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Type 2 diabetes mellitus

P Abreu, K F Vitzel, I C C R Monteiro, T I Lima, A N Queiroz, J H Leal-Cardoso, S M Hirabara, V M Ceccatto
The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of endurance training on reduction of plasma glucose during high intensity constant and incremental speed tests in Wistar rats. We hypothesized that plasma glucose might be decreased in the exercised group during heavy (more intense) exercise. Twenty-four 10-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to sedentary and exercised groups. The prescription of endurance exercise training intensity was determined as 60% of the maximum intensity reached at the incremental speed test...
October 24, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Satyanarayana Swamy Cheekatla, Deepak Tripathi, Sambasivan Venkatasubramanian, Pavan Kumar Nathella, Padmaja Paidipally, Munenori Ishibashi, Elwyn Welch, Amy R Tvinnereim, Mitsuo Ikebe, Vijaya Lakshmi Valluri, Subash Babu, Hardy Kornfeld, Ramakrishna Vankayalapati
In this study, we developed a mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using streptozotocin and nicotinamide and identified factors that increase susceptibility of T2DM mice to infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). All Mtb-infected T2DM mice and 40% of uninfected T2DM mice died within 10 months, whereas all control mice survived. In Mtb-infected mice, T2DM increased the bacterial burden and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production in the lungs relative to those in uninfected T2DM mice and infected control mice...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Ines Rama, Ines Llaudó, Pere Fontova, Gema Cerezo, Carlos Soto, Casimiro Javierre, Miguel Hueso, Nuria Montero, Alberto Martínez-Castelao, Juan Torras, Josep M Grinyó, Josep M Cruzado, Nuria Lloberas
BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing conventional hemodialysis (C-HD) present a greater immuno-inflammatory state probably related to uremia, sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation and /or membrane bioincompatibility, which could improve with a technique-switching to online hemodiafiltration (OL-HD). The antigen-independent pathway activation of this modified immunologic state turns dendritic cells (DC) into an accurate cell model to study these patients. The aim of this study is to further evaluate the immune-inflammatory state of patients in C-HD assessed by DC maturation...
2016: PloS One
Wendy S Bibeau, Haoda Fu, April D Taylor, Anita Y M Kwan
BACKGROUND: Medication adherence is pivotal for the successful treatment of diabetes. However, medication adherence remains a major concern, as nonadherence is associated with poor health outcomes. Studies have indicated that increasing patients' share of medication costs significantly reduces adherence. Little is known about a potential out-of-pocket (OOP) cost threshold where substantial reduction in adherence may occur. OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of diabetes OOP pharmacy costs on antihyperglycemic medication adherence and identify the potential threshold at which significant reduction in adherence may occur among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
November 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Eveline P C J Janssen, Sebastian Köhler, Coen D A Stehouwer, Nicolaas C Schaper, Pieter C Dagnelie, Simone J S Sep, Ronald M A Henry, Carla J H van der Kallen, Frans R Verhey, Miranda T Schram
OBJECTIVES: To assess the psychometric properties and identify the best cutoff value of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) for depression screening in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). DESIGN: Observational population-based cohort study. SETTING: The Maastricht Study. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals with and without T2DM (mean age 58.6 ± 8.1, 44.6% male) according to an oral glucose tolerance test (N = 2,997)...
October 26, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Keong Chong, Sayeed Ikramuddin, Wei-Jei Lee, Charles J Billington, John P Bantle, Qi Wang, Avis J Thomas, John E Connett, Daniel B Leslie, William B Inabnet, Robert W Jeffery, Michael G Sarr, Michael D Jensen, Adrian Vella, Leaque Ahmed, Kumar Belani, Joyce L Schone, Amy E Olofson, Heather A Bainbridge, Patricia S Laqua, Judith Korner, Lee-Ming Chuang
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to compare effects of different nations on Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) vs. intensive medical management (IMM) in achieving remission of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between April 2008 and December 2011, this randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted at four teaching hospitals in the United States and Taiwan involving 71 participants with mild obesity (BMI 30-35 kg/m(2)). Thirty-six of 71 participants were randomly assigned to the RYGB group, and the others were in IMM group...
October 25, 2016: Obesity Surgery
L I Kolesnikova, B Ya Vlasov, S I Kolesnikov, M A Darenskaya, L A Grebenkina, N V Semenova, O A Vanteeva
Specific features of LPO were studied in Mongoloid and Caucasian patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The intensity of LPO in Mongoloid patients was lower than in Caucasians: the level of primary and intermediate products was by lower 1.53 and 1.83 times, while total antioxidant activity was elevated by 1.44 times, which was also supported by oxidative stress coefficient (1.35 in Mongoloids and 2.32 in Caucasians). These differences suggest that differentiated approach is required for the treatment of these patients...
October 26, 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Simran Chahal, Kanchan Vohra, Ashit Syngle
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is the major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and lower extremity amputation in patients with diabetes. Autonomic neuropathy is a risk factor for cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality. Sudomotor dysfunction is well established in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and reflects small fibre neuropathy, cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and peripheral sympathetic autonomic neuropathy. However, the relationship between sudomotor dysfunction and PAD remains unexplored...
October 25, 2016: Neurological Sciences
Xin Tan, Peng Fang, Jie An, Huan Lin, Yi Liang, Wen Shen, Xi Leng, Chi Zhang, Yanting Zheng, Shijun Qiu
INTRODUCTION: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have usually been found cognitive impairment associated with brain white matter (WM) abnormalities. However, findings have varied across studies, and any potential relationship with Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the whole-brain WM integrity of T2DM patients and to compare our findings with those of published AD cases. METHODS: In this study, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) combined with tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to investigate whole-brain WM abnormalities in 48 T2DM patients and 48 healthy controls...
October 25, 2016: Neuroradiology
Christian Brinkmann, Benedikt Schulte-Körne, Marijke Grau, Sinja Obels, Roman Kemmerling, Thorsten Schiffer, Wilhelm Bloch, Klara Brixius
BACKGROUND: Increases in the amount of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein and abnormal production of nitric oxide (NO) in skeletal muscle have been suggested to be associated with peripheral insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This pilot study analyzed whether a 3-month endurance training can affect iNOS protein and NO metabolite levels in the vastus lateralis muscle of insulin-independent T2DM men, thereby affecting the patients` glycemic control...
October 26, 2016: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
I Raška, M Rašková, V Zikán, J Škrha
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with increased fracture risk; the underlying mechanism remains unexplained. This study aimed to investigate the relationships between body composition and bone and glucose metabolism in postmenopausal women with T2DM. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition. A total of 68 postmenopausal women with T2DM and 71 controls were eligible for the study. In contrast to normal BMD in T2DM, a similar prevalence of low-trauma fractures was observed in both groups...
October 26, 2016: Physiological Research
Kai Wang, Feng Jin, Zhanpu Zhang, Xiaochuan Sun
BACKGROUND Specific T cell phenotype has been reported to potentially contribute to the development of angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced several vascular disorders. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is intimately associated with cardiovascular disease. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between T cell phenotypes and Ang II in T2DM patients combined with carotid atherosclerosis (CA). MATERIAL AND METHODS This study was performed on 50 patients with T2DM in our hospital. Based on the presence of CA, they were divided into CA group (presence of CA, n=30) or T2DM group (absence of CA, n=20)...
October 26, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Donatella Paola Provvisiero, Claudia Pivonello, Giovanna Muscogiuri, Mariarosaria Negri, Cristina de Angelis, Chiara Simeoli, Rosario Pivonello, Annamaria Colao
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an organic synthetic compound employed to produce plastics and epoxy resins. It is used as a structural component in polycarbonate beverage bottles and as coating for metal surface in food containers and packaging. The adverse effects of BPA on human health are widely disputed. BPA has been recently associated with a wide variety of medical disorders and, in particular, it was identified as potential endocrine-disrupting compound with diabetogenic action. Most of the clinical observational studies in humans reveal a positive link between BPA exposure, evaluated by the measurement of urinary BPA levels, and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Mikhail Krasavin, Alexey Lukin, Daria Bagnyukova, Nikolay Zhurilo, Ihor Zahanich, Sergey Zozulya
A series of nine compounds based on 3-[4-(benzyloxy)phenyl]propanoic acid core containing a 1-oxa-9-azaspiro[5.5]undecane periphery was designed, synthesized and evaluated as free fatty acid 1 (FFA1 or GPR40) agonists. The spirocyclic appendages included in these compounds were inspired by LY2881835, Eli Lilly's advanced drug candidate for type II diabetes mellitus that was in phase I clinical trials. These polar spirocyclic, fully saturated appendages (that are themselves uncharacteristic of the known FFA1 ligand space) were further decorated with diverse polar groups (such as basic heterocycles or secondary amides)...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
Sara Moradipoor, Patimah Ismail, Ali Etemad, Wan Aliaa Wan Sulaiman, Salma Ahmadloo
Endothelial dysfunction appears to be an early sign indicating vascular damage and predicts the progression of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disorders. Extensive clinical and experimental evidence suggests that endothelial dysfunction occurs in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and prediabetes patients. This study was carried out with an aim to appraise the expression levels in the peripheral blood of 84 genes related to endothelial cells biology in patients with diagnosed T2DM or prediabetes, trying to identify new genes whose expression might be changed under these pathological conditions...
2016: BioMed Research International
Ying Du, Juan Chen, Man-Hua Chen, Sheng-Hua Yang, Sha Li, Yuan-Lin Guo, Cheng-Gang Zhu, Rui-Xia Xu, Qian Dong, Jian-Jun Li
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) progression. Although previous studies have demonstrated the association of lipid and lipoprotein ratios with CAD, no data are currently available concerning the relationship between lipid and lipoprotein ratios and the severity of new on-set CAD in diabetics. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of lipid and lipoprotein ratios in predicting the severity of CAD in patients with type 2 DM (T2DM)...
August 2016: Journal of Geriatric Cardiology: JGC
Jina Kim, Yu-Jin Lee, Jung Min Kim, So Young Lee, Myung-Ae Bae, Jin Hee Ahn, Dong Cho Han, Byoung-Mog Kwon
PPARγ agonists induced obesity in animal models as a side effect. Microarray experiments reveal that PPARγ agonist upregulates the expression of lipin-1 and this upregulation is correlated with the activity of the agonists. Lipin-1 induced by PPARγ agonists decreased the levels of PPARγ and ERK1/2 phosphorylation through direct interaction with these proteins in 3T3-L1 cells. In PPARγ agonist-treated 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, the knockdown of lipin-1 expression by small interfering RNA inhibited the adipogenesis that was induced by PPARγ agonists...
October 22, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Davids Denver, Gibson Diana, Johnson Quinton
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The aim of this study was to identify and document medicinal plants used to manage High Blood Pressure and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Bitterfontein, Western Cape Province, South Africa. METHODS: One hundred and twelve (112) respondents were interviewed between August 2014 and September 2015 through semi-structured surveys to gather data on the percentage of people who had been diagnosed with High Blood Pressure and/or Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and to determine the frequency of medicinal plant and allopathic medicine use...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Takeshi Osonoi, Miyoko Saito, Natsuyo Hariya, Moritaka Goto, Kazuki Mochizuki
Metformin, α-glucosidase inhibitors (α-GIs), and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors (DPP-4Is) reduce hyperglycemia without excessive insulin secretion, and enhance postprandial plasma concentration of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. We assessed add-on therapeutic effects of DPP-4I anagliptin in Japanese T2DM patients treated with metformin, an α-GI miglitol, or both drugs on postprandial responses of GLP-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and on plasma concentration of the appetite-suppressing hormone leptin...
October 22, 2016: Peptides
Torbjørn Omland, Anna Randby, Harald Hrubos-Strøm, Helge Røsjø, Gunnar Einvik
The circulating concentration of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is an index of subclinical myocardial injury in several patient populations and in the general population. Erectile dysfunction is associated with greater risk for cardiovascular events, but the association with subclinical myocardial injury is not known. We aimed to test the hypothesis that the presence and severity of erectile dysfunction is associated with greater concentrations of cTnI in the general population. The presence and severity of erectile dysfunction was assessed by administering the International Index of Erectile Function 5 (IIEF-5) questionnaire to 260 men aged 30 to 65 years recruited from a population-based study...
September 13, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
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