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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793088/decellularized-and-matured-esophageal-scaffold-for-circumferential-esophagus-replacement-proof-of-concept-in-a-pig-model
#1
Guillaume Luc, Guillaume Charles, Caroline Gronnier, Magali Cabau, Charlotte Kalisky, Mallory Meulle, Reine Bareille, Samantha Roques, Lionel Couraud, Johanna Rannou, Laurence Bordenave, Denis Collet, Marlène Durand
Surgical resection of the esophagus requires sacrificing a long portion of it. Its replacement by the demanding gastric pull-up or colonic interposition techniques may be avoided by using short biologic scaffolds composed of decellularized matrix (DM). The aim of this study was to prepare, characterize, and assess the in vivo remodeling of DM and its clinical impact in a preclinical model. A dynamic chemical and enzymatic decellularization protocol of porcine esophagus was set up and optimized. The resulting DM was mechanically and biologically characterized by DNA quantification, histology, and histomorphometry techniques...
May 17, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793055/fatty-acid-activation-in-thermogenic-adipose-tissue
#2
REVIEW
Sandra Steensels, Baran A Ersoy
Channeling carbohydrates and fatty acids to thermogenic tissues, including brown and beige adipocytes, have garnered interest as an approach for the management of obesity-related metabolic disorders. Mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (β-oxidation) is crucial for the maintenance of thermogenesis. Upon cellular fatty acid uptake or following lipolysis from triglycerides (TG), fatty acids are esterified to coenzyme A (CoA) to form active acyl-CoA molecules. This enzymatic reaction is essential for their utilization in β-oxidation and thermogenesis...
May 21, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793023/kinetics-and-stereochemistry-of-linb-catalyzed-%C3%AE-hbcd-transformation-comparison-of-in-vitro-and-in-silico-results
#3
Norbert V Heeb, Manuel Mazenauer, Simon Wyss, Birgit Geueke, Hans-Peter E Kohler, Peter Lienemann
LinB is a haloalkane dehalogenase found in Sphingobium indicum B90A, an aerobic bacterium isolated from contaminated soils of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) dumpsites. We showed that this enzyme also converts hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs). Here we give new insights in the kinetics and stereochemistry of the enzymatic transformation of δ-HBCD, which resulted in the formation of two pentabromocyclododecanols (PBCDols) as first- (P1δ , P2δ ) and two tetrabromocyclododecadiols (TBCDdiols) as second-generation products (T1δ , T2δ )...
May 12, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792876/temperature-dependent-sex-determination-realized-by-hormonal-dynamics-with-enzymatic-reactions-sensitive-to-ambient-temperature
#4
Sachi Yamaguchi, Yoh Iwasa
Temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) is adopted by many animal taxa, including reptiles and fishes. In some species, the eggs develop into females under a low hatching temperature, whereas they will develop into males under a high hatching temperature (called the FM-pattern). In other species, the eggs develop into males (or females) under a low (or high) hatching temperature (MF-pattern). Still, in other species, the eggs develop into females, males, or females, respectively, when under a low, intermediate, or high hatching temperature (FMF-pattern)...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792685/vertical-ultrafiltration-facilitated-dna-digestion-for-rapid-and-sensitive-uhplc-ms-ms-detection-of-dna-modifications
#5
Weiyi Lai, Cong Lyu, Hailin Wang
LC-MS/MS technologies provide important and powerful analytical tools for chemical structure-dependent identification and quantification of epigenetically crucial DNA modifications. To perform LC-MS/MS analysis, it is better to convert DNA to 2'-deoxynucleosides through enzymatic digestion. Here, we observed that inorganic cations Na+ and K+ and phosphate buffers, which were often found in various DNA solutions, significantly inhibited DNA digestion as catalyzed by typical set of DNase I, snake venom phosphodiesterase, and calf intestine alkaline phosphatase, leading to poor or varying performance on UHPLC-MS/MS analysis...
May 24, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792679/a-nanozyme-and-ambient-light-based-smartphone-platform-for-simultaneous-detection-of-dual-biomarkers-from-exposure-to-organophosphorus-pesticides
#6
Yuting Zhao, Mingming Yang, Qiangqiang Fu, Hui Ouyang, Wei Wen, Yang Song, Chengzhou Zhu, Yuehe Lin, Dan Du
A transparent, lateral-flow test strip coupled with a smartphone-based ambient light sensor was first proposed for detect-ing enzymatic inhibition and phosphorylation. The principle of the platform is based on the simultaneous measurement of the total amount of the enzyme and enzyme activity to biomonitor exposure to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides. In this study, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) was adopted as the model enzyme and ethyl paraoxon was chosen as an analyte representing OP pesticides. The total amount of BChE was quantified by a sensitive colorimetric signal originating from a sandwich immunochromatographic assay utilizing PtPd nanoparticles as a polyphenol oxidase-mimicking probe, which provided a higher sensitivity than that of a peroxidase-like probe...
May 24, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792672/biosynthesis-of-lincosamide-antibiotics-reactions-associated-with-degradation-and-detoxification-pathways-play-a-constructive-role
#7
Daozhong Zhang, Zhijun Tang, Wen Liu
Natural products typically are small molecules produced by living organisms. These products possess a wide variety of biological activities and thus have historically played a critical role in medicinal chemistry and chemical biology either as chemotherapeutic agents or as useful tools. Natural products are not synthesized for use by human beings; rather, living organisms produce them in response to various biochemical processes and environmental concerns, both internal and external. These processes/concerns are often dynamic and thus motivate the diversification, optimization, and selection of small molecules in line with changes in biological function...
May 24, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792671/the-chemoattractant-glorin-is-inactivated-by-ester-cleavage-during-early-multicellular-development-of-polysphondylium-pallidum
#8
Daniel Heinrich, Robert Barnett, Luke Tweedy, Robert Insall, Pierre Stallforth, Thomas Winckler
Among the amoebozoan species capable of forming fruiting bodies, the dictyostelid social amoebae stand out since they form true multicellular organisms by means of single cell aggregation. Upon food depletion, cells migrate across gradients of extracellular signals initiated by cells in aggregation centers. The model species that is widely used to study multicellular development of social amoebae, Dictyostelium discoideum, uses cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) as a chemoattractant to coordinate aggregation...
May 24, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792553/mitochondrial-complex-i-defect-resulting-from-exercise-induced-lower-limb-ischemia-in-patients-with-peripheral-arterial-disease
#9
Isabelle Signolet, Pierre Abraham, Stéphanie Chupin, Myriam Ammi, Naïg Gueguen, Franck Letournel, Jean Picquet, Christophe Baufreton, Mickael Daligault, Vincent Procaccio, Pascal Reynier, Samir Henni
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to compare the structural and mitochondrial alterations between muscle segments affected by exercise-induced ischemia and segments of the same muscle without ischemia, in the same subject. METHODS: In a prospective analysis, 34 patients presenting either peripheral arterial disease or chronic coronary syndrome without any evidence of peripheral arterial disease were eligible for inclusion based on findings indicating a need for either a femoro-popliteal bypass or a saphenous harvesting for coronary bypass...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792192/detection-technologies-and-metabolic-profiling-of-bile-acids-a-comprehensive-review
#10
REVIEW
Yanan Liu, Zhihui Rong, Dong Xiang, Chengliang Zhang, Dong Liu
Bile acids (BAs) are important regulatory factors of life activities, which are involved in the regulation of glucose, lipid and energy metabolisms, and closely associated with intestinal hormones, microbiotas and energy balance. BAs abnormalities easily lead to inflammation and metabolic diseases, in turn, the progress of diseases could influence characteristics of BAs. Therefore, accurate detection of BAs contents is of great significance to disease prevention, diagnosis and treatment. At present, the most widely used enzymatic method in clinical practice is applicable to the detection of total bile acid (TBA)...
May 23, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792071/phosphoramidates-and-phosphonamidates-protides-with-antiviral-activity
#11
Magdalena Slusarczyk, Michaela Serpi, Fabrizio Pertusati
Following the first report on the nucleoside phosphoramidate (ProTide) prodrug approach in 1990 by Chris McGuigan, the extensive investigation of ProTide technology has begun in many laboratories. Designed with aim to overcome limitations and the key resistance mechanisms associated with nucleoside analogues used in the clinic (poor cellular uptake, poor conversion to the 5'-monophosphate form), the ProTide approach has been successfully applied to a vast number of nucleoside analogues with antiviral and anticancer activity...
January 2018: Antiviral Chemistry & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792026/co-bridged-h-cluster-intermediates-in-the-catalytic-mechanism-of-fefe-hydrogenase-cai
#12
Michael W Ratzloff, Jacob H Artz, David W Mulder, Reuben T Collins, Thomas E Furtak, Paul W King
The [FeFe]-hydrogenases ([FeFe] H2 ases) catalyze reversible H2 activation at the H-cluster, which is composed of a [4Fe-4S]H subsite linked by a cysteine thiolate to a bridged, organometallic [2Fe-2S] ([2Fe]H ) subsite. Profoundly different geometric models of the H-cluster redox states that orchestrate the electron/proton transfer steps of H2 bond activation have been proposed. We have examined this question in the [FeFe] H2 ase I from Clostridium acetobutylicum (CaI) by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy with temperature annealing and H/D isotope exchange to identify the relevant redox states and define catalytic transitions...
May 23, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791877/enzyme-assisted-extraction-chemical-characteristics-and-immunostimulatory-activity-of-polysaccharides-from-korean-ginseng-panax-ginseng-meyer
#13
Young-Ran Song, Su-Kyung Sung, Mi Jang, Tae-Gyu Lim, Chang-Won Cho, Chun-Ji Han, Hee-Do Hong
In this study, enzyme-assisted extraction was used to isolate functional polysaccharides from Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) and the physicochemical and biological properties of the extracted polysaccharides were investigated, comparing with those from traditional hot-water extraction (FGWP). In macrophages, their effects on cytokines production could be ordered as FGEP-CA ≥ FGEP-A > FGEP-C > FGWP, suggesting that FGEP-CA (combined cellulase- and α-amylase-extracted polysaccharide) is a potent immunostimulator...
May 20, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791754/atp-triggers-a-robust-intracellular-ca-2-mediated-signalling-pathway-in-human-synovial-fibroblasts
#14
Kondo C, R B Clark, T Y Kim, Belke D, Banderali U, R T Szerencsei, A H Jalloul, P P M Schnetkamp, Spitzer Kw, Giles Wr
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? In human articular joints, the synovial fibroblast HSF cell population has essential functions including secretion of lubricants. We address some remaining questions concerning activation-secretion coupling by characterizing the main [Ca2+ ]i signalling pathways activated by ATP. What is the main finding and its importance? In HSF ATP acts through a linked G-protein (Gq ) and phospholipase C signalling mechanisms to produce IP-3 which markedly enhances release of Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum...
May 23, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791489/contractile-force-measurement-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cardiac-cell-sheet-tissue
#15
Daisuke Sasaki, Katsuhisa Matsuura, Hiroyoshi Seta, Yuji Haraguchi, Teruo Okano, Tatsuya Shimizu
We have developed our original tissue engineering technology "cell sheet engineering" utilizing temperature-responsive culture dishes. The cells are confluently grown on a temperature-responsive culture dish and can be harvested as a cell sheet by lowering temperature without enzymatic digestion. Cell sheets are high-cell-density tissues similar to actual living tissues, maintaining their structure and function. Based on this "cell sheet engineering", we are trying to create functional cardiac tissues from human induced pluripotent stem cells, for regenerative therapy and in vitro drug testing...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791483/structural-study-reveals-the-temperature-dependent-conformational-flexibility-of-tk-ptp-a-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-from-thermococcus-kodakaraensis-kod1
#16
Hye-Yeoung Yun, Jinhyuk Lee, Hyunmin Kim, Hyojung Ryu, Ho-Chul Shin, Byung-Ha Oh, Bonsu Ku, Seung Jun Kim
Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) originating from eukaryotes or bacteria have been under intensive structural and biochemical investigation, whereas archaeal PTP proteins have not been investigated extensively; therefore, they are poorly understood. Here, we present the crystal structures of Tk-PTP derived from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakaraensis KOD1, in both the active and inactive forms. Tk-PTP adopts a common dual-specificity phosphatase (DUSP) fold, but it undergoes an atypical temperature-dependent conformational change in its P-loop and α4-α5 loop regions, switching between the inactive and active forms...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791080/one-step-lignocellulose-fractionation-using-2-5-furandicarboxylic-acid-as-biogenic-and-recyclable-catalyst
#17
Dennis Weidener, Holger Klose, Walter Leitner, Ulrich Schurr, Björn Usadel, Pablo Domínguez de María, Philipp Michael Grande
To develop novel biorefinery concepts, the use of bio-based catalysts and solvents must be aligned with the Green Chemistry principles. In this context biogenic 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) is a very promising, yet underused molecule with high potential application as acid catalyst combining feasibility and sustainability with an efficient and straightforward recovery. In this work, FDCA was evaluated as catalyst in the recently developed OrganoCat pretreatment, a biphasic lignocellulose fractionation system...
May 23, 2018: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791034/high-expression-of-cd10-in-anaplastic-thyroid-carcinomas
#18
Tadao Nakazawa, Tetsuo Kondo, Huy Gia Vunong, Toru Odate, Masataka Kawai, Ippei Tahara, Kazunari Kasai, Tomohiro Inoue, Naoki Oishi, Kunio Mochizuki, Koichi Ito, Ryohei Katoh
AIMS: CD10 is an endopeptidase that degrades variable bioactive peptides in extra-cellular matrix. In addition to the enzymatic degradation, it affects multiple intra-cellular signal transduction pathways. CD10 expression has been extensively studied in human epithelial cancers of numerous organs and sites. However, its presence is not fully determined in thyroid carcinomas, especially in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC). METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined CD10 by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 152 thyroid lesions: 9 adenomatous goiters (AGs) and 143 tumors including 47 anaplastic carcinomas...
May 23, 2018: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790650/a-redox-based-superoxide-generation-system-using-quinone-quinone-reductase
#19
Shailesh Kumar Singh, Syed Masood Husain
Superoxide (O2*-) generation in biological systems is achieved through some of the most complex enzymatic systems. Of these, only the xanthine/xanthine oxidase has been used for in vitro biochemical studies. However, it suffers from limitations such as, lack of suitable heterologous expression system for xanthine oxidase and the irreversible consumption along with low solubility of xanthine under physiological conditions. Here, we report a redox-based, enzyme-catalyzed system where autoxidation of hydroquinone to quinone via semiquinone results in superoxide generation...
May 23, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790637/chemo-enzymatic-total-synthesis-of-oxosorbicillinol-sorrentanone-rezishanones-b-and-c-sorbicatechol-a-bisvertinolone-and-epoxysorbicillinol
#20
Anna Sib, Tobias Alexander Marius Gulder
The sorbicillinoids are a large family of fungal natural products, many of which possessing highly challenging molecular architectures. Depending on their individual structures they exhibit strong biological activities ranging from radical scavenging and anti-infective properties to cytotoxicity. Despite the resulting strong biomedical potential of these natural products and the interest of the total synthetic community owing to their fascinating structures, many sorbicillinoids are currently not synthetically accessible, thus hampering in depth biological characterization and structural diversification...
May 23, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
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