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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544934/preventive-effect-of-berberine-against-dmba-induced-breast-cancer-in-female-sprague-dawley-rats
#1
Kalyani Chowdary Karnam, Maheswara Ellutla, Lakshmi Narendra Bodduluru, Eshvendar Reddy Kasala, Shravan Kumar Uppulapu, Malayamarutham Kalyankumarraju, Mangala Lahkar
Breast cancer is the prime cause for cancer mortality in women worldwide. The importance of diverse natural and dietary agents to reduce the risk of developing breast cancer is well established. Berberine, a natural isoquinoline alkaloid found in many medicinal plants is widely used in traditional Indian and Chinese medicine. Because of its capability to seize the cell cycle and induce apoptosis of numerous malignant cells, berberine has received considerable attention as a potential anticancer agent. In the present study, breast cancer was induced in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats by intragastric administration of 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) at a dose of 80mg/kg of body weight...
May 22, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544594/diversity-of-aromatic-hydroxylating-dioxygenase-genes-in-mangrove-microbiome-and-their-biogeographic-patterns-across-global-sites
#2
Sanderson T P de Sousa, Lucélia Cabral, Gileno Vieira Lacerda Júnior, Valéria M Oliveira
Aromatic hydrocarbons (AH), such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, are compounds largely found in nature. Aromatic-ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases (ARHD) are proteins involved in AH degradation pathways. We used ARHD functional genes from an oil-impacted mangrove area and compared their diversity with other sites around the world to understand the ARHD biogeographic distribution patterns. For this, a comprehensive database was established with 166 operational protein families (OPFs) from 1,758 gene sequences obtained from 15 different sites worldwide, of which twelve are already published studies and three are unpublished...
May 23, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544560/fatal-intoxication-by-5f-adb-and-diphenidine-detection-quantification-and-investigation-of-their-main-metabolic-pathways-in-human-by-lc-ms-ms-and-lc-q-tofms
#3
Maiko Kusano, Kei Zaitsua, Kentaro Taki, Kazuaki Hisatsune, Jun'ichi Nakajima, Takako Moriyasu, Tomomi Asano, Yumi Hayashi, Hitoshi Tsuchihashi, Akira Ishii
Despite the implementation of the new blanket scheduling system in 2013, new psychoactive substance (NPS) abuse remains a serious social concern in Japan. We present a fatal intoxication case involving 5F-ADB (methyl 2-[1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamido]-3,3-dimethylbutanoate) and diphenidine. Postmortem blood screening by liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/Q-TOFMS) in the information dependent acquisition (IDA) mode only detected diphenidine. Further urinary screening using an in-house database containing new NPS and metabolites detected not only diphenidine but also possible 5F-ADB metabolites; subsequent targeted screening by LC/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) allowed for the detection of very low level of unchanged 5F-ADB in postmortem heart blood...
May 21, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544544/insulin-like-growth-factor-1-signaling-is-responsible-for-cathepsin-g-induced-aggregation-of-breast-cancer-mcf-7-cells
#4
Riyo Morimoto-Kamata, Satoru Yui
Cathepsin G (CG), a neutrophil serine protease, induces cell migration and multicellular aggregation of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells in a process that is dependent on E-cadherin and CG enzymatic activity. While these tumor cell aggregates can cause tumor emboli that could represent intravascular growth and extravasation into the surrounding tissues, resulting in metastasis, the molecular mechanism underlying this process remains poorly characterized. In this study, we aimed to identify the signaling pathway that is triggered during CG-mediated stimulation of cell aggregation...
May 24, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544464/structural-and-biochemical-insights-into-the-2-o-methylation-of-pyrimidines-34-in-trna
#5
Panjiao Pang, Xiangyu Deng, Zhong Wang, Wei Xie
tRNA molecules undergo extensive modifications during their maturation process and these modifications play important cellular roles. TrmL is a tRNA-modification enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group to the 2' hydroxyl group of the pyrimidines at the wobble position 34 in two tRNA(L)(eu) isoacceptors, but the mechanism remains elusive. In this study, we determined the crystal structure of TrmL from Thermus Thermophilus (TtTrmL) to 1.7 Å. The enzyme contains only the conserved minimal SPOUT fold, but displays distinct biochemical behaviors from its Escherichia coli counterpart EcTrmL...
May 25, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544383/self-assembled-biomimetic-chloroplast-coupled-photoenzymatic-reaction-for-sustainable-synthesis-of-fuel
#6
Xuehai Yan, Kai Liu, Chengqian Yuan, Qianli Zou, Zengchun Xie
Prototypes of biosystems provide good blueprints for the design and creation of biomimetic systems. However, mimicking both the sophisticated natural structures and their complex biological functions still remains a great challenge. Herein, biomimetic chloroplasts have been fabricated by one-step bio-inspired amino acid mineralization and simultaneous integration of catalytically active units. Hierarchically structured crystals are obtained by metal ion-directed self-assembly of cystine (the oxidized dimer form of the amino acid cysteine), with porous structure and stacking nanorods, which show similar architectural principles to chloroplasts...
May 22, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543354/genotype-phenotype-relationship-in-mucopolysaccharidosis-ii-predictive-power-of-ids-variants-for-the-neuronopathic-phenotype
#7
Audrey A M Vollebregt, Marianne Hoogeveen-Westerveld, Marian A Kroos, Esmee Oussoren, Iris Plug, George J Ruijter, Ans T van der Ploeg, W W M Pim Pijnappel
AIM: Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) is caused by variants in the iduronate-2-sulphatase gene (IDS). Patients can be either neuronopathic with intellectual disability, or non-neuronopathic. Few studies have reported on the IDS genotype-phenotype relationship and on the molecular effects involved. We addressed this in a cohort study of Dutch patients with MPS II. METHOD: Intellectual performance was assessed for school performance, behaviour, and intelligence...
May 25, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542812/modulating-nasal-mucosal-permeation-using-metabolic-saturation-and-enzyme-inhibition-techniques
#8
Varsha Dhamankar, Maureen D Donovan
OBJECTIVE: Presystemic elimination resulting from local enzymatic degradation can play a key role in limiting the bioavailability of intranasally administered drugs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the transfer of a metabolically susceptible drug across the nasal mucosa to illustrate the relative contributions of drug diffusivity and metabolic susceptibility on overall nasal mucosal permeation and to understand the effects of changes in enzymatic activity on the transfer across nasal epithelial and submucosal tissues...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542621/enzymatic-activity-necessary-to-restore-the-lethality-due-to-escherichia-coli-rnase-e-deficiency-is-distributed-among-bacteria-lacking-rnase-e-homologues
#9
Masaru Tamura, Daisuke Kageyama, Naoko Honda, Hirofumi Fujimoto, Atsushi Kato
Escherichia coli RNase E (Eco-RNase E), encoded by rne (Eco-rne), is considered the global RNA decay initiator. Although Eco-RNase E is an essential gene product in E. coli, some bacterial species, such as Bacillus subtilis, do not possess Eco-RNase E sequence homologues. B. subtilis instead possesses RNase J1/J2 (Bsu-RNase J1/J2) and RNase Y (Bsu-RNase Y) to execute RNA decay. Here we found that E. coli lacking the Eco-rne gene (Δrne E. coli) was viable conditional on M9 minimal media by introducing Bsu-RNase J1/J2 or Bsu-RNase Y...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542249/the-human-asparaginase-enzyme-aspg-inhibits-growth-in-leukemic-cells
#10
Stefania Belviso, Rodolfo Iuliano, Rosario Amato, Nicola Perrotti, Miranda Menniti
The human protein ASPG is an enzyme with a putative antitumor activity. We generated in bacteria and then purified a recombinant GST-ASPG protein that we used to characterize the biochemical and cytotoxic properties of the human ASPG. We demonstrated that ASPG possesses asparaginase and PAF acetylhydrolase activities that depend on a critical threonine residue at position 19. Consistently, ASPG but not its T19A mutant showed cytotoxic activity in K562, NALM-6 and MOLT-4 leukemic cell lines but not in normal cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542246/a-drastic-superoxide-dependent-oxidative-stress-is-prerequisite-for-the-down-regulation-of-irp1-insights-from-studies-on-sod1-deficient-mice-and-macrophages-treated-with-paraquat
#11
Anna Milczarek, Rafał R Starzyński, Agnieszka Styś, Aneta Jończy, Robert Staroń, Agnieszka Grzelak, Paweł Lipiński
Iron regulatory protein 1 (IRP1) is a cytosolic bifunctional [4Fe-4S] protein which exhibits aconitase activity or binds iron responsive elements (IREs) in untranslated regions of specific mRNA encoding proteins involved in cellular iron metabolism. Superoxide radical (O2.-) converts IRP1 from a [4Fe-4S] aconitase to a [3Fe-4S] "null" form possessing neither aconitase nor trans-regulatory activity. Genetic ablation of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), an antioxidant enzyme that acts to reduce O2.- concentration, revealed a new O2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541760/inhibition-of-proteases-activity-in-intestine-needs-a-sustainable-acidic-environment-rather-than-a-transient
#12
Chang Xing, Jin-Feng Xing, Zhi-Qiang Ge
α-Chymotrypsin (α-CT) and trypsin are important components of the enzymatic barrier. They could degrade the therapeutic proteins and peptides, inhibit their activity consequently, and thereby reduce their oral bioavailability. Acidic agents, as one type of indirect protease inhibitors, have shown proof of concept in clinical trials. We report here the inactivated proteases due to acid influence can be reactivated immediately by environmental pH recovery regardless of how long the inactivation last. To keep the inactivation time of proteases for 4 to 5 h, we designed and prepared a sustained-release tablet containing citric acid (CA) which can effectively reduce the pH below 5...
May 25, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541672/impacts-of-unregulated-novel-brominated-flame-retardants-on-human-liver-thyroid-deiodination-and-sulfotransferation
#13
Tristan Alexander Smythe, Craig M Butt, Heather M Stapleton, Kerri Pleskach, Geemitha Ratnayake, Chae Yoon Song, Nicole Riddell, Alex Konstantinov, Gregg Thomas Tomy
The inhibitory effects of five novel brominated flame retardants: 1,2-bis(2,4,5-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE), 2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (EH-TBB), bis(2-ethylhexyl)tetrabromophthalate (BEH-TEBP), and β-tetrabromoethylcyclohexane (β-TBECH) on thyroid hormone deiodinase (DIO) and sulfotransferase (SULT) activity were investigated using human in vitro liver microsomal and cytosolic bioassays. Enzymatic activity was measured by incubating active human liver sub-cellular fractions with thyroid hormones (T4 and rT3 separately) and measuring changes in thyroid hormone (T4, T3, rT3, and 3,3'-T2) concentrations...
May 25, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541580/genes-and-gene-clusters-related-to-genotype-and-drought-induced-variation-in-saccharification-potential-lignin-content-and-wood-anatomical-traits-in-populus-nigra%C3%A2
#14
Henning Wildhagen, Shanty Paul, Mike Allwright, Hazel K Smith, Marta Malinowska, Sabine K Schnabel, M João Paulo, Federica Cattonaro, Vera Vendramin, Simone Scalabrin, Dennis Janz, Cyril Douthe, Oliver Brendel, Cyril Buré, David Cohen, Irène Hummel, Didier Le Thiec, Fred van Eeuwijk, Joost J B Keurentjes, Jaume Flexas, Michele Morgante, Paul Robson, Marie-Béatrice Bogeat-Triboulot, Gail Taylor, Andrea Polle
Wood is a renewable resource that can be employed for the production of second generation biofuels by enzymatic saccharification and subsequent fermentation. Knowledge on how the saccharification potential is affected by genotype-related variation of wood traits and drought is scarce. Here, we used three Populus nigra L. genotypes from habitats differing in water availability to (i) investigate the relationships between wood anatomy, lignin content and saccharification and (ii) identify genes and co-expressed gene clusters related to genotype and drought-induced variation in wood traits and saccharification potential...
May 24, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541509/evidence-that-phosphorylated-ubiquitin-signaling-is-involved-in-the-etiology-of-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Kahori Shiba-Fukushima, Kei-Ichi Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi Inoshita, Nana Izawa, Masashi Takanashi, Shigeto Sato, Osamu Onodera, Wado Akamatsu, Hideyuki Okano, Yuzuru Imai, Nobutaka Hattori
The ubiquitin (Ub) kinase PINK1 and the E3 Ub ligase Parkin, two gene products associated with young-onset Parkinson's disease (PD), participate in mitochondrial quality control. The phosphorylation of mitochondrial polyUb by PINK1, which is activated in a mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm)-dependent manner, facilitates the mitochondrial translocation and concomitant enzymatic activation of Parkin, leading to the clearance of phospho-polyUb-tagged mitochondria via mitophagy. Thus, Ub phosphorylation is a key event in PINK1-Parkin-mediated mitophagy...
May 25, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541438/interlinked-dna-nano-circles-for-measuring-topoisomerase-ii-activity-at-the-level-of-single-decatenation-events
#16
Emil L Kristoffersen, Asger Givskov, Line A Jørgensen, Pia W Jensen, Jo Ann W Byl, Neil Osheroff, Anni H Andersen, Magnus Stougaard, Yi-Ping Ho, Birgitta R Knudsen
DNA nano-structures present appealing new means for monitoring different molecules. Here, we demonstrate the assembly and utilization of a surface-attached double-stranded DNA catenane composed of two intact interlinked DNA nano-circles for specific and sensitive measurements of the life essential topoisomerase II (Topo II) enzyme activity. Topo II activity was detected via the numeric release of DNA nano-circles, which were visualized at the single-molecule level in a fluorescence microscope upon isothermal amplification and fluorescence labeling...
May 24, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541225/stability-of-enzymatic-biosensors-for-wearable-applications
#17
Apurva Sonawane, Pandiaraj Manickam, Shekhar Bhansali
Technological evolution in wearable sensors is accounting for major growth and transformation in multitude of industries ranging from healthcare to computing & informatics to communication and biomedical sciences. The major driver for this transformation is the new-found ability to continuously monitor and analyze the patients' physiology in patients' natural setting. Numerous wearable sensors are already on the market and are summarized. Most of the current technologies have focused on electro-physiological, electro-mechanical or acoustic measurements...
May 19, 2017: IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541047/multitargeted-flavonoid-inhibition-of-the-pathogenic-bacterium-staphylococcus-aureus-a-proteomic-characterization
#18
Wael A Elmasri, Rui Zhu, Wenjing Peng, Moustafa Al-Hariri, Firas Kobeissy, Phat Tran, Abdul N Hamood, Mohamed F Hegazy, Paul W Paré, Yehia Mechref
Growth inhibition of the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus with currently available antibiotics is problematic in part due to bacterial biofilm protection. Although recently characterized natural products, including 3',4',5-trihydroxy-6,7-dimethoxy-flavone [1], 3',4',5,6,7-pentahydroxy-flavone [2], and 5-hydroxy-4',7-dimethoxy-flavone [3], exhibit both antibiotic and biofilm inhibitory activities, the mode of action of such hydroxylated flavonoids with respect to S. aureus inhibition is yet to be characterized...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540989/combined-effect-of-initial-and-longitudinal-increases-in-%C3%AE-glutamyltransferase-on-incident-metabolic-syndrome-arirang-study
#19
Dhananjay Yadav, Mi Young Lee, Jang Young Kim, Hoon Ryu, Ji Hye Huh, Keum Seok Bae, Song Vogue Ahn, Choon Hee Chung, Jong Taek Park, Sang Baek Koh
PURPOSE: Although γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) is well known to be associated with metabolic syndrome (MS), prospective data on baseline and longitudinal changes in GGT levels and incident cases of MS are limited. We aimed to examine prospective associations between changes in GGT levels over time, as well as at baseline, and incident MS in Korean adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 2579 Korean adults free of MS were followed up for 2.6 years. Data were collected from 2005-2008 (baseline) and from 2008-2011 (follow-up)...
July 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540582/novel-synthesis-and-characterization-of-pristine-cu-nanoparticles-for-the-non-enzymatic-glucose-biosensor
#20
T Dayakar, K Venkateswara Rao, K Bikshalu, V Rajendar, Si-Hyun Park
Non enzymatic electrochemical glucose sensing was developed based on pristine Cu Nanopartilces (NPs)/Glassy Carbon Electrode (GCE) which can be accomplished by simple green method via ocimum tenuiflorum leaf extract. Then, the affect of leaf extract addition on improving Structural, Optical and electrochemical properties of pristine cu NPs was investigated. The synthesized Cu NPs were characterized with X-ray diffraction (X-ray), Uv-Visible spectroscopy (Uv-Vis), Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Particle size distribution (PSA), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for structural optical and morphological studies respectively...
July 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
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