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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655193/the-importance-of-fermentative-conditions-for-the-biotechnological-production-of-lignin-modifying-enzymes-from-white-rot-fungi
#1
Francesca Martani, Fabrizio Beltrametti, Danilo Porro, Paola Branduardi, Marina Lotti
White-rot fungi are the main natural producers of lignin modifying enzymes, i.e. laccases and peroxidases, whose secretion and activity allows the depolymerization of lignin and the release of polysaccharides contained in lignocellulose. These enzymes are able to oxidize, in addition to lignin, a wide spectrum of natural and synthetic substrates, making their industrial and biotechnological application appealing. However, the complex regulation of the synthesis of lignin modifying enzymes, as well as the heterogeneous physiology of fungi in response to nutrients, make the use of white-rot fungi as production platforms challenging...
June 26, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654693/fatty-acid-synthase-reprograms-the-epigenome-in-uterine-leiomyosarcomas
#2
Min Guan, Xiwei Wu, Peiguo Chu, Warren A Chow
SK-UT-1 uterine leiomyosarcomas (Ut-LMS) cells were transduced with a fatty acid synthase (FASN)-containing retroviral vector to recapitulate the "lipogenic phenotype of cancer." Consistent with this model, forced expression of FASN enhanced SK-UT-1 proliferation, migration, and cellular motion. Further investigation showed FASN promotes trimethylation of H3K9 (H3K9me3) and acetylation of H3K27 (H3K27ac) in SK-UT-1 cells. In contrast, siRNA targeting of FASN in high endogenous FASN expressing SK-LMS-1 Ut-LMS cells inhibits trimethylation of H3K9 and acetylation of H3K27...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654668/influence-of-the-way-of-reporting-alpha-amylase-values-in-saliva-in-different-naturalistic-situations-a-pilot-study
#3
María Dolores Contreras-Aguilar, Damián Escribano, Silvia Martínez-Subiela, Silvia Martínez-Miró, Mónica Rubio, Asta Tvarijonaviciute, Fernando Tecles, Jose J Cerón
The objective of this pilot study was to compare the different ways of measuring salivary alpha-amylase (sAA, enzymatic vs. concentration) and to evaluate the influence that the different ways of reporting the results can have in sAA interpretation. For this purpose, sAA was measured by direct quantification and also by an enzymatic assay in three different naturalistic situations, a physical stressor (situation 1) and two mental stressors of different intensity (situations 2 and 3). The results were expressed in three different ways (without correction, multiplied by flow rate and divided by protein concentration)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654654/identification-and-characterization-of-acka-dependent-protein-acetylation-in-neisseria-gonorrhoeae
#4
Deborah M B Post, Birgit Schilling, Lorri M Reinders, Alexandria K D'Souza, Margaret R Ketterer, Steven J Kiel, Aroon T Chande, Michael A Apicella, Bradford W Gibson
Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the causative agent of gonorrhea, has a number of factors known to contribute to pathogenesis; however, a full understanding of these processes and their regulation has proven to be elusive. Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of bacterial proteins are now recognized as one mechanism of protein regulation. In the present study, Western blot analyses, with an anti-acetyl-lysine antibody, indicated that a large number of gonococcal proteins are post-translationally modified. Previous work has shown that Nε-lysine acetylation can occur non-enzymatically with acetyl-phosphate (AcP) as the acetyl donor...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654328/biochemistry-of-catabolic-reductive-dehalogenation
#5
Maeva Fincker, Alfred M Spormann
A wide range of phylogenetically diverse microorganisms couple the reductive dehalogenation of organohalides to energy conservation. Key enzymes of such anaerobic catabolic pathways are corrinoid and Fe-S cluster-containing, membrane-associated reductive dehalogenases. These enzymes catalyze the reductive elimination of a halide and constitute the terminal reductases of a short electron transfer chain. Enzymatic and physiological studies revealed the existence of quinone-dependent and quinone-independent reductive dehalogenases that are distinguishable at the amino acid sequence level, implying different modes of energy conservation in the respective microorganisms...
June 20, 2017: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654295/liposomes-in-polymersomes-lips-multi-compartment-system-with-temperature-triggered-release
#6
Ariane Peyret, Emmanuel Ibarboure, Natassa Pippa, Sebastien Lecommandoux
Multi-compartmentalization is a key feature of eukaryotic cells, allowing separation and protection of species within the membrane walls. During the last years, several methods have been reported to afford synthetic multi-compartment lipidic or polymeric vesicles that mimic biological cells and that allow cascade chemical or enzymatic reactions within their lumen. We hereby report on the preparation and study of liposomes in polymersomes (LiPs) systems. We discuss on the loading and co-loading of lipidic nano-vesicles made of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC), 1,2-dipentadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (diC15-PC), or 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) inside the lumen of giant poly(butadiene)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PBut-b-PEO) polymersomes...
June 27, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654277/reversible-hydride-transfer-to-n-n-diarylimidazolinium-cations-from-hydrogen-catalyzed-by-transition-metal-complexes-mimicking-the-reaction-of-fe-hydrogenase
#7
Masahiro Hatazawa, Naoko Yoshie, Hidetake Seino
[Fe]-hydrogenase is a key enzyme involved in methanogenesis and facilitates reversible hydride transfer from H2 to N(5),N(10)-methenyltetrahydromethanopterin (CH-H4MPT(+)). In this study, a reaction system was developed to model the enzymatic function of [Fe]-hydrogenase by using N,N'-diphenylimidazolinium cation (1(+)) as a structurally related alternative to CH-H4MPT(+). In connection with the enzymatic mechanism via heterolytic cleavage of H2 at the single metal active site, several transition metal complex catalysts capable of such activation were utilized in the model system...
June 27, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654122/dissipation-of-self-assemblies-by-fusion-of-complementary-gels-an-elegant-strategy-for-programmed-enzymatic-reactions
#8
Deep Mandal, Pritam Choudhury, Deblina Sarkar, Prasanta Kumar Das
Cholesterol based phenylboronic acid and glucose tailored complementary gels were developed which underwent mutual self-destruction upon mixing due to the formation of a boronate-diol adduct. This dissipation of the complementary gels was employed in a programmed enzymatic reaction and in pro-drug activation.
June 27, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654062/using-a-whole-mount-immunohistochemical-method-to-study-the-innervation-of-the-biliary-tract-in-suncus-murinus
#9
Ke Ren, Yidan Dai, Kai Yi, Masanobu Kinoshita, Masahiro Itoh, Ichiro Sakata, Takafumi Sakai, Shuang-Qin Yi
This work describes the whole-mount immunohistochemistry staining method in detail, using neurofilament protein antibody to label the innervation of the biliary tract in Suncus murinus (S. murinus ). First, the specimen was dissected from S. murinus and fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde (PFA). Second, an enzymatic treatment and potential endogenous peroxidase inactivation were performed. The specimen was then exposed to the primary antibody, anti-neurofilament protein antibody, for 3-6 days. It was then incubated with the secondary antibody conjugated with horseradish peroxidase...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653930/identification-and-growth-optimization-of-a-marine-bacillus-dk1-sa11-having-potential-of-producing-broad-spectrum-antimicrobial-compounds
#10
Muhammad Naseem Khan, Hong Lin, Meng Li, Jingxue Wang, Zulfiqar Ali Mirani, Seema Ismat Khan, Muhammad Aslam Buzdar, Imran Ali, Khalid Jamil
Control of harmful bacteria in food, aquaculture, pharmaceuticals, agriculture, hospitals and recreation water pools are of great global concern. Marine bacteria are an enormous source of bio-controlling agents. The aim of this study was to identify and optimize the growth conditions including effect of different biotic and abiotic factors on antimicrobial activity of strain DK1-SA11 isolated from Qingdao Bay of China Yellow Sea. Microscopic characterization, API® 20E and 50 CHB kit base carbohydrates utilization, 16S rDNA and DNA gyrB gene sequencing studies identified the bacterium as Bacillus subtilis subsp...
May 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653883/the-nitric-oxide-donor-js-k-sensitizes-u87-glioma-cells-to-repetitive-irradiation
#11
Max Heckler, Nadja Osterberg, Jessica Guenzle, Nina Kristin Thiede-Stan, Wilfried Reichardt, Claudia Weidensteiner, Joseph E Saavedra, Astrid Weyerbrock
As a potent radiosensitizer nitric oxide (NO) may be a putative adjuvant in the treatment of malignant gliomas which are known for their radio- and chemoresistance. The NO donor prodrug JS-K (O2-(2.4-dinitrophenyl) 1-[(4-ethoxycarbonyl) piperazin-1-yl] diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate) allows cell-type specific intracellular NO release via enzymatic activation by glutathione-S-transferases overexpressed in glioblastoma multiforme. The cytotoxic and radiosensitizing efficacy of JS-K was assessed in U87 glioma cells in vitro focusing on cell proliferation, induction of DNA damage, and cell death...
June 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653811/biochemical-characterization-of-medaka-oryzias-latipes-orthologue-for-mammalian-factor-xiii-and-establishment-of-gene-edited-mutant
#12
Rima Horimizu, Ryota Ogawa, Yuko Watanabe, Hideki Tatsukawa, Masato Kinoshita, Hisashi Hashimoto, Kiyotaka Hitomi
At the final process of blood coagulation, fibrin molecules are stabilized via a catalytic reaction by Factor XIIIA (FXIIIA), one of the family members of transglutaminase (TGase) that catalyzes protein cross-linking reactions. In this study, we characterized the orthologue of this enzyme in medaka (Oryzias latipes), an established model fish in which a coagulation system is also preserved. The recombinant protein of this orthologue enzyme was produced in baculovirus-infected insect cells and used for biochemical property analysis including activation by thrombin-proteolysis and calcium-dependence of the TGase enzymatic activity...
June 27, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653743/genetic-diversity-and-pectinolytic-activity-of-epiphytic-yeasts-from-grape-carposphere
#13
M Cilião Filho, M B D Bertéli, J S Valle, L D Paccola-Meirelles, G A Linde, F G Barcellos, N B Colauto
The genetic diversity of epiphytic yeasts from grape carposphere is susceptible to environmental variations that determine the predominant carposphere microbiota. Understanding the diversity of yeasts that inhabit grape carposphere in different environments and their pectinolytic activity is a way to understand the biotechnological potential that surrounds us and help improve winemaking. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the pectinolytic activity and characterize the genetic diversity of isolated epiphytic yeasts from grape carposphere...
June 20, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653740/isolation-diversity-and-biotechnological-potential-of-rhizo-and-endophytic-bacteria-associated-with-mangrove-plants-from-saudi-arabia
#14
F Bibi, I Ullah, S A Alvi, S A Bakhsh, M Yasir, A A K Al-Ghamdi, E I Azhar
Marine bacteria have been exceptional sources of halotolerant enzymes since decades. The aim of the present study was to isolate bacteria producing hydrolytic enzymes from seven different mangroves collected from the coastal area of Thuwal, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, and to further screen them for other enzymatic and antifungal activities. We have isolated 46 different rhizo- and endophytic bacteria from the soil, roots, and leaves of the mangroves using different enzymatic media. These bacterial strains were capable of producing industrially important enzymes (cellulase, protease, lipase, and amylase)...
June 20, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653727/a-novel-wireless-paper-based-potentiometric-platform-for-monitoring-glucose-in-blood
#15
Rocío Cánovas, Marc Parrilla, Pascal Blondeau, Francisco J Andrade
A novel low-cost, compact and sensitive paper-based platform for the accurate monitoring of glucose in biological fluids is presented. Paper-based working and reference electrodes are combined to build a whole potentiometric cell, which also fits a sampling module for simple and fast determination of glucose in a single drop of blood. The working electrode is built using a platinized filter paper coated with a Nafion membrane that entraps the enzyme glucose oxidase; the reference electrode is made by casting a polyvinylbutyral-based membrane onto a conductive paper...
June 27, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653649/functional-and-structural-characterisation-of-5-missense-mutations-of-the-phenylalanine-hydroxylase
#16
Martina Pecimonova, Emil Polak, Frantisek Csicsay, Kamila Reblova, Maja Stojiljkovic, Zdenko Levarski, Ludovit Skultety, Ludevit Kadasi, Andrea Soltysova
Phenylketonuria (PKU) and hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA) are a group of genetic disorders predominantly caused by mutations in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene. To date, more than 950 variants have been identified, however the pathogenic mechanism of many variants remains unknown. In this study, in silico prediction and in vitro prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems were used to functionally characterize five PAH missense variants (p.F233I, p.R270I, p.F331S, p.S350Y, and p.L358F) previously identified in Slovak and Czech patients...
June 27, 2017: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653569/the-mutable-vaccine-for-mutable-viruses
#17
Marilia Cascalho, Samuel J Balin, Jeffrey L Platt
Mutable viruses, such as HIV, pose difficult obstacles to prevention and/or control by vaccination. Mutable viruses rapidly diversify in populations and in individuals, impeding development of effective vaccines. We devised the 'mutable vaccine' to appropriate the properties of mutable viruses that undermine conventional strategies. The vaccine consists of a DNA construct encoding viral antigen and regulatory sequences that upon delivery to B cells target the enzymatic apparatus of 'somatic hypermutation' causing the construct to mutate one million-times baseline rates and allowing production and presentation of antigen variants...
June 2017: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653535/digestibility-of-glyoxal-glycated-%C3%AE-casein-and-%C3%AE-lactoglobulin-and-distribution-of-peptide-bound-advanced-glycation-endproducts-in-gastrointestinal-digests
#18
Di Zhao, Lin Li, Thao T Le, Lotte Bach Larsen, Guoying Su, Yi Liang, Bing Li
This work reports the influence of GO-derived glycation on the gastrointestinal enzymatic hydrolysis of β-lactoglobulin and β-casein. Reduced digestibility of glycated proteins was found in both gastric and intestinal stage. Distribution of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) in digests with different molecular weight ranges was investigated subsequently. The colorless and brown MRPs largely presented in the digests smaller than 20 kDa. However, the resistance of fluorescent AGEs to enzymatic hydrolysis gradually increased during glycation, rendering fluorescent AGEs largely present in the digests larger than 20 kDa...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653435/rice-crispr-rapidly-increased-cut-ends-by-an-exonuclease-cas9-fusion-in-zebrafish
#19
Thomas P Clements, Bhavna Tandon, Hendrik A Lintel, Joseph H McCarty, Daniel S Wagner
Application of CRISPR-Cas9 technology in diverse organisms has resulted in an explosion of genome modification efforts. To expand the toolbox of applications, we have created an E. coli Exonuclease I (sbcB) - Cas9 fusion that has altered enzymatic activity in zebrafish embryos. This Cas9 variant has increased mutation efficiency and favors longer deletions relative to wild type Cas9. We anticipate that this variant will allow for more efficient screening for F0 phenotypes and mutation of a larger spectrum of genomic targets including deletion of regulatory regions and creating loss of function mutations in transcription units with poor sequence conservation such as lncRNAs where larger deletions may be required for loss of function...
June 27, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653395/parp14-limits-severity-of-allergic-skin-disease
#20
Purna Krishnamurthy, Sonia Da-Silva-Arnold, Matthew J Turner, Jeffrey B Travers, Mark H Kaplan
Poly-ADP ribose polymerase-14 (PARP14 or ARTD8) was initially identified as a transcriptional co-activator for Stat6, where the presence of IL-4 and activated Stat6 induces the enzymatic activity of PARP14 that promotes Th2 differentiation and allergic airway disease. To further our understanding of PARP14 in allergic disease, we studied the function of PARP14 in allergic inflammation of skin using mice that express constitutively active Stat6 in T cells (Stat6VT) and develop spontaneous inflammation of the skin...
June 27, 2017: Immunology
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