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Computerised tomography

Tobias M R Houlton, Caroline Wilkinson
Shrunken heads are a mummification phenomenon unique to South America. Ceremonial tsantsa are ritually reduced heads from enemy victims of the Shuar, Achuar, Awajún (Aguaruna), Wampís (Huambisa), and Candoshi-Shapra cultures. Commercial shrunken heads are comparatively modern and fraudulently produced for the curio-market, often using stolen bodies from hospital mortuaries and graves. To achieve shrinkage and desiccation, heads undergo skinning, simmering (in water) and drying. Considering the intensive treatments applied, this research aims to identify how the facial structure can alter and impact identification using post-mortem depiction...
March 6, 2018: Forensic Science International
A Ulate-Campos, J Petanas-Argemi, M Rebollo-Polo, C Jou, C Sierra, J Armstrong, M C Fons-Estupina
INTRODUCTION: X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is the most frequent peroxisomal disease. It is due to a mutation in the ABCD1 gene. The loss of functioning of ABCD1 triggers ineffective beta oxidation of very long-chain fatty acids, which gives rise to an accumulation of these fatty acids. The typical alteration revealed in neuroimaging scans in the cerebral form is symmetrical periventricular demyelination with posterior location. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 10-year-old boy with right spastic hemiparesis and subacute cognitive impairment...
April 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Yifat Manor, Adi A Garfunkel
PURPOSE: To describe a rare case of odontogenic brain abscess. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A healthy, 35-year-old male had two dental implants placed in a simultaneously augmented maxillary sinus. One implant failed and the patient developed a maxillary sinusitis that failed to improve following antibiotic treatment at home. The neglected sinus infection led to formation of a brain abscess. The patient was hospitalised only when he had pan sinusitis with neurological signs...
2018: European Journal of Oral Implantology
Hidetoshi Hamada, Masaki Takao, Takashi Sakai, Nobuhiko Sugano
PURPOSE: For successful joint preservation in osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH), it is important to understand the mechanism of collapse. The purpose of this study was to investigate the initiation of subchondral fracture in ONFH by using micro-CT imaging of the whole femoral head, focusing on the three-dimensional relationship between the subchondral fracture and the bone resorption area. METHODS: A total of 40 femoral heads from 37 patients retrieved during total hip arthroplasty for stage 3A or 3B ONFH by Japanese Investigation Committee criteria were scanned using micro-CT with a 0...
March 14, 2018: International Orthopaedics
Gui Tran, Paul Cowling, Toby Smith, Julie Bury, Adam Lucas, Andrew Barr, Sarah R Kingsbury, Philip G Conaghan
OBJECTIVE: Shoulder symptoms are common and imaging is being increasingly used to help with management. However, the relationship between imaging and symptoms remain unclear. This review aims to understand the relationship between imaging-detected pathologies, symptoms and their persistence. METHODS: A systematic review using Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane and grey literature was conducted to April 2017. The cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between imaging-detected abnormalities and symptoms were analysed and associations qualitatively characterised by a best evidence synthesis based on study design, covariate adjustment and the Grade of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE)...
March 7, 2018: Arthritis Care & Research
David Scott, Catherine Shore-Lorenti, Lachlan B McMillan, Jakub Mesinovic, Ross A Clark, Alan Hayes, Kerrie M Sanders, Gustavo Duque, Peter R Ebeling
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether associations of calf muscle density with physical function are independent of other determinants of functional decline in overweight and obese older adults. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of a cross-sectional study of 85 community-dwelling overweight and obese adults (mean±SD age 62.8±7.9 years; BMI 32.3±6.1 kg/m2; 58% women). Peripheral quantitative computed tomography assessed mid-calf muscle density (66% tibial length) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry determined visceral fat area...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Musculoskeletal & Neuronal Interactions
Amer Sebaaly, Guillaume Riouallon, Mourad Zaraa, Peter Upex, Véronique Marteau, Pomme Jouffroy
PURPOSE: Evaluate the role of four standardized 3D reconstruction views in the accurate diagnosis of acetabular fractures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-five acetabular fracture cases were selected from a tertiary centre database. Fourteen reviewers with different experience level evaluated this set of images which were provided in axial 2D views and multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) without 3D views in the first two readings then the standardized 3D views were added for the subsequent two readings...
February 2, 2018: International Orthopaedics
Eda Albayrak, Fitnet Sonmezgoz, Zafer Ozmen, Fatma Aktas, Aysegul Altunkas
A 26-year-old female patient with Type 1 Gaucher's disease (GD) was admitted to our clinic with complaints of stomachache and signs of anemia. The patient underwent ultrasonography (US), computerised tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. Imaging studies revealed massive hepatosplenomegaly, choledocolithiasis, and six nodules in the spleen with a mean size of 14 mm. The nodules appeared hyperechoic, hypoechoic, and of mixed echogenicity on the US and hypodense on the CT. While the nodules were observed to be iso-hypointense in T1-weighted (T1WI) images, they appeared to be hyperintense in the T2-weighted (T2WI) images...
October 2017: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
Yi Yang, Feng Pan, Feitong Wu, Kathryn Squibb, Russell Thomson, Tania Winzenberg, Graeme Jones
To estimate the heritability of bone geometry, volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and microarchitecture of trabecular (Tb) and cortical (Ct) bone measured by high resolution peripheral quantitative computerised tomography (HRpQCT) at the distal radius and tibia and to investigate the genetic correlations of these measures. Participants were 177 mother-offspring pairs from 162 families (mothers, mean age (SD) = 52.1 (4.7) years; offspring, 25.6 (0.73) years). Trabecular and cortical bone measures were obtained by HRpQCT...
January 27, 2018: Bone
Naveed Anjum, Nuzhat Noureen, Imran Iqbal
OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical presentations and outcomes of the children suffering from tuberculous meningitis. METHODS: This prospective, descriptive study was conducted at the Children's Hospital and the Institute of Child Health, Multan, Pakistan, from February to December 2015. The Pakistan Paediatric Association scoring chart for tuberculosis was used as a tool for the probable diagnosis. The clinical symptoms with their durations were noted. Clinical stages of tuberculous meningitis, cerebrospinal fluid analysis and computerised tomography brain findings were noted for each patient...
January 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Laurent Dercle, Samy Ammari, Romain-David Seban, Lawrence H Schwartz, Roch Houot, Nizar Labaied, Fatima-Zohra Mokrane, Julien Lazarovici, Alina Danu, Aurélien Marabelle, Vincent Ribrag, Jean-Marie Michot
BACKGROUND: We aimed to define the depth and time of maximal anti-tumour response to programmed death-1 blockade antibodies (anti-PD1) in heavily pre-treated patients with classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). To this end, we evaluated the kinetics of response for up to two years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The 18F-FDG positron-emission tomography (PET) and contrast-enhanced computerised tomography (CECT) data of all relapsed or refractory HL treated at Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France, from 2013 to 2015 were retrospectively reviewed according to the International Harmonisation Project Cheson 2014 criteria and the LYmphoma Response to Immunomodulatory therapy Criteria (LYRIC)...
January 19, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
Benjamin Wybrand Barnard, Anne-Marie Du Plessis, Pierre Goussard, Richard Denys Pitcher
Background There has been no detailed analysis of the cause of intrathoracic large airway obstruction in infants in a resource-limited environment with a high prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Aim To define the aetiology and severity of intrathoracic large airway obstruction in infants in a tertiary South African hospital with a high prevalence of PTB and HIV. Methods A retrospective study of infants was conducted with computerised tomography (CT) evidence of intrathoracic large airway obstruction from 1 January 2011 to 31 May 2014...
January 22, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Dana Baron Shahaf, Sapir Bar, Ronit Leiba, Vered Dvir, Itai Shavit
OBJECTIVE: Emergency department (ED) visits due to concussion have increased over recent years. We aimed to identify variables associated with unscheduled adolescents return to the ED. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted. All children aged 11 to 18 years who were admitted to the ED due to concussion between 2011 and 2016 were included. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify predictors of ED return. RESULTS: Overall, 616 adolescents were admitted to the ED due to concussion...
January 17, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Katrin Muradas Mujika, Juan Antonio Juanes Méndez, Andrés Framiñan de Miguel
Currently, there are sophisticated applications that make it possible to visualize medical images and even to manipulate them. These software applications are of great interest, both from a teaching and a radiological perspective. In addition, some of these applications are known as Free Open Source Software because they are free and the source code is freely available, and therefore it can be easily obtained even on personal computers. Two examples of free open source software are Osirix Lite® and 3D Slicer®...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
Samanthi De Silva
A 43-year old previously fit and well gentleman presented to the emergency department (ED) with a two day history of worsening epigastric pain. He had had coryzal symptoms the preceding week but had no other past medical history. He was haemodynamically stable at presentation and an ultrasound scan (US) performed in the ED could not definitively rule out intra-abdominal fluid. In view of his tender abdomen on examination and a haemoglobin level of 9.2g/dL, a computerised tomography (CT) scan was performed and revealed extensive high-density fluid within the peritoneal cavity, raising the possibility of a concealed bleed but no obvious source was identified by the scan...
December 2017: Journal of Perioperative Practice
Kerem Karaman, Mehmet Aziret, Ali Bal, Volkan Öter, Metin Ercan, Erdal Birol Bostancı
INTRODUCTION: Porto-mesenteric venous thrombosis (PMVT) is a rare but fatal complication after bariatric surgery. However, an increasing number of PMVT complications have been observed in the last years after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) operations. CASE REPORT: A 35-year-old male was admitted to the emergency clinic in a septic status with a sudden once of abdominal pain and vomiting. The patient underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) 15 days ago...
January 5, 2018: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
David Scott, Catherine Shore-Lorenti, Lachlan McMillan, Jakub Mesinovic, Ross A Clark, Alan Hayes, Kerrie M Sanders, Gustavo Duque, Peter R Ebeling
OBJECTIVES: To determine characteristics of sarcopenic obesity that are independently associated with bone health and balance in older adults. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of 168 community-dwelling older adults (mean age 67.7 ± 8.4 years; 55% women). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Appendicular lean mass (ALM), whole-body areal BMD (aBMD) and body fat percentage were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography assessed muscle density and cortical volumetric BMD (vBMD), area, thickness, and strength-strain index (SSI) at 66% tibial length...
December 16, 2017: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Yasushi Iwasaki, Ken-Ichiro Hoshino, Keiko Mori, Masumi Ito, Yoshinari Kawai, Maya Mimuro, Tamao Tsukie, Takeshi Ikeuchi, Mari Yoshida
Since she was 4 years old, the patient had exhibited frequent convulsive seizures, and she experienced severe headaches and depression in adulthood. At the age of 37 years, cerebral calcifications were detected, but she exhibited no cognitive or motor problems. She suffered a cerebral haemorrhage at 49 years old and experienced cognitive dysfunction, dysarthria, dysphagia, and left-hemiparesis as sequelae. After undergoing gastrostomy, she exhibited very slow cognitive deterioration associated with speech disturbance over more than 10 years...
September 2017: ENeurologicalSci
Imran Ahmad, Oliver Keane, Sarah Muldoon
Studies have demonstrated that poor assessment and planning contribute to airway complications and that current airway assessment strategies have a poor diagnostic accuracy in predicting difficult intubation in the general population. Patients with head and neck pathology are at higher risk for difficulties during airway management and are more likely to need emergency surgical access. Therefore, thorough assessment of this group of patients is mandatory. The addition of virtual endoscopy (VE) to clinical history and computerised tomography imaging has been shown to improve diagnostic accuracy for supraglottic, glottic and infraglottic lesions and has a positive influence in formulating a more cautious and thorough airway management strategy in this high-risk group of patients...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
Rebecca Van Gelder, Shelley Wong, Andrew Le, Alexander Podreka, Adam Briggs, Carol Haddad, Nicholas Hardcastle
INTRODUCTION: Radiotherapy outcomes are influenced by treatment delivery geometric accuracy and organ-at-risk dose. The location of abdominal structures such as the liver, kidneys and tumour volumes can be strongly influenced by respiratory motion. This increases geometric uncertainty and dose to organs-at-risk. One common method of minimising respiratory motion is abdominal compression (AC). METHODS: Fifteen patients being treated for radiotherapy to upper abdominal tumours were analysed...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences
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