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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926815/identification-of-lysophospholipase-protein-from-spiroplasma-eriocheiris-and-verification-of-its-function
#1
Huanxi Zhu, Peng Liu, Jie Du, Jian Wang, Yunting Jing, Jia Zhang, Wei Gu, Wen Wang, Qingguo Meng
Spiroplasma eriocheiris is known to cause the tremor disease in the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis; however, the molecular characterization of this pathogen is still unclear. S. eriocheiris has the ability to invade and survive within mouse 3T6 cells. The invasion process may require causing damage to the host cell membrane by chemical, physical, or enzymatic means. In this study, we systematically characterized a novel lysophospholipase (lysoPL) of S. eriocheiris TDA-040725-5T. The gene that encodes lysoPL in S...
December 7, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926476/mitochondrial-cytochrome-c-oxidase-is-inhibited-by-atp-only-at-very-high-atp-adp-ratios
#2
Rabia Ramzan, Andreas K Schaper, Petra Weber, Annika Rhiel, Muhammad Saad Siddiq, Sebastian Vogt
In the past, divergent results have been reported based on different methods and conditions used for enzymatic activity measurements of cytochrome c oxidase (CytOx). Here, we analyze in detail and show comparable and reproducible polarographic activity measurements of ATP- dependent inhibition of CytOx kinetics in intact and non-intact rat heart mitochondria and mitoplasts. We found that this mechanism is always present in isolated rat heart mitochondria and mitoplasts; however, it is measurable only at high ATP/ADP ratios using optimal protein concentrations...
December 7, 2016: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925396/arabidopsis-sumo-protease-asp1-positively-regulates-flowering-time-partially-through-regulating-flc-stability
#3
Xiangxiong Kong, Xi Luo, Gao-Ping Qu, Peng Liu, Jing Bo Jin
The initiation of flowering is tightly regulated by the endogenous and environment signals, which is crucial for the reproductive success of flowering plants. It is well known that autonomous and vernalization pathways repress transcription of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), a focal floral repressor, but how its protein stability is regulated remains largely unknown. Here, we found that mutations in a novel Arabidopsis SUMO protease 1 (ASP1) resulted in a strong late-flowering phenotype under long-days, but to a lesser extent under short-days...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925366/oral-administration-of-saccharomyces-boulardii-alters-duodenal-morphology-enzymatic-activity-and-cytokine-production-response-in-broiler-chickens
#4
Yajing Sun, Imran Rashid Rajput, Muhammad Asif Arain, Yanfei Li, Dost Muhammad Baloch
The present study evaluated the effects of Saccharomyces boulardii on duodenal digestive enzymes, morphology and cytokine induction response in broiler chicken. A total of 200 birds were allotted into two groups (n = 100) and each group divided into five replications (n = 20). The control group was fed basal diet in addition to antibiotic (virginiamycin 20 mg/kg), and treatment group received (1 × 10(8)  colony-forming units/kg feed) S. boulardii in addition to basal diet lasting for 72 days. The results compared to control group revealed that adenosine triphosphatase, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase, lipase and trypsin activities were higher, while, no significant improvement was observed in amylase activities in the duodenum of the treatment group...
December 7, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925246/analytical-method-for-urinary-metabolites-as-biomarkers-for-monitoring-exposure-to-phthalates-by-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#5
Toshiaki Yoshida
Phthalates, widely being used as plasticizers, have been detected from the indoor air of residences, but there have been few reports on methods of analyzing urinary metabolites as biomarkers to monitor exposure to di-n-pentyl phthalate or di-n-hexyl phthalate. Presented here is a cost-effective and sensitive analytical method for the determination of urinary metabolites of phthalates containing these two compounds. Nine urinary phthalate metabolites were enzymatically hydrolyzed and extracted with toluene: monomethyl phthalate, monoethyl phthalate, monoisobutyl phthalate, mono-n-butyl phthalate, mono-n-pentyl phthalate, mono-n-hexyl phthalate, monocyclohexyl phthalate, monobenzyl phthalate and mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate...
December 7, 2016: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924984/infrared-imaging-of-high-density-protein-arrays
#6
Joëlle De Meutter, Julie Vandenameele, André Matagne, Erik Goormaghtigh
We propose in this paper that protein microarrays could be analysed by infrared imaging in place of enzymatic or fluorescence labelling. This label-free method reports simultaneously a large series of data on the spotted sample (protein secondary structure, phosphorylation, glycosylation, presence of impurities, etc.). In the present work, 100 μm protein spots each containing about 100 pg protein were deposited to form high density regular arrays. Using arrays of infrared detectors, high resolution images could be obtained where each pixel of the image is in fact a full infrared spectrum...
December 7, 2016: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924918/production-of-phloroglucinol-a-platform-chemical-in-arabidopsis-using-a-bacterial-gene
#7
Salah E Abdel-Ghany, Irene Day, Adam L Heuberger, Corey D Broeckling, Anireddy S N Reddy
Phloroglucinol (1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene; PG) and its derivatives are phenolic compounds that are used for various industrial applications. Current methods to synthesize PG are not sustainable due to the requirement for carbon-based precursors and co-production of toxic byproducts. Here, we describe a more sustainable production of PG using plants expressing a native bacterial or a codon-optimized synthetic PhlD targeted to either the cytosol or chloroplasts. Transgenic lines were analyzed for the production of PG using gas and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectroscopy...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924874/context-and-auditory-fear-are-differentially-regulated-by-hdac3-activity-in-the-lateral-and-basal-subnuclei-of-the-amygdale
#8
Janine L Kwapis, Yasaman Alaghband, Alberto J López, André O White, Rianne R Campbell, Richard T Dang, Diane Rhee, Ashley V Tran, Allison E Carl, Dina P Matheos, Marcelo A Wood
Histone acetylation is a fundamental epigenetic mechanism that is dynamically regulated during memory formation. Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) compete to modulate histone acetylation, allowing for rapid changes in acetylation in response to a learning event. HDACs are known to be powerful negative regulators of memory formation, but it is not clear whether this function depends on HDAC enzymatic activity per se. Here, we tested whether the enzymatic activity of an individual Class I HDAC, HDAC3, plays a role in fear memory formation in subregions of the hippocampus and amygdala...
December 7, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924829/diverse-specificity-of-cellulosome-attachment-to-the-bacterial-cell-surface
#9
Joana L A Brás, Benedita A Pinheiro, Kate Cameron, Fiona Cuskin, Aldino Viegas, Shabir Najmudin, Pedro Bule, Virginia M R Pires, Maria João Romão, Edward A Bayer, Holly L Spencer, Steven Smith, Harry J Gilbert, Victor D Alves, Ana Luísa Carvalho, Carlos M G A Fontes
During the course of evolution, the cellulosome, one of Nature's most intricate multi-enzyme complexes, has been continuously fine-tuned to efficiently deconstruct recalcitrant carbohydrates. To facilitate the uptake of released sugars, anaerobic bacteria use highly ordered protein-protein interactions to recruit these nanomachines to the cell surface. Dockerin modules located within a non-catalytic macromolecular scaffold, whose primary role is to assemble cellulosomal enzymatic subunits, bind cohesin modules of cell envelope proteins, thereby anchoring the cellulosome onto the bacterial cell...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924686/high-temperature-and-pressure-influence-the-interdomain-orientation-of-nip7-proteins-from-p-abyssi-and-p-furiosus-md-simulations
#10
Kirill E Medvedev, Nikolay A Kolchanov, Dmitry A Afonnikov
Interactions between protein domains and their position and movement relative to each other are essential for the stability and normal functioning of a protein molecule. Features of the movement of domains may define the mechanism of enzymatic reactions. Therefore, the description of this motion is an important task in the analysis of the structures and functions of multidomain proteins. In the current work, we investigated the influence of pressure and temperature on changes in the movement of the two domains of the protein Nip7, expressed by deep-water (P...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924551/mycotoxins-a-fungal-genomics-perspective
#11
Daren W Brown, Scott E Baker
The chemical and enzymatic diversity in the fungal kingdom is staggering. Large-scale fungal genome sequencing projects are generating a massive catalog of secondary metabolite biosynthetic genes and pathways. Fungal natural products are a boon and bane to man as valuable pharmaceuticals and harmful toxins. Understanding how these chemicals are synthesized will aid the development of new strategies to limit mycotoxin contamination of food and feeds as well as expand drug discovery programs. A survey of work focused on the fumonisin family of mycotoxins highlights technological advances and provides a blueprint for future studies of other fungal natural products...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924343/synthesis-and-formulation-of-functional-bionanomaterials-with-superoxide-dismutase-activity
#12
Marko Pavlovic, Paul Rouster, Istvan Szilagyi
Layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoparticles were prepared and used as solid support for superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes. Structural features were studied by XRD, spectroscopic methods (IR, UV-Vis and fluorescence) and TEM, while colloidal stability of the obtained materials was investigated by electrophoresis and light scattering in aqueous dispersions. The SOD quantitatively adsorbed on the LDH by electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions and kept its structural integrity upon immobilization. The composite material showed moderate resistance against salt-induced aggregation in dispersions, therefore, heparin polyelectrolyte was used to improve the colloidal stability of the system...
December 7, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924313/a-compartmentalized-out-of-equilibrium-enzymatic-reaction-network-for-sustained-autonomous-movement
#13
Marlies Nijemeisland, Loai K E A Abdelmohsen, Wilhelm T S Huck, Daniela A Wilson, Jan C M van Hest
Every living cell is a compartmentalized out-of-equilibrium system exquisitely able to convert chemical energy into function. In order to maintain homeostasis, the flux of metabolites is tightly controlled by regulatory enzymatic networks. A crucial prerequisite for the development of lifelike materials is the construction of synthetic systems with compartmentalized reaction networks that maintain out-of-equilibrium function. Here, we aim for autonomous movement as an example of the conversion of feedstock molecules into function...
November 23, 2016: ACS Central Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924274/metabolic-pathway-reconstruction-strategies-for-central-metabolism-and-natural-product-biosynthesis
#14
REVIEW
Masaaki Kotera, Susumu Goto
Metabolic pathway reconstruction presents a challenge for understanding metabolic pathways in organisms of interest. Different strategies, i.e., reference-based vs. de novo, must be used for pathway reconstruction depending on the availability of well-characterized enzymatic reactions. If at least one enzyme is already known to catalyze a reaction, its amino acid sequence can be used as a reference for identifying homologous enzymes in the genome of an organism of interest. Where there is no known enzyme able to catalyze a corresponding reaction, however, the reaction and the corresponding enzyme must be predicted de novo from chemical transformations of the putative substrate-product pair...
2016: Biophysics and Physicobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924122/a-tomato-plastidic-atp-adp-transporter-gene-slaatp-increases-starch-content-in-transgenic-arabidopsis
#15
Feibing Wang, Yuxiu Ye, Yuan Niu, Faxiang Wan, Bo Qi, Xinhong Chen, Qing Zhou, Boqing Chen
A plastidic ATP/ADP transporter (AATP) is responsible for importing ATP from the cytosol into plastids. Increasing the ATP supply is a potential way to facilitate anabolic synthesis in heterotrophic plastids of plants. In this work, a gene encoding the AATP protein, named SlAATP, was successfully isolated from tomato. Expression of SlAATP was induced by exogenous sucrose treatment in tomato. The coding region of SlAATP was cloned into a binary vector under the control of 35S promoter and then transformed into Arabidopsis to obtain transgenic plants...
October 2016: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924077/metabolic-regulation-of-gene-expression-through-histone-acylations
#16
Benjamin R Sabari, Di Zhang, C David Allis, Yingming Zhao
Eight types of short-chain Lys acylations have recently been identified on histones: propionylation, butyrylation, 2-hydroxyisobutyrylation, succinylation, malonylation, glutarylation, crotonylation and β-hydroxybutyrylation. Emerging evidence suggests that these histone modifications affect gene expression and are structurally and functionally different from the widely studied histone Lys acetylation. In this Review, we discuss the regulation of non-acetyl histone acylation by enzymatic and metabolic mechanisms, the acylation 'reader' proteins that mediate the effects of different acylations and their physiological functions, which include signal-dependent gene activation, spermatogenesis, tissue injury and metabolic stress...
December 7, 2016: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923924/attenuation-of-the-type-iv-pilus-retraction-motor-influences-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-social-and-infection-behavior
#17
Alyson M Hockenberry, Danielle M Hutchens, Al Agellon, Magdalene So
: Retraction of the type IV pilus (Tfp) mediates DNA uptake, motility, and social and infection behavior in a wide variety of prokaryotes. To date, investigations into Tfp retraction-dependent activities have used a mutant deleted of PilT, the ATPase motor protein that causes the pilus fiber to retract. ΔpilT cells are nontransformable, nonmotile, and cannot aggregate into microcolonies. We tested the hypothesis that these retraction-dependent activities are sensitive to the strength of PilT enzymatic activity by using the pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae as a model...
December 6, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923880/b-cell-antigen-extraction-is-regulated-by-physical-properties-of-antigen-presenting-cells
#18
Katelyn M Spillane, Pavel Tolar
Antibody production and affinity maturation are driven by B cell extraction and internalization of antigen from immune synapses. However, the extraction mechanism remains poorly understood. Here we develop DNA-based nanosensors to interrogate two previously proposed mechanisms, enzymatic liberation and mechanical force. Using antigens presented by either artificial substrates or live cells, we show that B cells primarily use force-dependent extraction and resort to enzymatic liberation only if mechanical forces fail to retrieve antigen...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923233/efficacy-of-adipodren%C3%A2-in-reducing-interleukin-1-induced-lymphatic-endothelial-hyperpermeability
#19
Valerio Ciccone, Martina Monti, Giulia Antonini, Luisa Mattoli, Michela Burico, Francesca Marini, Anna Maidecchi, Lucia Morbidelli
Lymphatic leakage can be seen as a detrimental phenomenon associated with fluid retention and deposition as well as gain of weight. Moreover, lymphatic dysfunction is associated with an inflammatory environment and can be a substrate for other health conditions. A number of treatments can ameliorate lymphatic vasculature: natural substances have been used as treatment options particularly suitable for their consolidated effectiveness and safety profile. Here we report the protective effect of AdipoDren®, an association of a series of plant-derived natural complexes, on lymphatic endothelium permeability promoted by interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and the associated molecular mechanisms...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Vascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922740/antimicrobial-resistance-of-salmonella-spp-isolated-from-food
#20
Łukasz Mąka, Magdalena Popowska
This review summarizes current data on resistance among Salmonella spp. isolates of food origin from countries in different regions of the world. The mechanisms of resistance to different groups of antimicrobial compounds are also considered. Among strains resistant to quinolones and/or fluoroquinolones the most prevalent mechanism is amino acid substitutions in quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of genes gyrA, parC but mechanism of growing importance is plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) associated with genes qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrD, qnrS but frequency of their detection is different...
2016: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
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