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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332196/bioelectronic-modulation-of-carotid-sinus-nerve-activity-in-the-rat-a-potential-therapeutic-approach-for-type-2-diabetes
#1
Joana F Sacramento, Daniel J Chew, Bernardete F Melo, Matteo Donegá, Wesley Dopson, Maria P Guarino, Alison Robinson, Jesus Prieto-Lloret, Sonal Patel, Bradley J Holinski, Nishan Ramnarain, Victor Pikov, Kristoffer Famm, Silvia V Conde
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: A new class of treatments termed bioelectronic medicines are now emerging that aim to target individual nerve fibres or specific brain circuits in pathological conditions to repair lost function and reinstate a healthy balance. Carotid sinus nerve (CSN) denervation has been shown to improve glucose homeostasis in insulin-resistant and glucose-intolerant rats; however, these positive effects from surgery appear to diminish over time and are heavily caveated by the severe adverse effects associated with permanent loss of chemosensory function...
January 14, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330835/international-guidelines-for-groin-hernia-management
#2
(no author information available yet)
INTRODUCTION: Worldwide, more than 20 million patients undergo groin hernia repair annually. The many different approaches, treatment indications and a significant array of techniques for groin hernia repair warrant guidelines to standardize care, minimize complications, and improve results. The main goal of these guidelines is to improve patient outcomes, specifically to decrease recurrence rates and reduce chronic pain, the most frequent problems following groin hernia repair. They have been endorsed by all five continental hernia societies, the International Endo Hernia Society and the European Association for Endoscopic Surgery...
January 12, 2018: Hernia: the Journal of Hernias and Abdominal Wall Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330413/nerve-wrap-after-end-to-end-and-tension-free-neurorrhaphy-attenuates-neuropathic-pain-a-prospective-study-based-on-cohorts-of-digit-replantation
#3
Xiaozhong Zhu, Haifeng Wei, Hongyi Zhu
The repair of injured peripheral nerve is still challenging for surgeons. The end-to-end and tension-free neurorrhaphy is the current gold standard for reconstruction after complete nerve transection without significant defect. The main objective of this study neurorrhaphy in digit replantation affects the sensory recovery and neuropathic pain in replanted digit. Total 101 patients who received replantation of single completely amputated digit were included for analysis in this study. In group I (n = 49), the digital nerves were repaired with end-to-end and tension-free neurorrhaphy and then wrapped into a tendon-derived collagen nerve conduit...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327452/regenerative-effects-of-human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-neural-crest-cells-for-treatment-of-peripheral-nerve-injury
#4
Iwan Jones, Liudmila N Novikova, Lev N Novikov, Monika Renardy, Andreas Ullrich, Mikael Wiberg, Leif Carlsson, Paul J Kingham
Surgical intervention is the current gold standard treatment following peripheral nerve injury. However, this approach has limitations and full recovery of both motor and sensory modalities often remains incomplete. The development of artificial nerve grafts that either complement or replace current surgical procedures is therefore of paramount importance. An essential component of artificial grafts are biodegradable conduits and transplanted cells that provide trophic support during the regenerative process...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323053/roles-of-neural-stem-cells-in-the-repair-of-peripheral-nerve-injury
#5
REVIEW
Chong Wang, Chang-Feng Lu, Jiang Peng, Cheng-Dong Hu, Yu Wang
Currently, researchers are using neural stem cell transplantation to promote regeneration after peripheral nerve injury, as neural stem cells play an important role in peripheral nerve injury repair. This article reviews recent research progress of the role of neural stem cells in the repair of peripheral nerve injury. Neural stem cells can not only differentiate into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, but can also differentiate into Schwann-like cells, which promote neurite outgrowth around the injury...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323049/autologous-transplantation-with-fewer-fibers-repairs-large-peripheral-nerve-defects
#6
Jiu-Xu Deng, Dian-Yin Zhang, Ming Li, Jian Weng, Yu-Hui Kou, Pei-Xun Zhang, Na Han, Bo Chen, Xiao-Feng Yin, Bao-Guo Jiang
Peripheral nerve injury is a serious disease and its repair is challenging. A cable-style autologous graft is the gold standard for repairing long peripheral nerve defects; however, ensuring that the minimum number of transplanted nerve attains maximum therapeutic effect remains poorly understood. In this study, a rat model of common peroneal nerve defect was established by resecting a 10-mm long right common peroneal nerve. Rats receiving transplantation of the common peroneal nerve in situ were designated as the in situ graft group...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323045/does-vitamin-c-have-the-ability-to-augment-the-therapeutic-effect-of-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-spinal-cord-injury
#7
Nesrine Salem, Mohamed Y Salem, Mohammed M Elmaghrabi, Moataz A Elawady, Mona A Elawady, Dina Sabry, Ashraf Shamaa, Abdel-Haleem H Elkasapy, Noha Ibrhim, Azza Elamir
Methylprednisolone (MP) is currently the only drug confirmed to exhibit a neuroprotective effect on acute spinal cord injury (SCI). Vitamin C (VC) is a natural water-soluble antioxidant that exerts neuroprotective effects through eliminating free radical damage to nerve cells. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs), as multipotent stem cells, are promising candidates in SCI repair. To evaluate the therapeutic effects of MP, VC and BMMSCs on traumatic SCI, 80 adult male rats were randomly divided into seven groups: control, SCI (SCI induction by weight-drop method), MP (SCI induction, followed by administration of 30 mg/kg MP via the tail vein, once every other 6 hours, for five times), VC (SCI induction, followed by intraperitoneal administration of 100 mg/kg VC once a day, for 28 days), MP + VC (SCI induction, followed by administration of MP and VC as the former), BMMSCs (SCI induction, followed by injection of 3 × 106 BMMSCs at the injury site), and BMMSCs + VC (SCI induction, followed by BMMSCs injection and VC administration as the former)...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322636/lower-urinary-tract-dysfunction-in-pediatric-patients-after-ureteroneocystostomy-due-to-vesicoureteral-reflux-long-term-follow-up
#8
Kaya Horasanli, Göksel Bayar, Huseyin Acinikli, Cemil Kutsal, Sinan L Kirecci, Ayhan Dalkilic
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate long-term lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) in pediatric patients who underwent ureteroneocystostomy due to vesicoureteral reflux. METHODS: The present retrospective study was performed on 61 patients. Patients were divided into 3 groups: Group 1 (n = 26), did not have LUTD; Group 2 (n = 23), had LUTD; and Group 3 (n = 12), was not toilet trained preoperatively. Patients were reassessed regarding de novo LUTD or the persistence of LUTD at least 7 years after the ureteroneocystostomy...
January 11, 2018: Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319572/vascularized-composite-allotransplantation-of-the-elbow-joint-a-cadaveric-study
#9
Mitchell A Pet, Angelo B Lipira, Yusha Liu, Dennis Kao, Jason H Ko
BACKGROUND: Surgical options for the unreconstructable elbow are limited to arthrodesis, total arthroplasty, or osteoarticular allograft reconstruction. Each of these options is limited by severe functional impairment and/or high complication rates. Vascularized allotransplantation of the elbow joint has the potential to mitigate these complications. In this study, we describe our technique for harvesting the elbow for vascularized joint transplantation and demonstrate the flap's vascularity using contrast angiography...
January 9, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316233/development-and-biocompatibility-evaluation-of-biodegradable-bacterial-cellulose-as-a-novel-peripheral-nerve-scaffold
#10
Yuanjing Hou, Xinyu Wang, Jing Yang, Rong Zhu, Zongrui Zhang, Yi Li
Peripheral nerve injury is a serious medical problem and severely affects normal life of patient. Bacterial cellulose (BC) is considered as a novel promising biomaterial for tissue engineering, but the poor biodegradability limits its application. In this study, biodegradable bacterial cellulose scaffolds were prepared with different oxidation degrees (O.Ds.) using sodium periodate, evaluating their potential application in peripheral nerve repair. The chemical structure and surface morphology of the oxidized bacterial cellulose (OBC) scaffolds were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Wide angle X-ray diffraction and Scanning electron microscope...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314767/laparoscopic-repair-of-bowel-herniation-into-the-space-between-the-obturator-nerve-and-the-umbilical-artery-after-pelvic-lymphadenectomy-for-cervical-cancer
#11
Hironori Minami, Toshiya Nagasaki, Takashi Akiyoshi, Tsuyoshi Konishi, Yoshiya Fujimoto, Satoshi Nagayama, Yosuke Fukunaga, Hironori Fukuoka, Masashi Ueno
Bowel herniation through the space between the exposed structures after pelvic lymphadenectomy is a very rare cause of postoperative bowel obstruction. Here, a case of laparoscopic release of bowel migration into the space after pelvic lymphadenectomy is described. This is the seventh such reported case in the world. A 38-year-old woman who had a history of undergoing laparoscopic radical hysterectomy and bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy for cervical cancer was diagnosed with strangulated bowel obstruction...
January 4, 2018: Asian Journal of Endoscopic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307828/glial-cell-derived-neurotrophic-factor-alleviates-sepsis-induced-neuromuscular-dysfunction-by-decreasing-the-expression-of-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-in-an-experimental-rat-model-of-neuromyopathy
#12
Xin Wang, Su Min, Fei Xie, Jun Yang, Liang Li, Jingyuan Chen
Sepsis-induced neuromuscular dysfunction results from up-regulation of the expression of γ- and α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). Although glial cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has been implicated in repairing and supporting neurons, little is known about the effects of GDNF on demyelination of nerves in sepsis. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that GDNF could alleviate sepsis-induced neuromuscular dysfunction by decreasing the expression of γ- and α7-nAChR in an experimental rat model of neuromyopathy...
January 4, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307265/epigenetic-control-of-schwann-cells
#13
Ki H Ma, John Svaren
The journey of Schwann cells from their origin in the neural crest to their ensheathment and myelination of peripheral nerves is a remarkable one. Their apparent static function in enabling saltatory conduction of mature nerve is not only vital for long-term health of peripheral nerve but also belies an innate capacity of terminally differentiated Schwann cells to radically alter their differentiation status in the face of nerve injury. The transition from migrating neural crest cells to nerve ensheathment, and then myelination of large diameter axons has been characterized extensively and several of the transcriptional networks have been identified...
January 1, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305252/the-anatomy-of-the-sacral-promontory-how-to-avoid-complications-of-the-sacrocolpopexy-procedure
#14
Géraldine Giraudet, Aurore Protat, Michel Cosson
Because of problems with vaginal meshes and high rate recurrences of native tissue repair, more and more surgeons treat pelvic organ prolapse performing laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy. This surgery requires skilled surgeons. The first step of sacrocolpopexy is the dissection of tissues in front of the sacral promontory to reach the anterior longitudinal ligament. Some complications can occur during this dissection and the attachment of the mesh. This place is dangerous for surgeons because of the proximity of vessels, nerves and ureters...
January 2, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302142/simplified-cable-nerve-grafting-with-nerve-cutting-guides-and-fibrin-glue
#15
Reid W Draeger, Donald K Bynum, J Megan M Patterson
Cable nerve grafting is the recommended surgical treatment for large peripheral nerve defects. Traditionally, this is performed by bridging a gap in the nerve with multiple autologous nerve cables, repairing the epineurium of each cable to the perineurium of a fascicle of the injured nerve that is similar in size to the graft. The authors present a new technique in which they used nerve-cutting guides to aid in the placement of fibrin glue to secure the sides of the cabled nerve graft together to facilitate handling of the cabled nerve graft and to expedite repair...
December 2017: Journal of Hand and Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291403/electrical-stimulation-as-a-conditioning-strategy-for-promoting-and-accelerating-peripheral-nerve-regeneration
#16
J L B Senger, V M K Verge, H S J Macandili, J L Olson, K M Chan, C A Webber
The delivery of a nerve insult (a "conditioning lesion") prior to a subsequent test lesion increases the number of regenerating axons and accelerates the speed of regeneration from the test site. A major barrier to clinical translation is the lack of an ethically acceptable and clinically feasible method of conditioning that does not further damage the nerve. Conditioning electrical stimulation (CES), a non-injurious intervention, has previously been shown to improve neurite outgrowth in vitro. In this study, we examined whether CES upregulates regeneration-associated gene (RAG) expression and promotes nerve regeneration in vivo, similar to a traditional nerve crush conditioning lesion (CCL)...
December 29, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291297/surgical-repair-of-sciatic-nerve-traumatic-rupture-technical-considerations-and-approaches
#17
Hussam Abou-Al-Shaar, Nam Yoon, Mark A Mahan
Traumatic proximal sciatic nerve rupture poses surgical repair dilemmas. Disruption often causes a large nerve gap after proximal neuroma and distal scar removal. Also, autologous graft material to bridge the segmental defect may be insufficient, given the sciatic nerve diameter. The authors utilized knee flexion to allow single neurorrhaphy repair of a large sciatic nerve defect, bringing healthy proximal stump to healthy distal segment. To avoid aberrant regeneration, the authors split the sciatic nerve into common peroneal and tibial divisions...
January 2018: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291296/acute-repair-of-traumatic-pan-brachial-plexus-injury-technical-considerations-and-approaches
#18
Hussam Abou-Al-Shaar, Michael Karsy, Vijay Ravindra, Evan Joyce, Mark A Mahan
Particularly challenging after complete brachial plexus avulsion is reestablishing effective hand function, due to limited neurological donors to reanimate the arm. Acute repair of avulsion injuries may enable reinnervation strategies for achieving hand function. This patient presented with pan-brachial plexus injury. Given its irreparable nature, the authors recommended multistage reconstruction, including contralateral C-7 transfer for hand function, multiple intercostal nerves for shoulder/triceps function, shoulder fusion, and spinal accessory nerve-to-musculocutaneous nerve transfer for elbow flexion...
January 2018: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291293/introduction-the-value-of-peripheral-nerve-surgery
#19
Robert J Spinner, Holly S Gilmer, Gregory R Trost
If a single picture is worth a thousand words, then a video, by logical extension, would be priceless. This edition showcases peripheral nerve surgery in all its grandeur and preserves it for posterity. Classic and novel surgical techniques are shown related to tumor biopsy or resection; nerve decompression for entrapment; and nerve reconstruction with direct repair or nerve transfer. Akin to a nautical chart filled with detailed maps for sailors, this Neurosurgical Focus Video Atlas provides navigational tools for neurosurgeons...
January 2018: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288689/skin-derived-precursor-schwann-cell-generated-acellular-matrix-modified-chitosan-silk-scaffolds-for-bridging-rat-sciatic-nerve-gap
#20
Changlai Zhu, Jing Huang, Chengbin Xue, Yaxian Wang, Shengran Wang, Shuangxi Bao, Ruyue Chen, Yuan Li, Yun Gu
Extracellular/acellular matrix has been attracted much research interests for its unique biological characteristics, and ACM modified neural scaffolds shows the remarkable role of promoting peripheral nerve regeneration. In this study, skin-derived precursors pre-differentiated into Schwann cells (SKP-SCs) were used as parent cells to generate acellular(ACM) for constructing a ACM-modified neural scaffold. SKP-SCs were co-cultured with chitosan nerve guidance conduits (NGC) and silk fibroin filamentous fillers, followed by decellularization to stimulate ACM deposition...
December 27, 2017: Neuroscience Research
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