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Natural nerve regrowth

Miyeoun Song, Hyomin Kim, Sujin Park, Hyockman Kwon, Insil Joung, Yunhee Kim Kwon
Aucubin is a small compound naturally found in traditional medicinal herbs with primarily anti-inflammatory and protective effects. In the nervous system, aucubin is reported to be neuroprotective by enhancing neuronal survival and inhibiting apoptotic cell death in cultures and disease models. Our previous data, however, suggest that aucubin facilitates neurite elongation in cultured hippocampal neurons and axonal regrowth in regenerating sciatic nerves. Here, we investigated whether aucubin facilitates the differentiation of neural precursor cells (NPCs) into specific types of neurons...
April 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
Manuela Medelin, Davide Porrelli, Emily Rose Aurand, Denis Scaini, Andrea Travan, Massimiliano Antonio Borgogna, Michela Cok, Ivan Donati, Eleonora Marsich, Chiara Scopa, Raffaella Scardigli, Sergio Paoletti, Laura Ballerini
Current strategies in Central Nervous System (CNS) repair focus on the engineering of artificial scaffolds for guiding and promoting neuronal tissue regrowth. Ideally, one should combine such synthetic structures with stem cell therapies, encapsulating progenitor cells and instructing their differentiation and growth. We used developments in the design, synthesis, and characterization of polysaccharide-based bioactive polymeric materials for testing the ideal composite supporting neuronal network growth, synapse formation and stem cell differentiation into neurons and motor neurons...
April 2, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Ted Mau, Hao-Min Pan, Lesley F Childs
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP) are commonly told to wait 12 months for spontaneous recovery. This study aims to 1) determine the time to vocal recovery in UVFP, 2) use that data to develop a neurophysiologically plausible model for recovery, and 3) use the model to generate meaningful predictions for patient counseling. STUDY DESIGN: Case series with de novo mathematical modeling. METHODS: Patients with UVFP who could pinpoint a discrete onset of vocal improvement were identified...
November 2017: Laryngoscope
Timothy Wong, Yehuda Herschman, Nitesh V Patel, Tushar Patel, Simon Hanft
OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Camurati-Engelmann disease (CED) is a rare, autosomal-dominant genetic disorder resulting in hyperostosis of the long bones and skull. Patients often develop cranial nerve dysfunction and increased intracranial pressure secondary to stenosis of nerve foramina and hyperostosis. Surgical decompression may provide symptomatic relief in select patients; however, a small number of reports document the recurrence of symptoms due to bony regrowth. We present a patient who had been treated previously with bilateral frontal and parietal craniotomy who experienced recurrence of symptoms due to reossification of her cranial bones...
June 2017: World Neurosurgery
Michelle E Deochand, Taylor R Birkholz, Wendy S Beane
While tissue regeneration is typically studied using standard injury models, in nature injuries vary greatly in the amount and location of tissues lost. Planarians have the unique ability to regenerate from many different injuries (including from tiny fragments with no brain), allowing us to study the effects of different injuries on regeneration timelines. We followed the timing of regeneration for one organ, the eye, after multiple injury types that involved tissue loss (single- and double-eye ablation, and decapitation) in Schmidtea mediterranea...
August 2016: Regeneration
Tanya J Shaw, Molly Osborne, Giovanna Ponte, Graziano Fiorito, Paul L R Andrews
BACKGROUND: Octopoda utilise their arms for a diverse range of functions, including locomotion, hunting, defence, exploration, reproduction, and grooming. However the natural environment contains numerous threats to the integrity of arms, including predators and prey during capture. Impressively, octopoda are able to close open wounds in an aquatic environment and can fully regenerate arms. The regrowth phase of cephalopod arm regeneration has been grossly described; however, there is little information about the acute local response that occurs following an amputation injury comparable to that which frequently occurs in the wild...
2016: Zoological Letters
Yoshiyasu Iwai, Kenichi Ishibashi, Yuta Nakanishi, Youhei Onishi, Shugo Nishijima, Kazuhiro Yamanaka
OBJECTIVE: We reviewed our experience with salvage surgery following failed gamma knife radiosurgery (GKS) for vestibular schwannomas. METHODS: The study comprised 18 patients with unilateral vestibular schwannomas. The median prescribed radiation dose was 12 Gy (range, 10-12.5 Gy). Nine patients had regrowth after GKS, and 9 had regrowth after surgical resection plus GKS. The median interval between GKS and surgical resection was 26 months (range: 4-66 months)...
June 2016: World Neurosurgery
Ashkan Monfared, Carlton E Corrales, Philip V Theodosopoulos, Nikolas H Blevins, John S Oghalai, Samuel H Selesnick, Howard Lee, Richard K Gurgel, Marlan R Hansen, Rick F Nelson, Bruce J Gantz, Joe W Kutz, Brandon Isaacson, Peter S Roland, Richard Amdur, Robert K Jackler
BACKGROUND: Patients with large vestibular schwannomas are at high risk of poor facial nerve (cranial nerve VII [CNVII]) function after surgery. Subtotal resection potentially offers better outcome, but may lead to higher tumor regrowth. OBJECTIVE: To assess long-term CNVII function and tumor regrowth in patients with large vestibular schwannomas. METHODS: Prospective multicenter nonrandomized cohort study of patients with vestibular schwannoma ≥2...
August 2016: Neurosurgery
Miyuki Sakuma, Grzegorz Gorski, Shu-Hsien Sheu, Stella Lee, Lee B Barrett, Bhagat Singh, Takao Omura, Alban Latremoliere, Clifford J Woolf
Motor axons in peripheral nerves have the capacity to regenerate after injury. However, full functional motor recovery rarely occurs clinically, and this depends on the nature and location of the injury. Recent preclinical findings suggest that there may be a time after nerve injury where, while regrowth to the muscle successfully occurs, there is nevertheless a failure to re-establish motor function, suggesting a possible critical period for synapse reformation. We have now examined the temporal and anatomical determinants for the re-establishment of motor function after prolonged neuromuscular junction (NMJ) denervation in rats and mice...
February 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Uri Galili
Application of α-gal nanoparticles to wounds and burns induces accelerated healing by harnessing the natural anti-Gal antibody which constitutes ~1% of human immunoglobulins. α-gal nanoparticles present multiple α-gal epitopes (Galα1-3Galβ1-4GlcNAc-R), the carbohydrate ligand of anti-Gal. Studied α-gal nanoparticles were comprised of glycolipids with α-gal epitopes, phospholipids, and cholesterol. Binding of anti-Gal to α-gal nanoparticles in wounds activates the complement cascade, resulting in formation of chemotactic complement cleavage peptides that induce rapid recruitment of many macrophages...
2015: Journal of Immunology Research
Yuval Rinkevich, Zeshaan N Maan, Graham G Walmsley, Subhro K Sen
UNLABELLED: Background The regrowth of amputated appendage extremities and the distal tips of digits represent models of tissue regeneration in multiple vertebrate taxa. In humans, digit tip injuries, including traumatic amputation and crush injuries, are among the most common type of injury to the human hand. Despite clinical reports demonstrating natural regeneration of appendages in lower vertebrates and human digits, current treatment options are suboptimal, and are complicated by the anatomical complexities and functions of the different tissues within the digits...
May 2015: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
Yuval Rinkevich, Zeshaan N Maan, Graham G Walmsley, Subhro K Sen
BACKGROUND: The regrowth of amputated appendage extremities and the distal tips of digits represent models of tissue regeneration in multiple vertebrate taxa. In humans, digit tip injuries, including traumatic amputation and crush injuries, are among the most common type of injury to the human hand. Despite clinical reports demonstrating natural regeneration of appendages in lower vertebrates and human digits, current treatment options are suboptimal, and are complicated by the anatomical complexities and functions of the different tissues within the digits...
May 2015: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
Matthew R Chin, Katherine Zlotkowski, Michelle Han, Saagar Patel, Anders M Eliasen, Abram Axelrod, Dionicio Siegel
The natural product vinaxanthone has demonstrated a remarkable capability to promote nerve growth following injury or transplantation. In rats following total transection of the spinal cord delivery of vinaxanthone enhanced axonal regeneration, remyelination and angiogenesis at the site of injury all leading to an improved reinstatement of motor function. Through the development of a new ynone coupling reaction, chemically edited derivatives of vinaxanthone have been prepared and studied for improved activity...
April 15, 2015: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Gwendolyn M Lewis, Sarah Kucenas
Development and maintenance of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) are essential for an organism to survive and reproduce, and damage to the PNS by disease or injury is often debilitating. Remarkably, the nerves of the PNS are capable of regenerating after trauma. However, full functional recovery after nerve injuries remains poor. Peripheral nerve regeneration has been studied extensively, with particular emphasis on elucidating the roles of Schwann cells and macrophages during degeneration and subsequent regeneration...
September 17, 2014: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Leonardo Rangel-Castilla, Sean M Barber, Richard Klucznik, Orlando Diaz
INTRODUCTION: The natural history of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) with cortical venous drainage is unfavorable, and treatment is recommended in most cases. Early reports have documented excellent initial clinical and radiographic outcomes after Onyx embolization of DAVFs but little evidence is available regarding the long term durability of this technique. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed a database of 63 DAVFs in 53 consecutive patients who underwent Onyx embolization of a DAVF between 2001 and 2012 at our institution...
October 2014: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
Catarina F Franco, Renata Soares, Elisabete Pires, Romana Santos, Ana V Coelho
Echinoderms, as invertebrate deuterostomes, have amazing neuronal intrinsic growth aptitude triggered at any time point during the animal lifespan leading to successful functional tissue regrowth. This trait is known to be in opposition to their mammal close phylogenic relatives that have lost the ability to regenerate their central nervous system. Despite the promising nature of this intrinsic echinoderm trait, it was only recently that this complex biological event started to be unveiled. In the present study, a 2DE gel-based phosphoproteomics approach was used to investigate changes in starfish neuronal protein phosphorylation states at two different wound healing time-graded events following arm tip amputation, 48 h and 13 days...
December 2012: Electrophoresis
Kellin Krick, Markus Tammia, Russell Martin, Ahmet Höke, Hai-Quan Mao
Limitations in current nerve regeneration techniques have stimulated the development of various approaches to mimic the extrinsic cues available in the natural nerve regeneration environment. Biomaterials approaches modulate the microenvironment of a regenerating nerve through tailored presentation of signaling molecules, creating physical and biochemical guidance cues to direct axonal regrowth across nerve lesion sites. Cell-based approaches center on increasing the neurotrophic support, adhesion guidance and myelination capacity of Schwann cells and other alternative cell types to enhance nerve regrowth and functional recovery...
October 2011: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
Celia Murray-Dunning, Sally L McArthur, Tao Sun, Rob McKean, Anthony J Ryan, John W Haycock
Injuries to the peripheral nervous system affect 1 in 1,000 individuals each year. The implication of sustaining such an injury is considerable with loss of sensory and/or motor function. The economic implications too are extensive running into millions of pounds (or dollars) annually for provision and support. The natural regrowth of peripheral nerves is possible for small gap injuries (of approximately 1-2 mm). However, patients with larger gap injuries require surgical intervention. The "gold standard" for repairing gap injuries is autografting; however, there are problems associated with this approach, and so, the use of nerve guidance conduits (NGC) is a realistic alternative...
2011: Methods in Molecular Biology
Haoqing Cao, Ting Liu, Sing Yian Chew
The repairing process in the nervous system is complicated and brings great challenges to researchers. Tissue engineering scaffolds provide an alternative approach for neural regeneration. Sub-micron and nano-scale fibrous scaffolds which mimic the topography of natural extracellular matrix (ECM) can be potential scaffold candidates for neural tissue engineering. Two fiber-fabrication methods have been explored in the field of nerve regeneration: electrospinning and self-assembly. Electrospinning produces fibers with diameters ranging from several micrometers to hundreds of nanometers...
October 5, 2009: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Satoshi Takahashi, Takeshi Kawase, Kazunari Yoshida, Azusa Hasegawa, Jun-Etsu Mizoe
BACKGROUND: Skull base chordomas are challenging to treat because of their invasive nature, critical location, and aggressive recurrence. We report the effectiveness of combined radical skull base surgery with carbon ion radiotherapy for treating skull base chordomas. METHODS: Between November 1996 and August 2007, 32 patients (12 males and 20 females; mean age at initial presentation 41.4 years, range, 10-75 years) with skull base chordomas underwent 59 operations...
July 2009: Acta Neurochirurgica
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