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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654334/antennular-morphology-and-contribution-of-aesthetascs-in-the-detection-of-food-related-compounds-in-the-shrimp-palaemon-adspersus-rathke-1837-decapoda-palaemonidae
#1
Paolo Solari, Giorgia Sollai, Carla Masala, Francesco Loy, Francesco Palmas, Andrea Sabatini, Roberto Crnjar
Shrimp are an essential ecological component of marine ecosystems, and have commercial importance for human consumption and aquaculture. Like other decapod crustaceans, shrimp rely on chemical senses to detect and localize food resources by means of chemosensilla that are located mainly on the cephalothoracic appendages. Using the shrimp Palaemon adspersus, a model organism with omnivorous feeding behavior, we aimed to provide comparative information on the role of aesthetascs, antennular sensilla, and flicking behavior in food detection...
April 2017: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654009/labradorins-with-antibacterial-activity-produced-by-pseudomonas-sp
#2
Anders Broberg, Joakim Bjerketorp, Pierre Andersson, Christer Sahlberg, Jolanta J Levenfors
The urgent need for new antibacterial drugs has led to renewed interest in microorganisms, which historically have been the main source of previously discovered antibiotics. The present study describes the discovery of two new antibacterial oxazolylindole type alkaloids, labradorins 5 (1) and 6 (2), which were isolated and characterized from two isolates of Pseudomonas sp., along with four previously known tryptophane derived alkaloids. The structures of 1 and 2 were determined by NMR spectroscopy and MS, and confirmed by synthesis...
June 27, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651456/phytochemical-treatments-target-kynurenine-pathway-induced-oxidative-stress
#3
K Parasram
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper was to link the phytochemical and metabolic research treating quinolinic acid induced oxidative stress in neurodegenerative disorders. METHODS: Quinolinic acid, a metabolite of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan catabolism, plays a role in the oxidative stress associated with many neurological disorders and is used to simulate disorders such as Parkinson's disease. RESULTS: In these models, phytochemicals have been shown to reduce striatal lesion size, reduce inflammation and prevent lipid peroxidation caused by quinolinic acid...
June 26, 2017: Redox Report: Communications in Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651373/sex-dependent-differences-in-liver-and-gut-metabolomic-profiles-with-acarbose-and-calorie-restriction-in-c57bl-6-mice
#4
Victoria K Gibbs, Rachel A Brewer, Nathan D Miyasaki, Amit Patki, Daniel L Smith
Acarbose, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor used in treating type 2 diabetes, impairs complex carbohydrate digestion and absorption and extends lifespan in mice (without a requisite reduction in food intake). To assess sex-differential effects coincident with calorie restriction versus a non-restricted longevity enhancing intervention, we evaluated the metabolite profiles (by LC/MS) from livers and cecal contents of C57BL/6J mice (n=4/sex/group,) which were maintained for 10 months under one of three diet treatments: ad libitum control diet (CON), ad libitum control diet containing 0...
June 23, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650487/engineering-thiophene-based-nanoparticles-to-induce-phototransduction-in-live-cells-under-illumination
#5
M Zangoli, F Di Maria, E Zucchetti, C Bossio, M R Antognazza, G Lanzani, R Mazzaro, F Corticelli, M Baroncini, G Barbarella
We report that nanoparticles prepared from appropriately functionalized polythiophenes once administered to live cells can acquire phototransduction properties under illumination, becoming photoactive sites able to absorb visible light and convert it to an electrical signal through cell membrane polarization. Amine-reactive fluorescent nanoparticles with pendant N-succinimidyl-ester groups (NPs-NHS) are prepared from polythiophenes alternating unsubstituted and 3-(2,5-dioxopyrrolidin-1-yl-8-octanoate)-substituted thiophenes by a nanoprecipitation method...
June 26, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650319/somatostatin-binds-to-the-human-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptide-and-favors-the-formation-of-distinct-oligomers
#6
Hansen Wang, Lisa D Muiznieks, Punam Ghosh, Declan Williams, Michael Solarski, Andrew Fang, Alejandro Ruiz-Riquelme, Régis Pomès, Joel C Watts, Avi Chakrabartty, Holger Wille, Simon Sharpe, Gerold Schmitt-Ulms
The amyloid β peptide (Aβ) is a key player in the etiology of Alzheimer disease (AD), yet a systematic investigation of its molecular interactions has not been reported. Here we identified by quantitative mass spectrometry proteins in human brain extract that bind to oligomeric Aβ1-42 (oAβ1-42) and/or monomeric Aβ1-42 (mAβ1-42) baits. Remarkably, the cyclic neuroendocrine peptide somatostatin-14 (SST14) was observed to be the most selectively enriched oAβ1-42 binder. The binding interface comprises a central tryptophan within SST14 and the N-terminus of Aβ1-42...
June 26, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650043/heme-containing-enzymes-and-inhibitors-for-tryptophan-metabolism
#7
REVIEW
Daojing Yan, Ying-Wu Lin, Xiangshi Tan
Iron-containing enzymes such as heme enzymes play crucial roles in biological systems. Three distinct heme-containing dioxygenase enzymes, tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO), indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 2 (IDO2) catalyze the initial and rate-limiting step of l-tryptophan catabolism through the kynurenine pathway in mammals. Overexpression of these enzymes causes depletion of tryptophan and the accumulation of metabolic products, which contributes to tumor immune tolerance and immune dysregulation in a variety of disease pathologies...
June 26, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649610/evaluation-of-the-safety-and-immunomodulatory-effects-of-sargramostim-in-a-randomized-double-blind-phase-1-clinical-parkinson-s-disease-trial
#8
Howard E Gendelman, Yuning Zhang, Pamela Santamaria, Katherine E Olson, Charles R Schutt, Danish Bhatti, Bhagya Laxmi Dyavar Shetty, Yaman Lu, Katherine A Estes, David G Standaert, Elizabeth Heinrichs-Graham, LuAnn Larson, Jane L Meza, Matthew Follett, Erica Forsberg, Gary Siuzdak, Tony W Wilson, Carolyn Peterson, R Lee Mosley
A potential therapeutic role for immune transformation in Parkinson's disease evolves from more than a decade of animal investigations demonstrating regulatory T cell (Treg) nigrostriatal neuroprotection. To bridge these results to human disease, we conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1 trial with a well-studied immune modulator, sargramostim (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor). We enrolled 17 age-matched non-Parkinsonian subjects as non-treated controls and 20 Parkinson's disease patients...
2017: NPJ Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649045/roles-of-phytoplankton-and-macrophyte-derived-dissolved-organic-matter-in-sulfamethazine-adsorption-on-goethite
#9
Leilei Bai, Chicheng Cao, Chunliu Wang, Changhui Wang, Hui Zhang, Helong Jiang
Phytoplankton-derived dissolved organic matter (PDOM) and macrophyte-derived dissolved organic matter (MDOM) exist ubiquitously in eutrophic freshwater lakes. To understand the heterogeneous roles of individual fluorescent DOM components in the adsorption of antibiotics onto sediment minerals, the adsorptive fractionation of DOM on goethite (α-FeOOH) and its interaction with sulfamethazine (SMT) were investigated using fluorescence excitation-emission matrix combined with parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC)...
June 22, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648567/eicosapentaenoic-and-docosahexaenoic-acids-have-different-effects-on-peripheral-phospholipase-a2-gene-expressions-in-acute-depressed-patients
#10
Kuan-Pin Su, Hui-Ting Yang, Jane Pei-Chen Chang, Yin-Hua Shih, Ta-Wei Guu, Satyanarayanan Senthil Kumaran, Piotr Gałecki, Anna Walczewska, Carmine M Pariante
INTRODUCTION: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been proven critical in the development and management of major depressive disorder (MDD) by a number of epidemiological, clinical and preclinical studies, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this therapeutic action are yet to be understood. Although eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) seems to be the active component of omega-3 PUFAs' antidepressant effects, the biological research about the difference of specific genetic regulations between EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the two main components of omega-3 PUFAs, is still lacking in human subjects...
June 22, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648005/-components-of-human-placental-extract-and-its-protective-effect-to-rat-from-d-galn-induced-acute-liver-injury
#11
H Q Lei, M L Cheng, J Li, P P Zhou, X H Luo, F Yu
Objective: To evaluate the effect of human placental extracts (HPE) on the protection from acute liver injury (ALI) induced by D-GalN and analyze the components of HPE. Methods: (1)Fourty male mice were randomly divided into five groups (Blank, Model, MgIG, HPE and HPE+ MgIG) for the ALI model and treatments.The serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) were determined by biochemical assays.Nitric monoxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in serum and hepatic tissue were detected by assay kits...
June 20, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647871/cytoskeleton-as-a-target-of-quinolinic-acid-neurotoxicity-insight-from-animal-models
#12
REVIEW
Paula Pierozan, Regina Pessoa-Pureur
Cytoskeletal proteins are increasingly recognized as having important roles as a target of the action of different neurotoxins. In the last years, several works of our group have shown that quinolinic acid (QUIN) was able to disrupt the homeostasis of the cytoskeleton of neural cells and this was associated with cell dysfunction and neurodegeneration. QUIN is an excitotoxic metabolite of tryptophan metabolism and its accumulation is associated with several neurodegenerative diseases. In the present review, we provide a comprehensive view of the actions of QUIN upstream of glutamate receptors, eliciting kinase/phosphatase signaling cascades that disrupt the homeostasis of the phosphorylation system associated with intermediate filament proteins of astrocytes and neurons...
June 24, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647409/a-residue-specific-insight-into-the-arkadia-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-activity-and-conformational-plasticity
#13
Maria Birkou, Christos T Chasapis, Konstantinos D Marousis, Ariadni K Loutsidou, Detlef Bentrop, Moreno Lelli, Torsten Herrmann, Jonathon M Carthy, Vasso Episkopou, Georgios A Spyroulias
Arkadia (Rnf111) is an E3 Ubiquitin ligase that plays a central role in the amplification of TGF-β signaling responses by targeting for degradation the negative regulators of the pathway, Smad6 and Smad7 and the nuclear co-repressors Ski and Skil (SnoN). Arkadia's function in vivo depends on the RING-H2 interaction with the E2 enzyme UbcH5b in order to ligate ubiquitin chains on its substrates. A conserved tryptophan (W972) in the C-terminal α-helix is widely accepted as essential for E2 recruitment and interaction and thus also for E3 enzymatic activity...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647249/potential-acute-effects-of-suspended-aluminum-nitride-aln-nanoparticles-on-soluble-microbial-products-smp-of-activated-sludge
#14
Lijie Zhou, Weiqin Zhuang, Xin Wang, Ke Yu, Shufang Yang, Siqing Xia
The study aims to identify the potential acute effects of suspended aluminum nitride (AlN) nanoparticles (NPs) on soluble microbial products (SMP) of activated sludge. Cultured activated sludge loaded with 1, 10, 50, 100, 150 and 200mg/L of AlN NPs were carried out in this study. As results showed, AlN NPs had a highly inverse proportionality to bacterial dehydrogenase and OUR, indicating its direct toxicity to the activated sludge viability. The toxicity of AlN NPs was mainly due to the nano-scale of AlN NPs...
July 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647245/transport-and-humification-of-dissolved-organic-matter-within-a-semi-arid-floodplain
#15
Wenming Dong, Jiamin Wan, Tetsu K Tokunaga, Benjamin Gilbert, Kenneth H Williams
In order to understand the transport and humification processes of dissolved organic matter (DOM) within sediments of a semi-arid floodplain at Rifle, Colorado, fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy, humification index (HIX) and specific UV absorbance (SUVA) at 254nm were applied for characterizing depth and seasonal variations of DOM composition. Results revealed that late spring snowmelt leached relatively fresh DOM from plant residue and soil organic matter down into the deeper vadose zone (VZ)...
July 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646877/sbmlmod-a-python-based-web-application-and-web-service-for-efficient-data-integration-and-model-simulation
#16
Sascha Schäuble, Anne-Kristin Stavrum, Mathias Bockwoldt, Pål Puntervoll, Ines Heiland
BACKGROUND: Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) is the standard model representation and description language in systems biology. Enriching and analysing systems biology models by integrating the multitude of available data, increases the predictive power of these models. This may be a daunting task, which commonly requires bioinformatic competence and scripting. RESULTS: We present SBMLmod, a Python-based web application and service, that automates integration of high throughput data into SBML models...
June 24, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646618/tryptophan-as-a-surrogate-prognostic-marker-for-diabetic-nephropathy
#17
Chien-An Chou, Chia-Ni Lin, Daniel Tsun-Yee Chiu, I-Wen Chen, Szu-Tah Chen
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Diabetic nephropathy is one of the leading causes of end-stage renal disease. Unfortunately, reliable surrogate markers for predicting the prognostic outcome of diabetic nephropathy were as yet absent. In order to find new markers in predicting the progression of diabetic nephropathy, we conducted a prospective study by investigating the correlation between serum metabolites and the annual change of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: From September 2013 to September 2015, 52 diabetic patients at various stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) were enrolled...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643528/modulating-release-of-ranibizumab-and-aflibercept-from-thiolated-chitosan-based-hydrogels-for-potential-treatment-of-ocular-neovascularization
#18
Miguel Moreno, Poh Yih Pow, Tan Su Teng Tabitha, Sonali Nirmal, Andreas Larsson, Krishna Radhakrishnan, Jayabalan Nirmal, Soo Tng Quah, Susana Geifman Shochat, Rupesh Agrawal, Subbu Venkatraman
BACKGROUND: This paper describes the synthesis of thiolated chitosan-based hydrogels with varying degrees of crosslinking that has been utilized to modulate release kinetics of two clinically relevant FDA-approved anti-VEGF protein drugs, ranibizumab and aflibercept. These hydrogels have been fabricated into disc shaped structures for potential use as patches on ocular surface. METHODS: Protein conformational changes and aggregation after loading and release was evaluated by circular dichroism (CD), steady-state tryptophan fluorescence spectroscopy, electrophoresis and size-exclusion chromatography (SEC)...
June 23, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641389/acute-tryptophan-depletion-the-first-method-validation-in-an-avian-species-gallus-gallus-domesticus
#19
Patrick Birkl, Joergen B Kjaer, William Szkotnicki, Paul Forsythe, Alexandra Harlander-Matauschek
Acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) is a valuable non-invasive nutritional tool in human and rodent research to study dysfunctions of the serotonergic system and related behavioral disorders. Serotonergic dysfunction is thought to be involved in the pathology of feather pecking behavior of laying hens, one of the most relevant welfare and production issues in modern intensive egg-production systems. ATD temporarily compromises the influx of tryptophan (TRP) across the blood brain barrier which reduces central availability of TRP, the substrate for serotonin (5-HT) synthesis...
June 21, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640216/a-branched-chain-amino-acid-related-metabolic-signature-characterizes-obese-adolescents-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#20
Martina Goffredo, Nicola Santoro, Domenico Tricò, Cosimo Giannini, Ebe D'Adamo, Hongyu Zhao, Gang Peng, Xiaoqing Yu, Tukiet T Lam, Bridget Pierpont, Sonia Caprio, Raimund I Herzog
Dysregulation of several metabolite pathways, including branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), are associated with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) and insulin resistance in adults, while studies in youth reported conflicting results. We explored whether, independently of obesity and insulin resistance, obese adolescents with NAFLD display a metabolomic signature consistent with disturbances in amino acid and lipid metabolism. A total of 180 plasma metabolites were measured by a targeted metabolomic approach in 78 obese adolescents with (n = 30) or without (n = 48) NAFLD assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
June 22, 2017: Nutrients
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