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Natural nerve regrowth

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800171/temporal-regulation-of-planarian-eye-regeneration
#1
Michelle E Deochand, Taylor R Birkholz, Wendy S Beane
While tissue regeneration is typically studied using standard injury models, in nature injuries vary greatly in the amount and location of tissues lost. Planarians have the unique ability to regenerate from many different injuries (including from tiny fragments with no brain), allowing us to study the effects of different injuries on regeneration timelines. We followed the timing of regeneration for one organ, the eye, after multiple injury types that involved tissue loss (single- and double-eye ablation, and decapitation) in Schmidtea mediterranea...
August 2016: Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27030809/mechanisms-of-wound-closure-following-acute-arm-injury-in-octopus-vulgaris
#2
Tanya J Shaw, Molly Osborne, Giovanna Ponte, Graziano Fiorito, Paul L R Andrews
BACKGROUND: Octopoda utilise their arms for a diverse range of functions, including locomotion, hunting, defence, exploration, reproduction, and grooming. However the natural environment contains numerous threats to the integrity of arms, including predators and prey during capture. Impressively, octopoda are able to close open wounds in an aquatic environment and can fully regenerate arms. The regrowth phase of cephalopod arm regeneration has been grossly described; however, there is little information about the acute local response that occurs following an amputation injury comparable to that which frequently occurs in the wild...
2016: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26987634/functional-outcomes-of-salvage-surgery-for-vestibular-schwannomas-after-failed-gamma-knife-radiosurgery
#3
Yoshiyasu Iwai, Kenichi Ishibashi, Yuta Nakanishi, Youhei Onishi, Shugo Nishijima, Kazuhiro Yamanaka
OBJECTIVE: We reviewed our experience with salvage surgery following failed gamma knife radiosurgery (GKS) for vestibular schwannomas. METHODS: The study comprised 18 patients with unilateral vestibular schwannomas. The median prescribed radiation dose was 12 Gy (range, 10-12.5 Gy). Nine patients had regrowth after GKS, and 9 had regrowth after surgical resection plus GKS. The median interval between GKS and surgical resection was 26 months (range: 4-66 months)...
June 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26645964/facial-nerve-outcome-and-tumor-control-rate-as-a-function-of-degree-of-resection-in-treatment-of-large-acoustic-neuromas-preliminary-report-of-the-acoustic-neuroma-subtotal-resection-study-ansrs
#4
Ashkan Monfared, Carlton E Corrales, Philip V Theodosopoulos, Nikolas H Blevins, John S Oghalai, Samuel H Selesnick, Howard Lee, Richard K Gurgel, Marlan R Hansen, Rick F Nelson, Bruce J Gantz, Joe W Kutz, Brandon Isaacson, Peter S Roland, Richard Amdur, Robert K Jackler
BACKGROUND: Patients with large vestibular schwannomas are at high risk of poor facial nerve (cranial nerve VII [CNVII]) function after surgery. Subtotal resection potentially offers better outcome, but may lead to higher tumor regrowth. OBJECTIVE: To assess long-term CNVII function and tumor regrowth in patients with large vestibular schwannomas. METHODS: Prospective multicenter nonrandomized cohort study of patients with vestibular schwannoma ≥2...
August 2016: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26332731/lack-of-motor-recovery-after-prolonged-denervation-of-the-neuromuscular-junction-is-not-due-to-regenerative-failure
#5
Miyuki Sakuma, Grzegorz Gorski, Shu-Hsien Sheu, Stella Lee, Lee B Barrett, Bhagat Singh, Takao Omura, Alban Latremoliere, Clifford J Woolf
Motor axons in peripheral nerves have the capacity to regenerate after injury. However, full functional motor recovery rarely occurs clinically, and this depends on the nature and location of the injury. Recent preclinical findings suggest that there may be a time after nerve injury where, while regrowth to the muscle successfully occurs, there is nevertheless a failure to re-establish motor function, suggesting a possible critical period for synapse reformation. We have now examined the temporal and anatomical determinants for the re-establishment of motor function after prolonged neuromuscular junction (NMJ) denervation in rats and mice...
February 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25922849/acceleration-of-wound-healing-by-%C3%AE-gal-nanoparticles-interacting-with-the-natural-anti-gal-antibody
#6
REVIEW
Uri Galili
Application of α-gal nanoparticles to wounds and burns induces accelerated healing by harnessing the natural anti-Gal antibody which constitutes ~1% of human immunoglobulins. α-gal nanoparticles present multiple α-gal epitopes (Galα1-3Galβ1-4GlcNAc-R), the carbohydrate ligand of anti-Gal. Studied α-gal nanoparticles were comprised of glycolipids with α-gal epitopes, phospholipids, and cholesterol. Binding of anti-Gal to α-gal nanoparticles in wounds activates the complement cascade, resulting in formation of chemotactic complement cleavage peptides that induce rapid recruitment of many macrophages...
2015: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25916812/cover-image
#7
Yuval Rinkevich, Zeshaan N Maan, Graham G Walmsley, Subhro K Sen
UNLABELLED: Background The regrowth of amputated appendage extremities and the distal tips of digits represent models of tissue regeneration in multiple vertebrate taxa. In humans, digit tip injuries, including traumatic amputation and crush injuries, are among the most common type of injury to the human hand. Despite clinical reports demonstrating natural regeneration of appendages in lower vertebrates and human digits, current treatment options are suboptimal, and are complicated by the anatomical complexities and functions of the different tissues within the digits...
May 2015: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25715837/injuries-to-appendage-extremities-and-digit-tips-a-clinical-and-cellular-update
#8
REVIEW
Yuval Rinkevich, Zeshaan N Maan, Graham G Walmsley, Subhro K Sen
BACKGROUND: The regrowth of amputated appendage extremities and the distal tips of digits represent models of tissue regeneration in multiple vertebrate taxa. In humans, digit tip injuries, including traumatic amputation and crush injuries, are among the most common type of injury to the human hand. Despite clinical reports demonstrating natural regeneration of appendages in lower vertebrates and human digits, current treatment options are suboptimal, and are complicated by the anatomical complexities and functions of the different tissues within the digits...
May 2015: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25615693/expedited-access-to-vinaxanthone-and-chemically-edited-derivatives-possessing-neuronal-regenerative-effects-through-ynone-coupling-reactions
#9
Matthew R Chin, Katherine Zlotkowski, Michelle Han, Saagar Patel, Anders M Eliasen, Abram Axelrod, Dionicio Siegel
The natural product vinaxanthone has demonstrated a remarkable capability to promote nerve growth following injury or transplantation. In rats following total transection of the spinal cord delivery of vinaxanthone enhanced axonal regeneration, remyelination and angiogenesis at the site of injury all leading to an improved reinstatement of motor function. Through the development of a new ynone coupling reaction, chemically edited derivatives of vinaxanthone have been prepared and studied for improved activity...
April 15, 2015: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25232113/perineurial-glia-are-essential-for-motor-axon-regrowth-following-nerve-injury
#10
Gwendolyn M Lewis, Sarah Kucenas
Development and maintenance of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) are essential for an organism to survive and reproduce, and damage to the PNS by disease or injury is often debilitating. Remarkably, the nerves of the PNS are capable of regenerating after trauma. However, full functional recovery after nerve injuries remains poor. Peripheral nerve regeneration has been studied extensively, with particular emphasis on elucidating the roles of Schwann cells and macrophages during degeneration and subsequent regeneration...
September 17, 2014: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24062253/mid-and-long-term-outcomes-of-dural-arteriovenous-fistula-endovascular-management-with-onyx-experience-of-a-single-tertiary-center
#11
Leonardo Rangel-Castilla, Sean M Barber, Richard Klucznik, Orlando Diaz
INTRODUCTION: The natural history of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) with cortical venous drainage is unfavorable, and treatment is recommended in most cases. Early reports have documented excellent initial clinical and radiographic outcomes after Onyx embolization of DAVFs but little evidence is available regarding the long term durability of this technique. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed a database of 63 DAVFs in 53 consecutive patients who underwent Onyx embolization of a DAVF between 2001 and 2012 at our institution...
October 2014: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23161438/radial-nerve-cord-protein-phosphorylation-dynamics-during-starfish-arm-tip-wound-healing-events
#12
Catarina F Franco, Renata Soares, Elisabete Pires, Romana Santos, Ana V Coelho
Echinoderms, as invertebrate deuterostomes, have amazing neuronal intrinsic growth aptitude triggered at any time point during the animal lifespan leading to successful functional tissue regrowth. This trait is known to be in opposition to their mammal close phylogenic relatives that have lost the ability to regenerate their central nervous system. Despite the promising nature of this intrinsic echinoderm trait, it was only recently that this complex biological event started to be unveiled. In the present study, a 2DE gel-based phosphoproteomics approach was used to investigate changes in starfish neuronal protein phosphorylation states at two different wound healing time-graded events following arm tip amputation, 48 h and 13 days...
December 2012: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21531127/signaling-cue-presentation-and-cell-delivery-to-promote-nerve-regeneration
#13
REVIEW
Kellin Krick, Markus Tammia, Russell Martin, Ahmet Höke, Hai-Quan Mao
Limitations in current nerve regeneration techniques have stimulated the development of various approaches to mimic the extrinsic cues available in the natural nerve regeneration environment. Biomaterials approaches modulate the microenvironment of a regenerating nerve through tailored presentation of signaling molecules, creating physical and biochemical guidance cues to direct axonal regrowth across nerve lesion sites. Cell-based approaches center on increasing the neurotrophic support, adhesion guidance and myelination capacity of Schwann cells and other alternative cell types to enhance nerve regrowth and functional recovery...
October 2011: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21042971/three-dimensional-alignment-of-schwann-cells-using-hydrolysable-microfiber-scaffolds-strategies-for-peripheral-nerve-repair
#14
Celia Murray-Dunning, Sally L McArthur, Tao Sun, Rob McKean, Anthony J Ryan, John W Haycock
Injuries to the peripheral nervous system affect 1 in 1,000 individuals each year. The implication of sustaining such an injury is considerable with loss of sensory and/or motor function. The economic implications too are extensive running into millions of pounds (or dollars) annually for provision and support. The natural regrowth of peripheral nerves is possible for small gap injuries (of approximately 1-2 mm). However, patients with larger gap injuries require surgical intervention. The "gold standard" for repairing gap injuries is autografting; however, there are problems associated with this approach, and so, the use of nerve guidance conduits (NGC) is a realistic alternative...
2011: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19643156/the-application-of-nanofibrous-scaffolds-in-neural-tissue-engineering
#15
REVIEW
Haoqing Cao, Ting Liu, Sing Yian Chew
The repairing process in the nervous system is complicated and brings great challenges to researchers. Tissue engineering scaffolds provide an alternative approach for neural regeneration. Sub-micron and nano-scale fibrous scaffolds which mimic the topography of natural extracellular matrix (ECM) can be potential scaffold candidates for neural tissue engineering. Two fiber-fabrication methods have been explored in the field of nerve regeneration: electrospinning and self-assembly. Electrospinning produces fibers with diameters ranging from several micrometers to hundreds of nanometers...
October 5, 2009: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19434365/skull-base-chordomas-efficacy-of-surgery-followed-by-carbon-ion-radiotherapy
#16
Satoshi Takahashi, Takeshi Kawase, Kazunari Yoshida, Azusa Hasegawa, Jun-Etsu Mizoe
BACKGROUND: Skull base chordomas are challenging to treat because of their invasive nature, critical location, and aggressive recurrence. We report the effectiveness of combined radical skull base surgery with carbon ion radiotherapy for treating skull base chordomas. METHODS: Between November 1996 and August 2007, 32 patients (12 males and 20 females; mean age at initial presentation 41.4 years, range, 10-75 years) with skull base chordomas underwent 59 operations...
July 2009: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/18308951/transplantation-of-embryonic-stem-cells-improves-nerve-repair-and-functional-recovery-after-severe-sciatic-nerve-axotomy-in-rats
#17
Lin Cui, Jun Jiang, Ling Wei, Xin Zhou, Jamie L Fraser, B Joy Snider, Shan Ping Yu
Extensive research has focused on transplantation of pluripotent stem cells for the treatment of central nervous system disorders, the therapeutic potential of stem cell therapy for injured peripheral nerves is largely unknown. We used a rat sciatic nerve transection model to test the ability of implanted embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived neural progenitor cells (ES-NPCs) in promoting repair of a severely injured peripheral nerve. Mouse ES cells were neurally induced in vitro; enhanced expression and/or secretion of growth factors were detected in differentiating ES cells...
May 2008: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17592278/neurothekeoma-an-analysis-of-178-tumors-with-detailed-immunohistochemical-data-and-long-term-patient-follow-up-information
#18
John F Fetsch, William B Laskin, James R Hallman, George P Lupton, Markku Miettinen
This report describes the clinicopathologic findings in 176 patients who presented with 178 tumors currently referred to as neurothekeomas. Our study group included 64 males and 112 females, ranging from 20 months to 85 years old at the time of their first surgical procedure (median age: 17 y). Twenty-four percent of patients were <or=10 years of age and only 20% of patients were >or=30 years of age at initial diagnosis. The patients typically presented with a solitary, superficial, slow-growing, and relatively asymptomatic mass in the 0...
July 2007: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17548168/combined-transplantation-of-neural-stem-cells-and-olfactory-ensheathing-cells-for-the-repair-of-spinal-cord-injuries
#19
Q Ao, A J Wang, G Q Chen, S J Wang, H C Zuo, X F Zhang
Spinal cord repair is a problem that has long puzzled neuroscientists. The failure of the spinal cord to regenerate and undergo reconstruction after spinal cord injury (SCI) can be attributed to secondary axonal demyelination and neuronal death followed by cyst formation and infarction as well as to the nature of the injury environment, which promotes glial scar formation. Cellular replacement and axon guidance are both necessary for SCI repair. Multipotent neural stem cells (NSCs) have the potential to differentiate into both neuronal and glial cells and are, therefore, likely candidates for cell replacement therapy following SCI...
2007: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/16973301/changing-pax6-expression-correlates-with-axon-outgrowth-and-restoration-of-topography-during-optic-nerve-regeneration
#20
J Rodger, C E King, S Lukehurst, P B Chen, S A Dunlop, L D Beazley, M R Ziman
Pax6, a member of the highly conserved developmental Pax gene family, plays a crucial role in early eye development and continues to be expressed in adult retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Here we have used Western blots and immunohistochemistry to investigate the expression of Pax6 in the formation and refinement of topographic projections during optic nerve regeneration in zebrafish and lizard. In zebrafish with natural (12-h light/dark cycle) illumination, Pax6 expression in RGCs was decreased during axon outgrowth and increased during the restoration of the retinotectal map...
November 3, 2006: Neuroscience
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