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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917250/emerging-technologies-in-stereotactic-body-radiotherapy
#1
Lijun Ma, Lei Wang, Chia-Lin Tseng, Arjun Sahgal
Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) stems from the initial developments of intra-cranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Despite similarity in their names and clinical goals of delivering a sufficiently high tumoricidal dose, maximal sparing of the surrounding normal tissues and a short treatment course, SBRT technologies have transformed from the early days of body frame-based treatments with X-ray verification to primarily image-guided procedures with cone-beam CT or stereoscopic X-ray systems and non-rigid body immo-bilization...
September 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916623/efficacy-of-radioembolization-with-holmium-166-microspheres-in-salvage-patients-with-liver-metastases-a-phase-2-study
#2
Jip F Prince, Maurice A A J van den Bosch, J F W Nijsen, Maarten L J Smits, Andor F van den Hoven, Stavros Nikolakopoulos, Frank J Wessels, Rutger C G Bruijnen, Manon Braat, Bernard A Zonnenberg, Marnix Lam
Rationale: Radioembolization of liver malignancies with holmium-166 (166Ho) microspheres has been shown safe in a phase 1 dose-escalation study. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of 166Ho radioembolization. Methods: In this prospective single-arm study, 56 patients were enrolled, all with liver metastases refractory to systemic therapy and ineligible for surgical resection. Radioembolization was performed with a projected average absorbed dose of 60 Gy to the liver (equal to 3.8 GBq/kg liver tissue)...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914745/is-digital-tomosynthesis-on-par-with-computed-tomography-for-the-detection-and-measurement-of-pulmonary-nodules
#3
Xiang Wen Lee, Henry M Marshall, Steven C Leong, Rachael L O'Rourke, Karin Steinke, Negar Mirjalili, Rayleen V Bowman, Ian A Yang, Kwun M Fong
Chest digital tomosynthesis (DT) has potential advantages compared to computed tomography (CT) such as radiation dose reduction. However, the role of DT in pulmonary nodule management remains investigative. We compared DT against CT for pulmonary nodule detection and size measurement. A clinical population comprising 54 nodules from 30 patients and a screening population comprising 42 nodules from 52 patients were included. Scans were independently read by two radiologists. Agreement in nodule measurements between readers and between modalities was assessed by Bland-Altman analysis using a 95% level of significance...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914600/reduction-of-18-f-fdg-dose-in-clinical-pet-mr-imaging-by-using-silicon-photomultiplier-detectors
#4
Tetsuro Sekine, Gaspar Delso, Konstantinos G Zeimpekis, Felipe de Galiza Barbosa, Edwin E G W Ter Voert, Martin Huellner, Patrick Veit-Haibach
Purpose To determine the level of clinically acceptable reduction in injected fluorine 18 ((18)F) fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) dose in time-of-flight (TOF)-positron emission tomography(PET)/magnetic resonance (MR) imaging by using silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) detectors compared with TOF-PET/computed tomography (CT) using Lu1.8Y0.2SiO5(Ce), or LYSO, detectors in patients with different body mass indexes (BMIs). Materials and Methods Patients were enrolled in this study as part of a larger prospective study with a different purpose than evaluated in this study (NCT02316431)...
September 14, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914153/cardiotoxicity-with-carfilzomib-at-doses-greater-than-27%C3%A2-mg-m-2-a-case-series
#5
Gee Youn Kim, Tania Ahuja, John Papadopoulos, Frank Cirrone
Carfilzomib is a second-generation proteasome inhibitor that irreversibly inhibits chymotrypsin-like (CT-L) activities of the proteasome, and is indicated for relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. Cardiotoxicity is a well-established adverse effect of carfilzomib. The extent of cardiac toxicity in the literature spans anywhere from palpitations to cardiac arrest, with the most commonly reported manifestation being new-onset or worsening heart failure. A pre-clinical study of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of carfilzomib given via intravenous bolus or 30-minute infusion in rats showed that carfilzomib can strongly induce apoptosis and potently damage cardiac myocytes at clinically relevant concentrations...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912982/severe-thyrotoxicosis-secondary-to-povidone-iodine-from-peritoneal-dialysis
#6
Kirstie Lithgow, Christopher Symonds
A 73-year-old male on home peritoneal dialysis (PD) with recent diagnosis of atrial fibrillation presented with fatigue and dyspnea. Hyperthyroidism was diagnosed with TSH < 0.01 mIU/L and FT4 > 100 pmol/L. He had no personal or family history of thyroid disease. There had been no exposures to CT contrast, amiodarone, or iodine. Technetium thyroid scan showed diffusely decreased uptake. He was discharged with a presumptive diagnosis of thyroiditis. Three weeks later, he had deteriorated clinically...
2017: Case Reports in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912277/advantages-of-70-kv-ct-angiography-for-the-visualization-of-the-adamkiewicz-artery-comparison-with-120-kv-imaging
#7
S Shimoyama, T Nishii, Y Watanabe, A K Kono, K Kagawa, S Takahashi, K Sugimura
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Preprocedural identification of the Adamkiewicz artery is crucial in patients with aortic diseases. This study aimed to compare 70-kV CTA with conventional 120-kV CTA for the identification of the Adamkiewicz artery, examining differences in radiation dose and image quality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 2 equal groups of 60 patients who had undergone 70-kV or 120-kV CTA to detect the Adamkiewicz artery before aortic repair...
September 14, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912148/thermal-imaging-is-a-non-invasive-alternative-to-pet-ct-for-measurement-of-brown-adipose-tissue-activity-in-humans
#8
James Matthew Law, David Edward Morris, Chioma Izzi Engbeaya, Victoria Salem, Christopher Coello, Lindsay Robinson, Maduka Jayasinghe, Rebecca Scott, Roger Gunn, Eugenii Rabiner, Tricia Tan, Waljit Dhillo, Stephen Bloom, Helen Budge, Michael Symonds
Background: Obesity and its metabolic consequences are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) utilises glucose and free fatty acids to produce heat, thereby increasing energy expenditure. Effective evaluation of human BAT stimulators is constrained by current standard BAT assessment methods as positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) requires exposure to high doses of ionising radiation. Infrared thermography (IRT) is a potential non-invasive, safe alternative, although direct corroboration with PET-CT has not previously been established...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910264/estimation-and-comparison-of-the-radiation-effective-dose-during-coronary-computed-tomography-angiography-examinations-on-single-source-64-mdct-and-dual-source-128-mdct
#9
Daryoush Khoramian, Soroush Sistani
GOAL: To estimate and compare the radiation dose associated with coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) examinations on two multi-detector CT scanners (MDCT), 64-MDCT and 128-MDCT, in daily practice. METHODS: Scan parameters of 90 patients undergoing retrospective electrocardiographic gating spiral CCTA exam were recorded during a period on a single-source 64-MDCT and a dual-source 128-MDCT, and average scan parameters were derived that were used for dosimetry...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905656/comparison-of-low-dose-and-standard-dose-abdominal-ct-scan-in-body-stuffers
#10
Hooman Bahrami-Motlagh, Zahra Mahboubi-Fooladi, Babak Salevatipour, Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam, Seyyed Hadi Mirhashemi
PURPOSE: Detection of body stuffers is challenging in emergency departments. Because of the small size of baggies, plain radiograph is of little value in most suspects. On the other hand, abdomen CT scan is burdened by high cost and radiation dose. This study was performed to compare the image quality, radiation dose and accuracy of low-dose CT scan in comparison with standard dose. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this prospective study, suspected body stuffers who were referred to the radiology department underwent two different protocols of abdominal non-contrast CT scan simultaneously: low-dose (with equivalent dose to conventional abdominal x-ray) and standard dose...
September 14, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903447/locoregionally-recurrent-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-incidence-survival-prognostic-factors-and-treatment-outcomes
#11
Jer-Hwa Chang, Chia-Che Wu, Kevin Sheng-Po Yuan, Alexander T H Wu, Szu-Yuan Wu
PURPOSE: For locoregionally recurrent head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), appropriate therapeutic decisions remain unclear. We examined the treatment outcomes of a national cohort to determine suitable treatments for and prognostic factors in patients with locoregionally recurrent HNSCCs at different stages and sites. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed data of >20-year-old patients with HNSCC at American Joint Committee on Cancer clinical stages I-IV without metastasis from Taiwan National Health Insurance and cancer registry databases...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903358/mri-based-radiotherapy-planning-method-using-rigid-image-registration-technique-combined-with-outer-body-correction-scheme-a-feasibility-study
#12
Ki Mun Kang, Hoon Sik Choi, Bae Kwon Jeong, Jin Ho Song, In-Bong Ha, Yun Hee Lee, Chul Hang Kim, Hojin Jeong
An alternative pseudo CT generation method for magnetic resonance image (MRI)-based radiotherapy planning was investigated in the work. A pseudo CT was initially generated using the rigid image registration between the planning MRI and previously acquired diagnostic CT scan. The pseudo CT generated was then refined to have the same morphology with that of the referenced planning image scan by applying the outer body correction scheme. This method was applied to some sample of brain image data and the feasibility of the method was assessed by comparing dosimetry results with those from the current gold standard CT-based calculations...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902765/low-dose-90y-pet-ct-imaging-optimized-for-lesion-detectability-and-quantitative-accuracy-a-phantom-study-to-assess-the-feasibility-of-pretherapy-imaging-to-plan-the-therapeutic-dose
#13
Maryam Khazaee, Alireza Kamali-Asl, Parham Geramifar, Arman Rahmim
OBJECTIVE: The overall aim of this work is to optimize the reconstruction parameters for low-dose yttrium-90 (Y) PET/computed tomography (CT) imaging, and to determine Y minimum detectable activity, in an endeavor to investigate the feasibility of performing low-dose Y imaging in-vivo to plan the therapeutic dose in radioembolization. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was carried out using a Siemens Biograph 6 True Point PET/CT scanner. A Jaszczak phantom containing five hot syringes was imaged serially over 15 days...
September 11, 2017: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902728/crohn-disease-fdg-pet-ct-before-and-after-initial-dose-of-anti-tumor-necrosis-factor-therapy-to-predict-long-term-response
#14
Yan Epelboym, Paul B Shyn, Jeffrey Forris Beecham Chick, Matthew J Hamilton, Stacy D OʼConnor, Stuart G Silverman, Chun K Kim
PURPOSE: Clinical assessments of Crohn disease activity are limited in their capacity to assess treatment response to biologic therapy. The purpose of this study was to determine if changes in FDG activity between baseline PET and repeat PET performed prior to the second dose of induction anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy correlate with clinical response. METHODS: In this prospective, institutional review board-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant pilot study of 8 adult patients with active Crohn disease, FDG activity before and 2 weeks after initiation of anti-TNF therapy was assessed using low-dose PET/CT...
September 11, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901622/assessment-of-prior-image-induced-nonlocal-means-regularization-for-low-dose-ct-reconstruction-change-in-anatomy
#15
Hao Zhang, Jianhua Ma, Jing Wang, William Moore, Zhengrong Liang
PURPOSE: Repeated computed tomography (CT) scans are prescribed for some clinical applications such as lung nodule surveillance. Several studies have demonstrated that incorporating a high-quality prior image into the reconstruction of subsequent low-dose CT (LDCT) acquisitions can either improve image quality or reduce data fidelity requirements. Our proposed previous normal-dose image induced nonlocal means (ndiNLM) regularization method for LDCT is an example of such a method. However, one major concern with prior image based methods is that they might produce false information when the prior image and the current LDCT image show different structures (for example, if a lung nodule emerges, grows, shrinks, or disappears over time)...
September 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901621/objective-comparison-of-high-contrast-spatial-resolution-and-low-contrast-detectability-for-various-clinical-protocols-on-multiple-ct-scanners
#16
Damien Racine, Anaïs Viry, Fabio Becce, Sabine Schmidt, Alexandre Ba, François O Bochud, Sue Edyvean, Alexander Schegerer, Francis R Verdun
PURPOSE: We sought to compare objectively computed tomography (CT) scanner performance for three clinically relevant protocols using a task-based image quality assessment method in order to assess the potential for radiation dose reduction. METHODS: Four CT scanners released between 2003 and 2007 by different manufacturers were compared with four CT scanners released between 2012 and 2014 by the same manufacturers using ideal linear model observers (MO): prewhitening (PW) MO and channelized Hotelling (CHO) MO with Laguerre-Gauss channels for high-contrast spatial resolution and low-contrast detectability (LCD) performance, respectively...
September 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901615/model-based-dose-reconstruction-for-ct-dose-estimation
#17
Mingye Wu, Zhye Yin, Bruno De Man
PURPOSE: Our goal is to develop a model-based approach for CT dose estimation. We previously presented a CT dose estimation method that offered good accuracy in soft tissue regions but lower accuracy in bone regions. In this work, we propose an improved physic-based approach to achieve high accuracy for any materials and realistic clinical anatomies. METHODS: Like Monte Carlo techniques, we start from a model or image of the patient and we model all relevant x-ray interaction processes...
September 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901610/low-dose-dynamic-myocardial-perfusion-ct-imaging-using-a-motion-adaptive-sparsity-prior
#18
Zhaoying Bian, Dong Zeng, Zhang Zhang, Changfei Gong, Xiumei Tian, Gang Yan, Jing Huang, Hong Guo, Bo Chen, Jing Zhang, Qianjin Feng, Wufan Chen, Jianhua Ma
PURPOSE: Dynamic myocardial perfusion computed tomography (DM-PCT) imaging offers benefits over quantitative assessment of myocardial blood flow (MBF) for diagnosis and risk stratification of coronary artery disease. However, one major drawback of DM-PCT imaging is that a high radiation level is imparted by repeated scanning. To address this issue, in this work, we developed a statistical iterative reconstruction algorithm based on the penalized weighted least-squares (PWLS) scheme by incorporating a motion adaptive sparsity prior (MASP) model to achieve high-quality DM-PCT imaging with low tube current dynamic data acquisition...
September 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901609/adaptive-non-local-means-on-local-principle-neighborhood-for-noise-artifacts-reduction-in-low-dose-ct-images
#19
Yuanke Zhang, Hongbing Lu, Junyan Rong, Jing Meng, Junliang Shang, Pinghong Ren, Junying Zhang
PURPOSE: Low-dose CT (LDCT) technique can reduce the x-ray radiation exposure to patients at the cost of degraded images with severe noise and artifacts. Non-local means (NLM) filtering has shown its potential in improving LDCT image quality. However, currently most NLM-based approaches employ a weighted average operation directly on all neighbor pixels with a fixed filtering parameter throughout the NLM filtering process, ignoring the non-stationary noise nature of LDCT images. In this paper, an adaptive NLM filtering scheme on local principle neighborhoods (PC-NLM) is proposed for structure-preserving noise/artifacts reduction in LDCT images...
September 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901442/the-uptake-exploration-of-68ga-labeled-ngr-in-well-differentiated-hepatocellular-carcinoma-xenografts-indication-for-the-new-clinical-translational-of-a-tracer-based-on-ngr
#20
Yongheng Gao, Zhengjie Wang, Xiaowei Ma, Wenhui Ma, Mingxuan Zhao, Tianming Fu, Guoquan Li, Shengjun Wang, Zhe Wang, Weidong Yang, Fei Kang, Jing Wang
18F-FDG has low uptake and poor diagnostic efficiency in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), particularly in well-differentiated HCC. The NGR peptide selectively targets CD13, which is overexpressed in many types of tumor cells as well as neovasculature cells. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing 68Ga-NGR to image CD13-positive well-differentiated HCC xenografts. The in vitro cellular uptake, in vivo micro-PET/CT imaging and biodistribution studies of 68Ga-NGR and 18F-FDG were quantitatively compared in SMMC-7721-based well‑differentiated HCC xenografts...
August 31, 2017: Oncology Reports
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