-to-form-repair-schwann-cells-which-shorten-radically-on-remyelination
#6
Jose A Gomez-Sanchez, Kjara S Pilch, Milou van der Lans, Shaline V Fazal, Cristina Benito, Laura J Wagstaff, Rhona Mirsky, Kristjan R Jessen
There is consensus that, distal to peripheral nerve injury, myelin and Remak cells reorganize to form cellular columns, Bungner's bands, which are indispensable for regeneration. However, knowledge of the structure of these regeneration tracks has not advanced for decades and the structure of the cells that form them, denervated or repair Schwann cells, remains obscure. Furthermore, the origin of these cells from myelin and Remak cells and their ability to give rise to myelin cells after regeneration has not been demonstrated directly, although these conversions are believed to be central to nerve repair...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903050/changes-in-the-coding-and-non-coding-transcriptome-and-dna-methylome-that-define-the-schwann-cell-repair-phenotype-after-nerve-injury
#7
Peter J Arthur-Farraj, Claire C Morgan, Martyna Adamowicz, Jose A Gomez-Sanchez, Shaline V Fazal, Anthony Beucher, Bonnie Razzaghi, Rhona Mirsky, Kristjan R Jessen, Timothy J Aitman
Repair Schwann cells play a critical role in orchestrating nerve repair after injury, but the cellular and molecular processes that generate them are poorly understood. Here, we perform a combined whole-genome, coding and non-coding RNA and CpG methylation study following nerve injury. We show that genes involved in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition are enriched in repair cells, and we identify several long non-coding RNAs in Schwann cells. We demonstrate that the AP-1 transcription factor C-JUN regulates the expression of certain micro RNAs in repair Schwann cells, in particular miR-21 and miR-34...
September 12, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902937/inside-out-and-standard-vein-grafts-associated-with-platelet-rich-plasma-prp-in-sciatic-nerve-repair-a-histomorphometric-study
#8
José Sidney Roque, Karina Torres Pomini, Rogério Leone Buchaim, Daniela Vieira Buchaim, Jesus Carlos Andreo, Domingos Donizeti Roque, Antonio de Castro Rodrigues, Geraldo Marco Rosa, Luis Henrique Rapucci Moraes, Fausto Viterbo
Purpose: To evaluated the tubulization technique with standard and inside-out vein, filled or not with platelet-rich plasma (PRP), in sciatic nerve repair. Methods: Seventy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: IOVNF (Inside-Out Vein with No Filling); IOVPRP (Inside-Out Vein filled with PRP); SVNF (Standard Vein with No Filling); SVPRP (Standard Vein filled with PRP); Sham (Control). The left external jugular vein was used as graft in a 10 mm nervous gap...
August 2017: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901688/poly-glycerol-sebacate-combined-with-chondroitinase-abc-promotes-spinal-cord-repair-in-rats
#9
Qi Pan, Yan Guo, Fanyong Kong
This study was to investigate the feasibility of PGS combined with ChABC for repairing the transection of spinal cords (TSC) in rats. A thoracic 10 (T10) TSC model of rats was employed. The effects of PGS with ChABC on the morphology and histological structure of the spinal cords, Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan (BBB) scores, and the expression of GAP-43 and NF-200 were comparatively studied. The BBB scores indicated that all rats with TSC were paralyzed immediately after surgery and then recovered hind limb movement gradually, but did not fully recover until the end of week 12...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894753/evaluation-of-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-modified-collagen-membrane-and-concerns-on-schwann-cells
#10
Chenyu Chu, Jia Deng, Cong Cao, Yi Man, Yili Qu
Collagen is an essential component of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and is a suitable material for nerve repair during tissue remodeling for fracture repair. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), an extract of green tea, shows various biological activities that are beneficial to nerve repair. Here, we developed modified collagen containing different concentrations of EGCG (0.0064%, 0.064%, and 0.64%, resp.) to induce Schwann cell proliferation and differentiation. Cell Counting Kit-8 test, live/dead assay, and SEM showed that collagen cross-linked by EGCG induced Schwann cell proliferation...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891122/nerve-speci%C3%AF-c-xenogeneic-extracellular-matrix-hydrogel-promotes-recovery-following-peripheral-nerve-injury
#11
Travis A Prest, Eric Yeager, Samuel T LoPresti, Emilija Zygelyte, Matthew J Martin, Longying Dong, Alexis Gibson, Oluyinka O Olutoye, Bryan N Brown, Jonathan Cheetham
Peripheral nerve possesses the inherent ability to regrow and recover following injury. However, nerve regeneration is often slow and incomplete due to limitations associated with the local microenvironment during the repair process. Manipulation of the local microenvironment at the site of nerve repair, therefore, represents a significant opportunity for improvement in downstream outcomes. Macrophages and Schwann cells play a key role in the orchestration of early events after peripheral nerve injury. We describe the production, characterization, and use of an injectable, peripheral nerve-specific extracellular matrix-based hydrogel (PNSECM) for promoting modulation of the local macrophage and Schwann cell responses at the site of nerve repair in a rodent model of sciatic nerve injury...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890869/multifunctional-biomimetic-spinal-cord-new-approach-to-repair-spinal-cord-injuries
#12
REVIEW
Yang Liu, Qian Li, Bin Zhang, De-Xiang Ban, Shi-Qing Feng
The incidence of spinal cord injury (SCI) has been gradually increasing, and the treatment has troubled the medical field all the time. Primary and secondary injuries ultimately lead to nerve impulse conduction block. Microglia and astrocytes excessively accumulate and proliferate to form the glial scar. At present, to reduce the effect of glial scar on nerve regeneration is a hot spot in the research on the treatment of SCI. According to the preliminary experiments, we would like to provide a new bionic spinal cord to reduce the negative effect of glial scar on nerve regeneration...
August 20, 2017: World Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890164/directed-differentiation-of-human-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-to-fate-committed-schwann-cells
#13
Sa Cai, Yat-Ping Tsui, Kin-Wai Tam, Graham Ka-Hon Shea, Richard Shek-Kwan Chang, Qiang Ao, Daisy Kwok-Yan Shum, Ying-Shing Chan
Our ultimate goal of in vitro derivation of Schwann cells (SCs) from adult bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) is such that they may be used autologously to assist post-traumatic nerve regeneration. Existing protocols for derivation of SC-like cells from BMSCs fall short in the stability of the acquired phenotype and the functional capacity to myelinate axons. Our experiments indicated that neuro-ectodermal progenitor cells among the human hBMSCs could be selectively expanded and then induced to differentiate into SC-like cells...
August 29, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886665/development-of-carpal-tunnel-syndrome-after-repair-of-the-median-nerve-in-the-distal-forearm
#14
Andrzej Żyluk, Piotr Puchalski, Zbigniew Szlosser
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery, European Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886515/development-and-characterization-of-cores-shell-poly-lactide-co-glycolide-chitosan-microparticles-for-sustained-release-of-gdnf
#15
Wen Zeng, Zhongyang Liu, Yuqian Li, Shu Zhu, Jie Ma, Weixin Li, Guodong Gao
The microencapsulation of bioactive neurotrophic factors in biodegradable poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres has been a promising tool in the treatment of various nervous system disorders. However, challenges still exist; the PLGA burst drug release and acidic degradation products often limit clinical application. In this study, cores-shell PLGA-chitosan microparticles (MPs) were fabricated with a single shell of chitosan and multi-cores of PLGA using a re-emulsification method. The glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) was encapsulated at the PLGA cores of the cores-shell MPs...
August 30, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885383/application-of-a-modified-pedicled-adipofascial-lateral-arm-flap-in-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-radial-nerve-injuries
#16
Steven M Koehler, Andrew P Matson, Suhail K Mithani
The fasciocutaneous lateral arm flap is a workhorse flap in upper extremity reconstruction. However, its adipofascial variant is not widely used. The technique can be used in various clinical scenarios. The adipofascial flap can be transposed to circumferentially wrap the radial nerve with a pliable, vascularized fat and fascial envelope, mimicking the natural fatty environment of peripheral nerves. This technique has the advantage of providing a scar tissue barrier, a barrier to hardware irritation and a milieu for vascular regeneration of the nerve...
September 6, 2017: Techniques in Hand & Upper Extremity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885239/opioid-use-in-children-and-adolescents-after-anterior-cruciate-ligament-repair
#17
Nicole Taylor, Shannon Frick, Samantha Killilea, Teri Dugan-Frost, Jean Solodiuk
Opioid overdose is a leading cause of death from unintentional injury in the United States. When more opioids are prescribed than needed, leftover opioids may be misused if not properly disposed. The purpose of this study is to describe the opioid use of subjects (aged 13-21 years) after an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) repair. After obtaining IRB approval, we obtained consent from 100 subjects (over an 8-month period) undergoing ACL reconstructions performed by five sports medicine surgeons. The mean age of enrolled subjects was 16 years, most were female (60%) and white (72%)...
September 1, 2017: Journal for Healthcare Quality: Official Publication of the National Association for Healthcare Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884592/peripheral-nerve-intersectional-repair-by-bi-directional-induction-and-systematic-remodelling-biodegradable-conduit-tubulization-from-basic-research-to-clinical-application
#18
Zhang Peixun, Han Na, Yuhui Kou, Yin Xiaofeng, Baoguo Jiang
In terms of the clinical effect of peripheral nerve injury repair, the biological degradable conduit 2 mm small gap tubulization is far better than the traditional epineurial or perineurium neurorrhaphy. The assumption of the bi-directional induction between the central system and the terminal effector during peripheral nerve regeneration is purposed and proved in clinical by our group. The surgical approach of transferring a portion of or the whole contralateral C7 nerve to repair a part of or the whole ipsilateral brachial plexus injury is clinically promoted, in which the most important idea and practice is to use the cone conduit designed by the group to repair thick nerves with fine nerves...
September 8, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879697/exogenous-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-at-a-50-ng-ml-concentration-has-a-significant-protective-effect-on-bilirubin-induced-cerebral-cortex-neuronal-injury
#19
Jianhua Yuan, Ying Zhang, Xiaolin Wang, Hongbiao Ma
BACKGROUND: Bilirubin encephalopathy is a common disabling disease in neonates. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in the repair and regeneration of nerves following injury, as well as the maintenance of neuronal growth and differentiation. This study aimed to investigate the effect of exogenous BDNF on the apoptosis and survival of in vitro cultured neurons injured by bilirubin as well as determine the optimal BDNF concentration. METHODS: Rat cerebral cortex neurons cultured for 8 days were randomly divided into the control, bilirubin, and BDNF groups...
September 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875115/advantages-and-complications-of-fisch-partial-mastoidotympanectomy-for-tumors-of-the-retromandibular-fossa-and-poststyloid-space
#20
Dominic J Catalano, Michael B Gluth
Objective  This study aims to characterize a single surgeon's experience with resection of tumors of the retromandibular fossa and poststyloid space utilizing the Fisch partial mastoidotympanectomy (FPMT) technique of partial temporal bone resection. Design  Retrospective review. Setting  Academic medical center. Participants  Seven patients who underwent tumor resection with FPMT. Main Outcome Measures  Complications. Results  Six males and one female underwent FPMT, with ages ranging from 44 to 79 years...
October 2017: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part B, Skull Base
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