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Type 2 diabetes mellitus

Akihiko Taguchi, Yasuharu Ohta, Yukio Tanizawa
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by the loss of ß-cell function and mass, resulting from interactions between genetic predisposition and various environmental factors1 . One environmental condition identified as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus is circadian rhythm disruption, which is induced by shift work or sleep disturbance. However, the mechanism whereby circadian disruption leads to impaired glucose metabolism is not well understood. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Wendy A Davis, David G Bruce, Milan Dragovic, Timothy M E Davis, Sergio E Starkstein
BACKGROUND: Previous research using latent class analysis (LCA) identified classes of people with type 2 diabetes and specific profiles of depression and anxiety. Since LCA-derived anxious depression strongly predicts cardiovascular outcomes and mortality but cannot be applied to individuals, we developed a validated combined depression-anxiety metric, the Diabetes Anxiety Depression Scale (DADS), for potential clinical application in people with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: 1,337 participants with type 2 diabetes from the observational community-based Fremantle Diabetes Study Phase II completed the Patient Health Questionnaire 9-item version (PHQ-9) to assess symptoms of depression, and the Generalised Anxiety Disorder Scale (GADS) to assess symptoms of anxiety...
2018: PloS One
Wengao Jiang, Qiang Tang, Lei Zhang, Yinxue Chao, Bing Hong
OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have indicated the implication of C1q tumour necrosis factor-related protein 9 in vascular pathology of atherosclerosis. This study first investigated the association of C1q tumour necrosis factor-related protein 9 and the severity of lower extremity peripheral arterial disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. METHODS: A total of 200 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus had ankle-brachial index examined in this cross-sectional study, 60 patients with ankle-brachial index of ⩽0...
March 1, 2018: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
Purva Sharma, Yash Jobanputra, Karen Lewin, Stuart Bagatell, Daniel Lichtstein
BACKGROUND: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious complication of diabetes seen commonly in autoimmune Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM), however patients with Type 2 diabetes are also at risk. Diabetic ketoacidosis may be precipitated by the catabolic stress of acute illness such as trauma, surgery, or infections. Recent studies have suggested that sodium glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors precipitate DKA in Type 2 diabetes. We present a case series of four patients on SGLT-2 inhibitors who presented with DKA...
March 13, 2018: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Antonio Junior Lepedda, Gabriele Nieddu, Silvia Rocchiccioli, Nadia Ucciferri, Michela Idini, Pierina De Muro, Marilena Formato
Background: Diabetes mellitus is a global health problem representing the fifth leading cause of mortality and a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. In the last years, we reported an association among urinary trypsin inhibitor (UTI), a small proteoglycan that plays pleiotropic roles in many inflammatory processes, and both type 1 and 2 diabetes and developed a method for its direct quantitation and structural characterization. Methods: Urine from 39 patients affected by type 1 diabetes, 32 patients with type 2 diabetes, and 52 controls were analysed...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
Haruhiko Tokuda, Gen Kuroyanagi, Takashi Onuma, Yukiko Enomoto, Tomoaki Doi, Hiroki Iida, Takanobu Otsuka, Shinji Ogura, Toru Iwama, Kumi Kojima, Osamu Kozawa
It has been previously reported that HSP27 is released from platelets in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients according to phosphorylation. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ristocetin, a glycoprotein (GP)Ib/IX/V activator, on the release of HSP27 and the effect of anti-platelet agents, such as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), on this release. Forty-six patients with type 2 DM were recruited, and classified into two groups depending on administration of anti-platelet agents, resulting in 31 patients without these agents (control group) and 15 patients with them (anti-platelet group)...
April 2018: Biomedical Reports
Jie Zhu, Hao Chen, Zhixiu Song, Xudong Wang, Zhenshuang Sun
Objective: This article aims to assess the effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and/or components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods: Electronic literature was searched in PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Chinese Biomedical Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang Database from inception of the database to May 19, 2017, and supplemented by browsing reference lists of potentially eligible articles...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Pernille Wismann, Søren L Pedersen, Gitte Hansen, Karin Mannerstedt, Philip J Pedersen, Palle B Jeppesen, Niels Vrang, Keld Fosgerau, Jacob Jelsing
AIM: Analogues of several gastrointestinal peptide hormones have been developed into effective medicines for treatment of diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), obesity and short bowel syndrome (SBS). In this study, we aimed to explore whether the combination of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) into a potent co-agonist could provide additional benefits compared to existing monotherapies. METHODS: A short-acting (GUB09-123) and a half-life extended (GUB09-145) GLP-1/GLP-2 co-agonist were generated using solid-phase peptide synthesis and tested for effects on food intake, body weight, glucose homeostasis, and gut proliferation in lean mice and in diabetic db/db mice...
March 11, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Xiaoming Liu, Fumin Pan, Zhaoyu Ba, Shanjin Wang, Desheng Wu
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) and low back pain which is mainly caused by degeneration of the intervertebral discs (IVDs) both are major public health problem worldwide. The present study was designed to investigate the association between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and severity of lumbar disc degeneration (LDD). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed patients with low back pain visiting our spine clinic in 2014. Low back pain patients all have the lumbar MRI imaging and no previous treatment...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
Laura Van den Mooter, Simon Caerels, Chantal Mathieu
There is a clear unmet clinical need in people with Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) considering present day insulin therapy. New insulin analogues and novel technologies allowing more tailored insulin administration have improved the quality of life of people with T1DM, but issues like hypoglycemia, weight gain and variability in glucose profiles remain problematic. Areas covered: In this review, the clinical efficacy, safety and tolerability of dapagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 inhibitor, in type 1 diabetes (T1DM) is described based on a review of phase 2 and 3 studies to date...
March 14, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Özlem Korkmaz, Günay Demir, Hafize Çetin, İlkin Mecidov, Yasemin Atik Altınok, Samim Özen, Şükran Darcan, Damla Gökşen
AIM: To compare continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy (CSII) with multiple daily insulin therapy (MDI) on metabolic control in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) over the long term. METHOD: 52 T1DM patients treated with CSII and monitored for at least 1 year prior to and at least five years following CSII were included. 38 age and sex-matched MDI controls with a 5-year follow up were recruited. RESULTS: Mean age of the subjects, duration of diabetes and CSII therapy were 17...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
Ahmed Hassan Al-Ghamdi, Abdelhameed Ahmed Fureeh
BACKGROUND: The objectives were to describe the frequency of clinical presentation at the onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and to estimate the prevalence of T1DM among children and adolescents in the AL-Baha region, Saudi Arabia, aiming for early diagnosis of T1DM. METHODS: The clinical and laboratory data of 471 children and adolescents who presented with T1DM and received medical care at an AL-Baha diabetic center during the period from 2007 to 2016 were retrospectively analyzed based on the records...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Xin Qian, Hui Wang, Gangyi Yang, Zhengnan Gao, Yong Luo, Aimei Dong, Fang Zhang, Mingtong Xu, Shiping Liu, Xin Yang, Yanyan Chen, Guangwei Li
INTRODUCTION: To investigate the effects of pioglitazone (PIO) on insulin resistance and first phase insulin secretion among obese and lean Chinese people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: Sixty-eight drug-naïve patients with T2DM were treated with PIO for 16 weeks. Before and after the treatment, insulin sensitivity was evaluated by the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp test. Plasma insulin levels at 0, 3, 5, 7, and 10 min during intravenous glucose tolerance test were determined to calculate the first phase insulin secretion and pancreatic β-cell function...
March 13, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
Robert A Bailey, Alicia C Shillington, Qing Harshaw, Martha M Funnell, Jeffrey VanWingen, Nananda Col
INTRODUCTION: Failure to intensify treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) when indicated, or clinical inertia, is a major obstacle to achieving optimal glucose control. This study investigates the impact of a values-focused patient decision aid (PDA) for T2DM antihyperglycemic agent intensification on patient values related to domains important in decision-making and preferred treatments. METHODS: Patients with poorly controlled T2DM who were taking a metformin-containing regimen were recruited through physicians to access a PDA presenting evidence-based information on T2DM and antihyperglycemic agent class options...
March 13, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
Stefanie R van Mil, L Ulas Biter, Gert-Jan M van de Geijn, Erwin Birnie, Martin Dunkelgrun, Jan N M IJzermans, Noelle van der Meulen, Guido H H Mannaerts, Manuel Castro Cabezas
INTRODUCTION: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity are both related to increased risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Early atherosclerotic vascular changes can be detected by non-invasive tests like carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) and pulse wave velocity (PWV). Both cIMT and PWV are significantly impaired in T2DM patients and in obese patients, but the additional effect of T2DM on these vascular measurements in obese subjects has not been evaluated. METHODS: Two hundred morbidly obese patients with or without T2DM were enrolled in a prospective cohort study and underwent extensive laboratory testing, including cIMT and PWV measurements...
March 13, 2018: Obesity Surgery
S K Singh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Sanjay Kalra, Silver Bahendeka, Rakesh Sahay, Sujoy Ghosh, Fariduddin Md, Abbas Orabi, Kaushik Ramaiya, Sameer Al Shammari, Dina Shrestha, Khalid Shaikh, Sachitha Abhayaratna, Pradeep K Shrestha, Aravinthan Mahalingam, Mazen Askheta, Aly Ahmed A Rahim, Fatimah Eliana, Hari K Shrestha, Sandeep Chaudhary, Nancy Ngugi, Jean Claude Mbanya, Than Than Aye, Tint Swe Latt, Zhanay A Akanov, Abbas Raza Syed, Nikhil Tandon, A G Unnikrishnan, S V Madhu, Ali Jawa, Subhankar Chowdhury, Sarita Bajaj, Ashok Kumar Das
For decades, sulfonylureas (SUs) have been important drugs in the antidiabetic therapeutic armamentarium. They have been used as monotherapy as well as combination therapy. Focus on newer drugs and concerns about the risk of severe hypoglycemia and weight gain with some SUs have led to discussion on their safety and utility. It has to be borne in mind that the adverse events associated with SUs should not be ascribed to the whole class, as many modern SUs, such as glimepiride and gliclazide modified release, are associated with better safety profiles...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
H R Prasanna Kumar, H Basavana Gowdappa, Tejashwi Hosmani, Tejashri Urs
Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic abnormal metabolic condition, which manifests elevated blood sugar level over a prolonged period. The pancreatic endocrine system generally gets affected during diabetes, but often abnormal exocrine functions are also manifested due to its proximity to the endocrine system. Fecal elastase-1 (FE-1) is found to be an ideal biomarker to reflect the exocrine insufficiency of the pancreas. Aim: The aim of this study was conducted to assess exocrine dysfunction of the pancreas in patients with type-2 DM (T2DM) by measuring FE levels and to associate the level of hyperglycemia with exocrine pancreatic dysfunction...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Subhodip Pramanik, Sujoy Ghosh, Pradip Mukhopadhyay, Rana Bhattacharjee, Bidisha Mukherjee, Samim Ali Mondal, Ipsita Ghosh, Ranajit Bari, Subhankar Chowdhury
Objective: Type 2 diabetes mellitus and thyroid dysfunction (TD) are two major public health endocrine problem, but the prevalence of TD and iodine status in patients with T2 DM in India is less studied. The study objective was to explore the prevalence of TD and to evaluate iodine health in type 2 diabetes patients attending a tertiary care center in Eastern India. Methods: Consecutive 100 patients with diabetes attending outpatient department were evaluated clinically and biochemically (thyrotropin [TSH], free thyroxine, anti-TPO antibody, and urinary iodine)...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Dharmadas Salini, Kumar Harish, Pillay Minnie, Karimassery R Sundaram, Bal Arun, Chirukandath J Sandya, Thacho S Mangalanandan, Lakshmanan Vivek, Valiyaparambil P Praveen
Aims: Available literature on the prevalence of Charcot arthropathy (CA) represents mainly Western population. No study has been reported from India so far. Hence we attempted to study the prevalence of CA in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and severe peripheral neuropathy (T2DMPN), belonging to Indian population amongst whom type 2 diabetes is on the rise in alarming proportions. Materials and Methods: Medical records of 3387 patients who performed an objective vibration perception threshold test during the year 2015 were screened for T2DMPN...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
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