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Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911995/ocular-dysfunctions-presenting-in-tacrolimus-induced-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-a-case-presentation
#1
Cora Brown, Alexander J Feng, Ernesto Cruz
The constellation of ocular symptoms, known as Balint's syndrome, is a rare disorder seen in bilateral parieto-occipital lesions and is most frequently due to arterial occlusive disease or acute hypertension. Here we present a case of a patient with tacrolimus-induced posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) who presented with optic ataxia, simultanagnosia, and ocular apraxia. These ocular findings, consistent with Balint's syndrome, are rarely the initial presentation of PRES. This case highlights the importance of early recognition of this unusual phenomenon as well as the importance of an individualized rehabilitation plan to maximize functional independence in these patients...
September 11, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910681/the-imaging-spectrum-of-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-a-pictorial-review
#2
REVIEW
Emily Brady, Neal S Parikh, Babak B Navi, Ajay Gupta, Andrew D Schweitzer
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is characterized by the acute onset of neurologic symptoms (headache, altered mental status, visual changes, seizures) with accompanying vasogenic edema on brain imaging. Risk factors for PRES include infection, uremia, malignancy, autoimmune disorders, the peripartum state and hypertension. PRES is classically described as being posterior (i.e. parieto-occipital) but radiologic variants are increasingly recognized. This pictorial review demonstrates the heterogeneity of the different radiologic presentations of PRES in reference to lesion distribution, hemorrhage, diffusion restriction, contrast enhancement, and other associated findings...
August 30, 2017: Clinical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899640/status-epilepticus-in-pregnancy-etiology-management-and-clinical-outcomes
#3
Keni Ravish Rajiv, Ashalatha Radhakrishnan
BACKGROUND: Status epilepticus (SE) in pregnancy carries significant risk to both mother and fetus. There is limited literature available on SE occurring in pregnancy world-over, with majority being from obstetric centers. METHODS: All women who developed SE related to pregnancy (gestation, labor, or puerperium) between January 2000 and December 2016 were included in the study. Data were collected from our SE registry, maintained, and archived in the institute. The variables influencing the maternal and fetal outcome were compared using Student's t-test for continuous variables and Fisher's exact test for discrete variables...
September 9, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887083/pres-leading-to-the-diagnosis-of-mcardle-disease
#4
Jennifer M Martinez-Thompson, Sean J Pittock, Margherita Milone
A 35year-old male developed myalgias after moving furniture and was hospitalized with acute renal failure and rhabdomyolysis requiring hemodialysis. He then had several generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Brain MRI showed findings of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). Interval history revealed easy fatigability and exercise-induced myalgias in childhood but no preceding history of urine discoloration. Quadriceps biopsy showed absent muscle myophosphorylase reactivity consistent with the diagnosis of McArdle disease...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870548/corticosteroid-therapy-and-severity-of-vasogenic-edema-in-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome
#5
Neal S Parikh, Andrew D Schweitzer, Robert J Young, Ashley E Giambrone, John Lyo, Sasan Karimi, Anna Knobel, Ajay Gupta, Babak B Navi
BACKGROUND: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a variable cerebrovascular syndrome associated with hypertension and autoregulatory failure. Steroids have been reported to both precipitate and treat PRES. We sought to determine the prevalence of steroid therapy at the time of PRES and to assess the relationship between steroid therapy and extent of vasogenic edema. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of radiology reports between 2008 and 2014 from two academic medical centers to identify cases of PRES...
September 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869205/ictal-asystole-in-a-patient-with-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-pres-and-seizures
#6
Joanna Suski, Reginald Ho, Maromi Nei
We describe a case of ictal asystole in a patient with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), which has never been described previously. Ictal asystole is rare and has possible serious medical consequences, including syncope, and may be a potential mechanism for sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Awareness that PRES may be observed with recurrent ictal asystole may aid in the recognition and treatment of seizures in this condition and the prevention of asystole-associated complications...
September 4, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868030/association-of-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-and-transient-apical-ballooning-syndrome-takotsubo-first-case-report-of-a-man-and-review-of-the-literature
#7
Stephan Grimaldi, Emilie Doche, Caroline Rey, Nadia Laksiri, Salah Boussen, Jacques Quilici, Emmanuelle Robinet, Fabien Devemy, Jean Pelletier
INTRODUCTION: An association of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) and takotsubo is rare. We present the first case of a male patient. CASE REPORT: A 69-year-old man presented to the hospital in a persistent comatose state following a generalized tonic-clonic seizure with high blood pressure. The electrocardiogram revealed transient left bundle branch block. Troponin and BNP were elevated. Cardiac ultrasound showed large apical akinesia with altered left ventricular ejection fraction, and the left ventriculogram showed characteristic regional wall motion abnormalities involving the mid and apical segments...
May 2017: Case Reports in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836059/posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-in-children-with-kidney-disease
#8
REVIEW
Cristina Gavrilovici, Ingrith Miron, Luminiţa Voroneanu, Silvia Bădărau, Magdalena Stârcea
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) has been described as a neurological condition observed in a variety of clinical settings and is characterized by focal neurological deficits, seizures, headaches, altered mental status, and visual impairment, associated with transient typical lesions on neuroimaging, predominantly in the posterior part of the brain. The most common risk factors for PRES are hypertension, renal diseases, and the use of calcineurin inhibitors. The incidence of PRES in children with renal disorders varies between 4 and 9%, according to different reports...
August 23, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826581/uncommon-causes-of-cerebral-microbleeds
#9
REVIEW
Nariman Noorbakhsh-Sabet, Varun Chandi Pulakanti, Ramin Zand
BACKGROUND: Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are small and round perivascular hemosiderin depositions detectable by gradient echo sequences or susceptibility-weighted imaging. Cerebral microbleeds are common among patients with hypertension, cerebral ischemia, or cerebral amyloid angiopathy. In this article, we describe uncommon causes of CMBs. METHODS: We searched Pubmed with the keyword CMBs for relevant studies and looked for different uncommon causes of CMBs. RESULTS: CMBs have several uncommon etiologies including posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, infective endocarditis, brain radiation therapy, cocaine abuse, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, traumatic brain injury, intravascular lymphomatosis or proliferating angio-endotheliomatosis, moyamoya disease, sickle cell anemia/β-thalassemia, cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy subcortical infarcts, and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), genetic syndromes, or obstructive sleep apnea...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808366/clinical-features-and-outcomes-of-patients-with-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome
#10
M S Kalaiselvan, M K Renuka, A S Arunkumar
AIMS: The aim of this study was to study the clinical features and outcomes of patients with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: All adult patients admitted to our ICU with acute onset neurologic symptoms with focal vasogenic edema on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were included in the study. Data were collected on demography, coexisting illness, admission severity of illness, neurological symptoms, blood pressure, treatment initiated, and MRI findings...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799704/the-nature-consequences-and-management-of-neurological-disorders-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#11
REVIEW
Bahman Jabbari, Nosratola D Vaziri
Perhaps no other organ in the body is affected as often and in as many ways as the brain is in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Several factors contribute to the neurological disorders in CKD including accumulation of uremic toxins, metabolic and hemodynamic disorders, oxidative stress, inflammation, and impaired blood brain barrier among others. The neurological disorders in CKD involve both peripheral and central nervous system. The peripheral neurological symptoms of CKD are due to somatic and cranial peripheral neuropathies as well as a myopathy...
August 11, 2017: Hemodialysis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797767/clinical-and-radiological-features-of-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-in-patients-with-pre-eclampsia-and-eclampsia
#12
X Y Dong, C B Bai, J F Nao
AIM: To analyse and summarise clinical and radiological features among patients with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), to assess related factors with eclampsia and pre-eclampsia, and to compare the different factors between cytotoxic and vasogenic oedema among PRES patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The clinical and radiological findings of 237 pre-eclamptic or eclamptic patients with neurological symptoms were evaluated retrospectively. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to compare the differences among these parameters...
October 2017: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795068/posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-during-recovery-from-hypovolemic-acute-kidney-injury-after-trauma-case-report-and-literature-review
#13
Richa Aggarwal, Anudeep Saxena, Kapil Soni
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Bulletin of Emergency and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794149/controversy-of-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-what-have-we-learnt-in-the-last-20-years
#14
REVIEW
Bo Gao, Cui Lyu, Alexander Lerner, Alexander M McKinney
Over two decades have passed since posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) was first described in 1996. It has becoming increasingly recognised because of improved and more readily available imaging modality. The exact pathophysiological mechanism is not completely understood and remains controversial at present. Precise diagnosis is essential to guide prompt, proper management. Our ability of differentiating it from other acute neurological disorders is likely to improve as we learnt more about the spectrum of this entity in the last 20 years...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781802/sorafenib-induced-reversible-posterior-leukoencephalopathy-in-patients-with-renal-cell-carcinoma-a-report-of-two-cases
#15
Nobuki Furubayashi, Takahito Negishi, Hidenori Iwai, Kei Nagase, Motonobu Nakamura
Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS) is a rare clinicoradiological syndrome that is characterized by neurological symptoms, including seizures, headaches, visual abnormalities, confusion and encephalopathy, accompanied by vasogenic edema of the posterior white matter observed on neuroimaging. Sorafenib is an inhibitor of pro-angiogenic receptor tyrosine kinases, such as vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, platelet-derived growth factor receptor β, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3...
August 2017: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761402/posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-after-heart-transplantation-diagnosis-and-immunosuppressive-therapy
#16
Aniruddh Kapoor, Emma Birks, Andrew Lenneman, Kelly McCants
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, an infrequent neurotoxicity associated with the use of tacrolimus, was first described in 1996, as a reversible syndrome manifested by headache, altered mental function, seizures, and visual disturbances. We describe the case of a 37-year-old woman who developed neurologic symptoms consistent with encephalopathy after treatment with tacrolimus, which was prescribed to maintain immunosuppression after orthotopic heart transplantation. This report also discusses the imaging methods used in the diagnosis of posterior reversible encephalopathy and highlights the difficulty of maintaining immunosuppression and managing medication-related adverse effects, while taking into account the risk of acute rejection after transplantation...
June 2017: Texas Heart Institute Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718068/dengue-encephalopathy-very-unusual-neuroimaging-findings
#17
Ravindra Kumar Garg, Hardeep Singh Malhotra, Amita Jain, Neeraj Kumar
Neuroimaging, in many patients with dengue encephalopathy, may reveal periventricular signal changes. We report a 25-year-old man, who presented with altered sensorium. Dengue-IgM test in serum was positive. Cerebrospinal fluid examination was normal. MRI brain revealed presence of bilateral parieto-occipital intraparenchymal bleed with mass effect. Neuroimaging was consistent with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. We report posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in a normotensive patient with dengue encephalopathy and systemic metabolic alterations...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697838/-hypertension-and-intermittent-convulsions-for-one-month-in-a-school-age-child
#18
Mao-Qiang Tian, Shu-Yi Liu, Juan Li, Xiao-Mei Shu
Childhood polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a rare systemic vasculitis and the delayed diagnosis and treatment will cause high incidence of sequelae and high mortality. This article reports a girl with childhood PAN due to posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). The girl aged ten years was admitted to the hospital due to hypertension and convulsions for one month. She had complaints of headache, vomiting, and blurred vision before convulsions. At six months before admission, a mass was observed in the neck...
July 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692025/cerebral-adenovirus-endotheliitis-presenting-as-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-after-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation
#19
J-S Claveau, R LeBlanc, I Ahmad, J Ferreira, A-A Pistono, N Bambace, L Bernard, S Cohen, J-S Delisle, T Kiss, S Lachance, J Roy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 10, 2017: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691954/maintenance-belatacept-based-immunosuppression-in-lung-transplantation-recipients-who-failed-calcineurin-inhibitors
#20
Carlo J Iasella, Ryan J Winstead, Cody A Moore, Bruce A Johnson, Ayelet T Feinberg, Matthew R Morrell, J W Awori Hayanga, Elizabeth A Lendermon, Adriana Zeevi, John F McDyer, Christopher R Ensor
BACKGROUND: Traditional immunosuppressive regimens (ISR) used in lung transplantation rely on calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) that occasionally cause severe adverse reactions necessitating discontinuation. Belatacept is a novel costimulation antagonist approved for use in renal transplantation which lacks data in lung transplantation. This series aims to describe the response to belatacept ISR in 11 lung transplantation recipients after CNI failure. METHODS: Single center, retrospective medical record review of adult lung transplant recipients (LTR) before and after conversion to belatacept-based ISR...
July 6, 2017: Transplantation
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